extending the protection of geographical indications case studies of agricultural products in africa

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Extending The Protection Of Geographical Indications

Author : Michael Blakeney
ISBN : 9781136478789
Genre : Law
File Size : 20. 1 MB
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The TRIPS Agreement (for trade-related intellectual property rights) provides for the general protection of geographical indications (GIs) of product origin, including for example the special protection of wines and spirits and for the creation of a multilateral register for wines. The African Group of countries has been in the forefront of countries agitating in the World Trade Organization TRIPS Council for the extension of this special protection and of the multilateral register to industries which are of interest to developing countries, primarily agriculture. The so-called "extension question" is the central feature of the Doha Development Agenda at both the WTO and World Intellectual Property Organization. This book provides some empirical evidence and applied legal and economic reasoning to this debate. It provides both a general review of the key issues and a series of case studies from six Anglophone and four Francophone countries in Africa. These focus on major agricultural commodities such as coffee, cotton, cocoa and tea, as well as more specific and local products such as Argan oil and Oku white honey.

Geographical Indications At The Crossroads Of Trade Development And Culture

Author : Irene Calboli
ISBN : 9781316738849
Genre : Law
File Size : 30. 70 MB
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Historically, few topics have proven to be so controversial in international intellectual property as the protection of geographical indications (GIs). The adoption of TRIPS in 1994 did not resolve disagreements, and countries worldwide continue to quarrel today as to the nature, the scope, and the enforcement of GI protection nationally and internationally. Thus far, however, there is little literature addressing GI protection from the point of view of the Asia-Pacific region, even though countries in this region have actively discussed the topic and in several instances have promoted GIs as a mechanism to foster local development and safeguard local culture. This book, edited by renowned intellectual property scholars, fills the void in the current literature and offers a variety of contributions focusing on the framework and effects of GI protection in the Asia-Pacific region. The book is available as Open Access.

The Importance Of Place Geographical Indications As A Tool For Local And Regional Development

Author : William van Caenegem
ISBN : 9783319530734
Genre : Law
File Size : 60. 84 MB
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This book explores the potential benefits and disadvantages of geographical indication (GIs) registration schemes, analyzing the utility of GI registrations for the development and promotion of regional economies, both in national and international markets. The book draws on the van Caenegem, Cleary & Drahos Australian Provenance Report, along with the valuable empirical data collected in connection with it. The book situates the rural development question in an international context, presenting several case studies from Italy, France and Morocco, New Zealand and Australia. The book contains various chapters focused on comparing regulatory structures in various relevant jurisdictions and drawing on other countries’ experiences. It contains significant contributions from industry actors with extensive experience in regional branding initiatives and GI-related policy issues. Progressive in structure, the book starts from the ‘big picture’ level before moving down to the local and concrete scale. Geographical indications of Australian products are vital both in domestic and overseas markets by accurately representing the origin and quality of niche agricultural products. Thus, with a particular focus on Australia, the book promotes the assessment of geographical indications as potential regional assets that will help producers develop local quality indicators that will serve as public goods for successive generations of producers.

Strengthening Sustainable Food Systems Through Geographical Indications

Author : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
ISBN : 9789251303894
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 68. 25 MB
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This study seeks to provide empirical evidence on the economic impacts that are generated through the Geographical Indication (GI) process beginning with the official recognition of a GI and the steps that follow. It focuses on the food sector and reviews nine cases, offering a variety of national contexts and local value chains. The approach, considers “operational” GI processes: those in which a code of practice (or specifications) is defined and the GI is used and managed by a collective organization. The synthetic outcome of these nine cases show the positive effect of GIs on the economy and confirm the importance of specification that is well defined and implemented through producers’ coordinated action.

Geographical Indications And Agricultural Products

Author : Cerkia Grant
ISBN : OCLC:956372663
Genre :
File Size : 22. 92 MB
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The European Union is proposing that the additional protection for geographical indications afforded to wine and spirits in section 23.1 of the TRIPS agreement be extended to include geographical indications of other agricultural products. Those opposing increased protection for geographical indications represent those countries which do not have a strong history of traditional food products and are generally considered new world countries. South Africa, as part of the new world, has as of yet failed to take a position on the matter. In light of this debate, this study sets out to investigate the relevance of geographical indications in a South African context in order to make recommendations for South Africa's position in the debate at multi-lateral level. The topic is approached by first contextualizing the subject matter where after the economic rationale for the protection thereof is explored. A comprehensive literature study identifies the factors which contribute to a product's potential to benefit from geographical indication protection. Based on these factors, three South African products, Rooibos, Klein Karoo ostrich and Honeybush, are analyzed and an ex ante judgment made as to their potential to benefit from geographical indication protection. It is hypothesized that geographical indications are indeed relevant in a South African context given that there are many South African products which are considered to be highly localized with a strong association between the region and the product. The Rooibos scenario is used to illustrate the need for timely protection of our national assets and sets the tone for the discussion of the two further case studies. It is found that despite widespread reputation, Klein Karoo ostrich may not ideally benefit from geographical indication protection given its lack of specificity. In contrast, it is found that Honeybush tea is a highly localised product with strong specificity and therefore stands to benefit from geographical indication protection. The study concludes that there are indeed South African products which could potentially benefit from geographical indication protection. Based on this, recommendations are made for South Africa's position in the debate at multi-lateral level. It is recommended that the South African government take note of the potential of geographical indications to foster rural development and the need to protect our national assets from foreign appropriation. It is further recommended that this be done by firstly coming out in support of the European proposal for a mandatory system of registration for all products bearing a geographical indication and secondly, by providing for the development of an institutional framework within which to protect geographical indications domestically.

The Economics Of Geographical Indications

Author : Daniela Benavente
ISBN : 9782940503216
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 33. 60 MB
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This book seeks to contribute to an understanding of the role played by international trade law in shaping economic outcomes from a theoretical perspective. The focus is on geographical indications (GI), an intellectual property right defined in the TRIPs Agreement of the WTO. The premise is that a GI can be conceptualized as a ‘club asset’: firms that produce GI-labelled goods both add value and derive benefits from the GI. The book starts by presenting a dynamic model of GI reputation under the assumption that quality is endogenous. This is followed by a static partial equilibrium model of club optimality conditions under the assumption that quality is exogenous (defined by a standard). The author concludes by presenting a model of the welfare effects of the so called “claw-back” of GIs, when a country starts protecting a foreign GI previously considered generic.

The Protection Of Geographical Indications In India

Author : Delphine Marie-Vivien
ISBN : 9789351505440
Genre : Education
File Size : 88. 82 MB
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The How and the Why of protecting the unique identity of local products in the age of globalization. ‘It is decreed that no wine merchant can mix two wines together. Disregarding this law can entail a loss of wine and a fine’, and with these words a certain king of France in 1351 gave birth to what we now know as geographical indications (GIs). From the aromatic Basmati rice to the rich taste of Darjeeling tea in India and from the sparkling white wine of Champagne to the blue cheese of Roquefort in France, all locale-specific products are protected by GIs. The book compares the case of India with that of France where GIs originated and investigates how India has successfully extended its GIs to handicrafts while France and Europe still remain confined to foodstuff. It is a significant study in light of the increased Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and World Trade Organization regime. A must-have for producers, practitioners, lawyers, policy makers, researchers, academics and students of law.

Waste And Environmental Policy

Author : Massimiliano Mazzanti
ISBN : 9780415619783
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 50. 52 MB
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This research deals with the increasingly complex issues of waste generation, waste management and waste disposal that in less developed industrialised countries present diverse but critical concerns. It takes a socio-economic and policy-oriented perspective and provides empirical evidence at EU and regional level. The EU and Italy are taken as relevant case studies given the disparities in environmental performances between less and more developed areas. The rich and various empirical evidence shows that a robust delinking between waste generation and economic growth is still not present, thus future policies should directly address the problem at the source by targeting waste generation in EU countries. Some structural factors like population density and urbanisation present themselves as relevant drivers of both waste management and landfill diversion. Nevertheless, economic and structural factors alone are not sufficient to improve waste performances. Though waste policies are to be redesigned by covering the entire area of waste management, some first signals of policy effectiveness are arising. This work will be of most interest to those students of environmental economics and environmental sciences, as well as policy makers, waste utility managers and companies in the waste management sector.

The Protection Of Geographical Indications

Author : Michael Blakeney
ISBN : 9781782546726
Genre : Law
File Size : 29. 36 MB
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Geographical indications, or marks designating a product�s place of origin, are of huge economic value, and the laws designed to police and protect such designations are increasingly important and under scrutiny. This book is one of the first to offer

Case Studies Of Emerging Farmers And Agribusinesses In South Africa

Author : Edward Mabaya
ISBN : 9781920338657
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 73. 43 MB
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“Emerging” (or “black”) farmers are often considered a homogeneous group. While individual emerging farmers and agribusinesses in South Africa share a common history, the case studies in this book show that in fact significant differences exist among them that are often hidden beneath the averaging and aggregation typical of most analytical research. Presenting fifteen case studies of emerging agribusinesses in South Africa, this book has three main objectives: (1) to capture the human stories behind the emerging farms and agribusinesses in South Africa in order to showcase their rich diversity, historical backgrounds, current context, and future directions; (2) to highlight the best practices, opportunities, and challenges facing South Africa’s emerging farmers and agribusinesses; and (3) to create a new set of instructional materials for academics and development practitioners, or as a point of reference for other entrepreneurs, members of government, and other practitioners engaged in agriculture and agribusiness. The case study format, a relatively new tool in the field of agribusiness management, allows for a close-up view of the entrepreneurs at the heart of the businesses, providing an ideal lens through which to take a snapshot of the agribusiness landscape of South Africa today.

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