exterminate them written accounts of the murder rape and enslavement of native americans during the california gold rush

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Exterminate Them

Author : Clifford E. Trafzer
ISBN : 9780870139611
Genre : History
File Size : 48. 86 MB
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Popular media depict miners as a rough-and-tumble lot who diligently worked the placers along scenic rushing rivers while living in roaring mining camps in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Trafzer and Hyer destroy this mythic image by offering a collection of original newspaper articles that describe in detail the murder, rape, and enslavement perpetrated by those who participated in the infamous gold rush. "It is a mercy to the Red Devils," wrote an editor of the Chico Courier, "to exterminate them." Newspaper accounts of the era depict both the barbarity and the nobility in human nature, but while some protested the inhumane treatment of Native Americans, they were not able to end the violence. Native Americans fought back, resisting the invasion, but they could not stop the tide of white miners and settlers. They became "strangers in a stolen land."

The California Gold Rush

Author : Mark A. Eifler
ISBN : 9781317910220
Genre : History
File Size : 24. 37 MB
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In January of 1848, James Marshall discovered gold at Sutter's Mill in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. For a year afterward, news of this discovery spread outward from California and started a mass migration to the gold fields. Thousands of people from the East Coast aspiring to start new lives in California financed their journey West on the assumption that they would be able to find wealth. Some were successful, many were not, but they all permanently changed the face of the American West. In this text, Mark Eifler examines the experiences of the miners, demonstrates how the gold rush affected the United States, and traces the development of California and the American West in the second half of the nineteenth century. This migration dramatically shifted transportation systems in the US, led to a more powerful federal role in the West, and brought about mining regulation that lasted well into the twentieth century. Primary sources from the era and web materials help readers comprehend what it was like for these nineteenth-century Americans who gambled everything on the pursuit of gold.

Native America And The Question Of Genocide

Author : Alex Alvarez
ISBN : 9781442225824
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 30. 85 MB
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This provocative book asks whether or not the Native populations of North America experienced genocide. Drawing on examples such as the Sand Creek Massacre and the Long Walk of the Navajo, the author shows the diversity of Native American experiences postcontact and uncovers the complex realities of this difficult period in American history.

How Choctaws Invented Civilization And Why Choctaws Will Conquer The World

Author : D. L. Birchfield
ISBN : 0826332315
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 68. 70 MB
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Will "poisoned" Indians conquer the United States in the twenty-first century? Is there anything that can be done to stop them? Can the United States's oldest and most loyal Indian military ally, the Choctaws, stop them? Or do Choctaws pose the most difficult problem of all? In this provocative and incendiary book, D. L. Birchfield bluntly points out what few are willing to say: America's population superiority is now meaningless; its population density is a crippling liability; and the United States has a dangerous "Indian problem." If you don't know about the American betrayal of the Choctaws, or whether Choctaws are still loyal to the United States, or why the third largest Indian nation in North America is virtually unknown to Americans, sit back and hold on as Birchfield pulls back the curtain to reveal a startling future, with an irreverence and disdain for convention that is anything but subtle.

The Destruction Of California Indians

Author : Robert Fleming Heizer
ISBN : 0803272626
Genre : History
File Size : 77. 56 MB
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California is a contentious arena for the study of the Native American past. Some critics say genocide characterized the early conduct of Indian affairs in the state; others say humanitarian concerns. Robert F. Heizer, in the former camp, has compiled a damning collection of contemporaneous accounts that will provoke students of California history to look deeply into the state's record of race relations and to question bland generalizations about the adventuresome days of the Gold Rush. Robert F. Heizer's many works include the classic The Other Californians: Prejudice and Discrimination under Spain, Mexico, and the United States to 1920 (1971), written with Alan Almquist. In his introduction, Albert L. Hurtado sets the documents in historical context and considers Heizer's influence on scholarship as well as the advances made since his death. A professor of history at Arizona State University, Hurtado is the author of Indian Survival on the California Frontier.

Murder State

Author : Brendan C. Lindsay
ISBN : 9780803240216
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 77. 95 MB
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In the second half of the nineteenth century, the Euro-American citizenry of California carried out mass genocide against the Native population of their state, using the processes and mechanisms of democracy to secure land and resources for themselves and their private interests. The murder, rape, and enslavement of thousands of Native people were legitimized by notions of democracy—in this case mob rule—through a discreetly organized and brutally effective series of petitions, referenda, town hall meetings, and votes at every level of California government. Murder State is a comprehensive examination of these events and their early legacy. Preconceptions about Native Americans as shaped by the popular press and by immigrants’ experiences on the overland trail to California were used to further justify the elimination of Native people in the newcomers’ quest for land. The allegedly “violent nature” of Native people was often merely their reaction to the atrocities committed against them as they were driven from their ancestral lands and alienated from their traditional resources. In this narrative history employing numerous primary sources and the latest interdisciplinary scholarship on genocide, Brendan C. Lindsay examines the darker side of California history, one that is rarely studied in detail, and the motives of both Native Americans and Euro-Americans at the time. Murder State calls attention to the misuse of democracy to justify and commit genocide.

An American Genocide

Author : Benjamin Madley
ISBN : 9780300182170
Genre : History
File Size : 81. 90 MB
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Between 1846 and 1873, California’s Indian population plunged from perhaps 150,000 to 30,000. Benjamin Madley is the first historian to uncover the full extent of the slaughter, the involvement of state and federal officials, the taxpayer dollars that supported the violence, indigenous resistance, who did the killing, and why the killings ended. This deeply researched book is a comprehensive and chilling history of an American genocide. Madley describes pre-contact California and precursors to the genocide before explaining how the Gold Rush stirred vigilante violence against California Indians. He narrates the rise of a state-sanctioned killing machine and the broad societal, judicial, and political support for genocide. Many participated: vigilantes, volunteer state militiamen, U.S. Army soldiers, U.S. congressmen, California governors, and others. The state and federal governments spent at least $1,700,000 on campaigns against California Indians. Besides evaluating government officials’ culpability, Madley considers why the slaughter constituted genocide and how other possible genocides within and beyond the Americas might be investigated using the methods presented in this groundbreaking book.

The Indians Of Southern California In 1852

Author : Benjamin Davis Wilson
ISBN : 0803297769
Genre : History
File Size : 24. 26 MB
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Benjamin Davis Wilson was one of the first American settlers in Southern California. He became a prosperous rancher and the mayor of little Los Angeles. A special friend of the Indians of Southern California, Wilson was appointed their subagent in 1852, when the Indians were on the edge of catastrophe, their population reduced by two-thirds within a generation. Wilson's great contribution, the one he wished to be remembered for, was to appraise the problems of these Indians and urge their settlement on land set aside for them. His report (published in the Los Angeles Star in 1868) was instrumental in creating the reservation system. The Indians of Southern California in 1852 was inspired by Wilson's desire "to secure peace and justice to the Indians." He recognized his duty to guard against Indian raids on the ranchos and settlements while establishing policies that ensured the future welfare of Indians suffering from the breakdown of the old mission program. Besides the influential Wilson report, this volume contains vivid descriptions of life in the so-called Cow Counties of Southern California at mid-nineteenth century. Also included are excerpts from contemporary newspapers. The editor, John Walton Caughey, is the author of Gold Is the Cornerstone and California. Albert L. Hurtado is an associate professor of history at Arizona State University and the author of Indian Survival on the California Frontier.

A Cross Of Thorns

Author : Elias Castillo
ISBN : 1610353048
Genre : History
File Size : 85. 98 MB
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The Spanish missions of California have long been misrepresented as places of benign and peaceful coexistence between Franciscan friars and California Indians. In fact, the mission friars enslaved the California Indians and treated them with deliberate cruelty. "A Cross of Thorns" describes the dark and violent reality of Mission life. Beginning in 1769, California Indians were enticed into the missions, where they and their descendents were imprisoned for 60 years of forced labor and daily beatings. The chilling depictions of colonial cruelty in "A Cross of Thorns" are based on little known church and Spanish government archives and letters written by the founder of California's mission, Friar Juniperro Serra (who advocated the whipping of Mission Indians as a standard policy), and published first-hand accounts of 18th and 19th century travelers. Tracing the history of Spanish colonization in California from its origins in Spain's 18th century economic crisis to the legacy of racism and brutality that continues today, "A Cross of Thorns" is one of the most thought-provoking books ever written on California history.

When The Great Spirit Died

Author : William B. Secrest
ISBN : 1884995403
Genre : History
File Size : 78. 95 MB
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Exploring the destruction of the native Californians, this thorough history discusses the philosophies and language references such as ?Diggers” and Poor Lo” that eventually set the stage for the extermination of a group of people.

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