eyewitness to a genocide the united nations and rwanda

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Eyewitness To A Genocide

Author : Michael Barnett
ISBN : 9780801465123
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 89. 55 MB
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Why was the UN a bystander during the Rwandan genocide? Do its sins of omission leave it morally responsible for the hundreds of thousands of dead? Michael Barnett, who worked at the U.S. Mission to the United Nations from 1993 to 1994, covered Rwanda for much of the genocide. Based on his first-hand experiences, archival work, and interviews with many key participants, he reconstructs the history of the UN's involvement in Rwanda. In the weeks leading up to the genocide, the author documents, the UN was increasingly aware or had good reason to suspect that Rwanda was a site of crimes against humanity. Yet it failed to act. Barnett argues that its indifference was driven not by incompetence or cynicism but rather by reasoned choices cradled by moral considerations. Employing a novel approach to ethics in practice and in relationship to international organizations, Barnett offers an unsettling possibility: the UN culture recast the ethical commitments of well-intentioned individuals, arresting any duty to aid at the outset of the genocide. Barnett argues that the UN bears some moral responsibility for the genocide. Particularly disturbing is his observation that not only did the UN violate its moral responsibilities, but also that many in New York believed that they were "doing the right thing" as they did so. Barnett addresses the ways in which the Rwandan genocide raises a warning about this age of humanitarianism and concludes by asking whether it is possible to build moral institutions.

Eyewitness To A Genocide

Author : Michael Barnett
ISBN : 1501702432
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 63. 53 MB
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The Oxford Handbook Of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations

Author : Joachim Koops
ISBN : 9780199686049
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 79. 76 MB
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The Oxford Handbook of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations offers for the first time a comprehensive overview and assessment of all 67 United Nations peacekeeping operations conducted between 1948 and 2013. Written by leading scholars and senior practitioners the handbook presents a chapter-by-chapter chronological analysis of the historical background, major development and overall effectiveness of each UN peacekeeping operation. In addition, the handbook includes a collection of thematic chapters that examine key issues such as 'major trends of peace operations', 'the link between peacekeeping, humanitarian interventions and the responsibility to protect', 'peacekeeping and international law', 'the UN's inter-organizational partnerships' and 'how to evaluate success or failure'. This handbook brings together leading scholars and senior practitioners in order to provide a comprehensive assessment of the successes, failures and lessons learned of UN peacekeeping since 1948. This is a unique reference book for scholars and practitioners working in the field of international relations, international security, peacekeeping and global governance.

Author : Bob Woodward
ISBN : 9789960406152
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 75. 57 MB
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خطة الهجوم هي الرواية الحاسمة عن كيف ولماذا شن الرئيس جورج بوش ومجلس حربه وحلفاؤه هجومًا وقائيًا للإطاحة بصدام حسين واحتلال العراق. احدث رواية تاريخية بوب وودوارد في اتخاذ قرار واشنطن يوفر والسرد موثوق الأصلي من وراء الكواليس المناورة، ودراسة أسباب وعواقب الحرب الأكثر إثارة للجدل منذ حرب فيتنام. واستناداً إلى مقابلات مع 75 مشارك رئيسي وأكثر من ثلاث ساعات ونصف من المقابلات الحصرية مع الرئيس بوش ، فإن خطة الهجوم هي جزء من تاريخ رئاسي يرسم القرارات التي اتخذت خلال 16 شهراً حرجاً. جزء من التاريخ العسكري وجزءاً من قصة التجسس المخادعة حيث ترسل السي آي إيه فريق شبه عسكري سري إلى شمال العراق قبل ستة أشهر من بدء الحرب. ما يتبدى هو صور حميمة بشكل مدهش: الرئيس بوش في اجتماعات مجلس وزراء الحرب وفي محادثة خاصة. ديك تشيني ، نائب الرئيس المركز والمدار. كولن باول ، وزير الخارجية المتعثر والحذر. دونالد رامسفيلد ، تكنوقراطي الحرب المسيطر ؛ جورج تينيت ، مدير وكالة الاستخبارات المركزية ؛ تومي فرانكس ، الجنرال الدنيوي والمطلوب ؛ كوندوليزا رايس ، الحاكمة الدائمة والمستشار للأمن القومي ؛ كارل روف ، الاستراتيجي السياسي العملي ؛ أعضاء رئيسيين آخرين من موظفي البيت الأبيض وقيادة الكونجرس. وزعماء أجانب تتراوح من رئيس الوزراء البريطاني بلير إلى الرئيس الروسي بوتين. تقدم خطة الهجوم تفاصيل جديدة عن تقييمات الاستخبارات لأسلحة الدمار الشامل العراقية المزعومة والتخطيط لآثار الحرب. العبيكان 2004

The United Nations Security Council And War

Author : Vaughan Lowe
ISBN : 9780191538582
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 76. 61 MB
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This is the first major exploration of the United Nations Security Council's part in addressing the problem of war, both civil and international, since 1945. Both during and after the Cold War the Council has acted in a limited and selective manner, and its work has sometimes resulted in failure. It has not been - and was never equipped to be - the centre of a comprehensive system of collective security. However, it remains the body charged with primary responsibility for international peace and security. It offers unique opportunities for international consultation and military collaboration, and for developing legal and normative frameworks. It has played a part in the reduction in the incidence of international war in the period since 1945. This study examines the extent to which the work of the UN Security Council, as it has evolved, has or has not replaced older systems of power politics and practices regarding the use of force. Its starting point is the failure to implement the UN Charter scheme of having combat forces under direct UN command. Instead, the Council has advanced the use of international peacekeeping forces; it has authorized coalitions of states to take military action; and it has developed some unanticipated roles such as the establishment of post-conflict transitional administrations, international criminal tribunals, and anti-terrorism committees. The book, bringing together distinguished scholars and practitioners, draws on the methods of the lawyer, the historian, the student of international relations, and the practitioner. It begins with an introductory overview of the Council's evolving roles and responsibilities. It then discusses specific thematic issues, and through a wide range of case studies examines the scope and limitations of the Council's involvement in war. It offers frank accounts of how belligerents viewed the UN, and how the Council acted and sometimes failed to act. The appendices provide comprehensive information - much of it not previously brought together in this form - of the extraordinary range of the Council's activities. This book is a project of the Oxford Leverhulme Programme on the Changing Character of War.

Britain S Hidden Role In The Rwandan Genocide

Author : Hazel Cameron
ISBN : 9781136287404
Genre : Law
File Size : 86. 35 MB
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Britain’s Hidden Role in the Rwandan Genocide examines the role of the United Kingdom as a global elite bystander to the crime of genocide, and its complicity, in violation of international criminal laws during the Rwandan genocide of 1994. As prevailing accounts confine themselves to the role and actions of the United States and the United Nations, the full picture of Rwanda’s genocide has yet to be revealed. Hazel Cameron demonstrates that it is the unravelling of the criminal role and actions of the British that illuminates a more detailed answer to the question of ‘why’ the genocide in Rwanda occurred. In this book, she provides a systematic and detailed analysis of the policies of the British Government towards civil unrest in Rwanda throughout the 1990s that culminated in genocide. Utilising documentary evidence obtained as a result of Freedom of Information requests to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, as well as material obtained through extensive interviews - with British government cabinet members, diplomats, Ambassadors to the United Nations Security Council, prisoners in Rwanda convicted of being leaders and organisers of genocide, and victims and survivors of genocide in Rwanda – the author finds that the actions of the British and French governments, both before and during the Rwandan genocide of 1994, were disassociated from human rights norms. It is suggested herein that the decision-making of the Major government during the period of 1990 – 1994 was for the advancement of the interrelated goals of maintaining power status and ensuring economic interests in key areas of Africa. This account of the legal culpability of the powerful within the corridors of government, in both London and Paris, shows that these behaviours cannot be conceptualised under existing notions of state crime. This book serves to illuminate the inadequacies and limitations of a concept of state crime in international law as it currently stands, and will be of considerable interest to anyone concerned with the misuse of state power.

A Biographical Encyclopedia Of Contemporary Genocide Portraits Of Evil And Good

Author : Paul R. Bartrop
ISBN : 9780313386794
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 40. 49 MB
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This book documents the devastating effects of genocide in the world's most destructive human environments since the end of World War II and explores why such events still occur.

Failure To Prevent Gross Human Rights Violations In Darfur

Author : Fred Grünfeld
ISBN : 9789004260405
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 69. 94 MB
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The book looks at the role of states and international organisations in their attempts to prevent the genocide in Darfur (2003-2005); from early warning to limited action in the field of humanitarian assistance, mediation, sanctions and peace-keeping. The book uses several theories to explain how decisionmaking led to the (absence) of international responses.

Global Politics And The Responsibility To Protect

Author : Alex J. Bellamy
ISBN : 9781136868634
Genre : History
File Size : 66. 53 MB
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This book provides an in-depth introduction to, and analysis of, the issues relating to the implementation of the recent Responsibility to Protect principle in international relations The Responsibility to Protect (RtoP) has come a long way in a short space of time. It was endorsed by the General Assembly of the UN in 2005, and unanimously reaffirmed by the Security Council in 2006 (Resolution 1674) and 2009 (Resolution 1894). UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has identified the challenge of implementing RtoP as one of the cornerstones of his Secretary-Generalship. The principle has also become part of the working language of international engagement with humanitarian crises and has been debated in relation to almost every recent international crisis – including Sudan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Georgia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Darfur and Somalia. Concentrating mainly on implementation challenges including the prevention of genocide and mass atrocities, strengthening the UN’s capacity to respond, and the role of regional organizations, this book introducing readers to contemporary debates on R2P and provides the first book-length analysis of the implementation agenda. The book will be of great interest to students of the responsibility to protect, humanitarian intervention, human rights, foreign policy, security studies and IR and politics in general.

The Purpose Of Intervention

Author : Martha Finnemore
ISBN : 9780801467066
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 32. 23 MB
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Violence or the potential for violence is a fact of human existence. Many societies, including our own, reward martial success or skill at arms. The ways in which members of a particular society use force reveal a great deal about the nature of authority within the group and about its members' priorities. In The Purpose of Intervention, Martha Finnemore uses one type of force, military intervention, as a window onto the shifting character of international society. She examines the changes, over the past 400 years, about why countries intervene militarily, as well as in the ways they have intervened. It is not the fact of intervention that has altered, she says, but rather the reasons for and meaning behind intervention-the conventional understanding of the purposes for which states can and should use force. Finnemore looks at three types of intervention: collecting debts, addressing humanitarian crises, and acting against states perceived as threats to international peace. In all three, she finds that what is now considered "obvious" was vigorously contested or even rejected by people in earlier periods for well-articulated and logical reasons. A broad historical perspective allows her to explicate long-term trends: the steady erosion of force's normative value in international politics, the growing influence of equality norms in many aspects of global political life, and the increasing importance of law in intervention practices.

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