fischer tropsch refining

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Fischer Tropsch Refining

Author : Arno de Klerk
ISBN : 9783527635610
Genre : Science
File Size : 20. 45 MB
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The Fischer-Tropsch process is gaining recognition again due to the world-wide increase in energy needs and decrease in oil availability. The increasing interest in utilizing biomass as a potential renewable feedstock in energy generation is further supporting this development. The book covers the production and refining of Fischer-Tropsch syncrude to fuels and chemicals systematically and comprehensively, presenting a wealth of new knowledge and material. As such, it deals extensively with aspects of engineering, chemistry and catalysis. This handbook and ready reference adopts a fundamental approach, looking at the molecules and their transformation from feed to product. Numerous examples illustrate the possibilities and limitations of Fischer-Tropsch syncrude as feesdstock. Of great interest to everyone interested in refining - not just Fischer-Tropsch specialists. From the Contents: Fischer-Tropsch Facilities and Refineries at a Glance Production of Fischer-Tropsch Syncrude Industrial Fischer-Tropsch Facilities Synthetic Transportation Fuels Refining Technology Refinery Design

Catalysis In The Refining Of Fischer Tropsch Syncrude

Author : Arno de Klerk
ISBN : 9781849730808
Genre : Science
File Size : 58. 96 MB
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The first book to provide a review of the literature on the catalysis needed to refine syncrude to transportation fuels.

Greener Fischer Tropsch Processes For Fuels And Feedstocks

Author : Peter M. Maitlis
ISBN : 9783527656851
Genre : Science
File Size : 65. 62 MB
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How can we use our carbon-based resources in the most responsible manner? How can we most efficiently transform natural gas, coal, or biomass into diesel, jet fuel or gasoline to drive our machines? The Big Questions today are energyrelated, and the Fischer-Tropsch process provides industrially tested solutions. This book offers a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the Fischer-Tropsch process, from the basic science and engineering to commercial issues. It covers industrial, economic, environmental, and fundamental aspects, with a specific focus on 'green' concepts such as sustainability, process improvement, waste-reduction, and environmental care. The result is a practical reference for researchers, engineers, and financial analysts working in the energy sector, who are interested in carbon conversion, fuel processing or synthetic fuel technologies. It is also an ideal introductory book on the Fischer-Tropsch process for graduate courses in chemistry and chemical engineering.

Fischer Tropsch Refining

Author : Arno De Klerk
ISBN : OCLC:956376310
Genre :
File Size : 28. 11 MB
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Energy carriers, such as coal, natural gas and biomass, can be converted by Fischer-Tropsch technology into synthetic crude (syncrude). Fischer-Tropsch derived syncrude can then be refined to transportation fuels, such as motor-gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel. These fuels meet the same specifications as crude oil derived transportation fuels. Conventional refining technologies have to be adapted to deal with Fischer-Tropsch syncrudes, because they differ significantly from crude oil with respect to composition. Some of the key differences are the high concentration of oxygenates and olefins and absence of sulphur in Fischer-Tropsch syncrude. Imposing a crude oil refining methodology on syncrude can lead to unwieldy and expensive refineries. Yet, despite an abundance of literature of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, there is little literature that deals with the refining of Fischer-Tropsch syncrude. The present study investigated current refining practice for both crude oil and Fischer-Tropsch syncrude in order to identify fundamental differences in their refining focus and conversion behaviour. This was followed by a critical evaluation of the compatibility of syncrudes from high temperature Fischer-Tropsch (HTFT) and low temperature Fischer-Tropsch (LTFT) synthesis with the chemistry and catalysis of various conversion processes. The conversion processes that were evaluated include isomerisation, oligomerisation, etherification, alkylation, metathesis, hydrogenation, hydroisomerisation, hydrocracking, catalytic cracking, coking, thermal cracking, catalytic reforming and dehydration. The recommendations from the technology evaluation provided the foundation for the development of Fischer-Tropsch syncrude based refinery designs. Refinery designs were developed to determine configurations that would maximise the production of on-specification motor-gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel respectively. It could be shown that less complex refinery designs were required to refine Fischer-Tropsch syncrude to motor-gasoline and jet fuel, than were required for crude oil refining. It was also shown that on a molecular level Fischer-Tropsch syncrude is unsuited for maximising the production of Euro-4 type diesel fuel. The present study illustrates the advantage of considering fundamentals in developing refineries specifically for Fischer-Tropsch syncrude, rather than imposing crude oil design practises on Fischer-Tropsch syncrude refinery designs.

Fischer Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts And Catalysis

Author : Burtron H. Davis
ISBN : 9781466555303
Genre : Science
File Size : 75. 83 MB
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With petroleum prices spiraling upward, making synthetic fuels—or "synfuels"—from coal, natural gas, and biomass has become more economically competitive. Advanced energy companies now focus exclusively on alternative fuels, and many oil companies have programs dedicated to developing synthetic fuels. The Fischer-Tropsch process, which uses a collection of chemical reactions to convert mixtures of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons, is the studied method of choice for producing synthetic petroleum substitutes. Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Catalysts, and Catalysis: Advances and Applications began at a symposium held during the 248th American Chemical Society meeting, where high attendance demonstrated great interest in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The lively discussions that occurred led to the creation of this carefully constructed reference work. The contributors here have expanded and reorganized their presentations from the conference into thorough chapters that reflect the four key subject areas that dominated the presentations: Catalyst preparation and activation Catalyst activity and reaction mechanisms Catalyst characterization and related reactions Topics concerning commercializing the Fischer-Tropsch process While describing advances and exploring the potential of the Fischer-Tropsch process in the future of synthetic fuels, the research also demonstrates that several issues remain in producing increasingly active catalysts and more efficient reactor design. Covering recent developments in Fischer-Tropsch technology for renewable resources and green energy, this book is a significant contribution for researchers and practitioners concerned with the production of synthetic fuels. It explores new and sophisticated techniques while providing a look at the application of these advances to commercial processing conditions.

Beyond Fischer Tropsch

Author : Arno de Klerk
ISBN : 9780080932491
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 24. 21 MB
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This book focuses on the practical aspects of coal-to-liquids (CTL) technology to produce transportation fuels and chemicals. Engineers in chemical, petrochemical and specialty chemical (pharmaceutical) industries will benefit from its superior coverage. -Presents a strong case—and the research required—for taking Fischer-Tropsch technology from the laboratory to commercial scale production of transportation fuels and chemicals -Discusses topics that have (to date) received minimal coverage, including the peculiarities inherent in coal-to-liquids (CTL) applications, which are considerably more involved than gas-to-liquids (GTL) applications of Fischer-Tropsch technology -Covers additional topics such as synthetic fuel blending, refining of syncrude, processing of coal and coal pyrolysis products, and reaction water purification

Fischer Tropsch Technology

Author : André Steynberg
ISBN : 0080472796
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 75. 75 MB
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Fischer-Tropsch Technology is a unique book for its state-of-the-art approach to Fischer Tropsch (FT) technology. This book provides an explanation of the basic principles and terminology that are required to understand the application of FT technology. It also contains comprehensive references to patents and previous publications. As the first publication to focus on theory and application, it is a contemporary reference source for students studying chemistry and chemical engineering. Researchers and engineers active in the development of FT technology will also find this book an invaluable source of information. * Is the first publication to cover the theory and application for modern Fischer Tropsch technology * Contains comprehensive knowledge on all aspects relevant to the application of Fischer Tropsch technology * No other publication looks at past, present and future applications

Fischer Tropsch Technology

Author : André Steynberg
ISBN : 0080472796
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 49. 52 MB
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Fischer-Tropsch Technology is a unique book for its state-of-the-art approach to Fischer Tropsch (FT) technology. This book provides an explanation of the basic principles and terminology that are required to understand the application of FT technology. It also contains comprehensive references to patents and previous publications. As the first publication to focus on theory and application, it is a contemporary reference source for students studying chemistry and chemical engineering. Researchers and engineers active in the development of FT technology will also find this book an invaluable source of information. * Is the first publication to cover the theory and application for modern Fischer Tropsch technology * Contains comprehensive knowledge on all aspects relevant to the application of Fischer Tropsch technology * No other publication looks at past, present and future applications

Biorefineries And Chemical Processes

Author : Jhuma Sadhukhan
ISBN : 9781118698167
Genre : Science
File Size : 22. 14 MB
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As the range of feedstocks, process technologies and products expand, biorefineries will become increasingly complex manufacturing systems. Biorefineries and Chemical Processes: Design, Integration and Sustainability Analysis presents process modelling and integration, and whole system life cycle analysis tools for the synthesis, design, operation and sustainable development of biorefinery and chemical processes. Topics covered include: Introduction: An introduction to the concept and development of biorefineries. Tools: Included here are the methods for detailed economic and environmental impact analyses; combined economic value and environmental impact analysis; life cycle assessment (LCA); multi-criteria analysis; heat integration and utility system design; mathematical programming based optimization and genetic algorithms. Process synthesis and design: Focuses on modern unit operations and innovative process flowsheets. Discusses thermochemical and biochemical processing of biomass, production of chemicals and polymers from biomass, and processes for carbon dioxide capture. Biorefinery systems: Presents biorefinery process synthesis using whole system analysis. Discusses bio-oil and algae biorefineries, integrated fuel cells and renewables, and heterogeneous catalytic reactors. Companion website: Four case studies, additional exercises and examples are available online, together with three supplementary chapters which address waste and emission minimization, energy storage and control systems, and the optimization and reuse of water. This textbook is designed to bridge a gap between engineering design and sustainability assessment, for advanced students and practicing process designers and engineers.

The Role Of Catalysis For The Sustainable Production Of Bio Fuels And Bio Chemicals

Author : Kostas Triantafyllidis
ISBN : 9780444563323
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 31. 1 MB
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The Role of Catalysis for the Sustainable Production of Bio-fuels and Bio-chemicals describes the importance of catalysis for the sustainable production of biofuels and biochemicals, focused primarily on the state-of-the-art catalysts and catalytic processes expected to play a decisive role in the "green" production of fuels and chemicals from biomass. In addition, the book includes general elements regarding the entire chain of biomass production, conversion, environment, economy, and life-cycle assessment. Very few books are available on catalysis in production schemes using biomass or its primary conversion products, such as bio-oil and lignin. This book fills that gap with detailed discussions of: Catalytic pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass Hybrid biogasoline by co-processing in FCC units Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to biofuels (biomass-to-liquid process) Steam reforming of bio-oils to hydrogen With energy prices rapidly rising, environmental concerns growing, and regulatory apparatus evolving, this book is a resource with tutorial, research, and technological value for chemists, chemical engineers, policymakers, and students. Includes catalytic reaction mechanism schemes and gives a clear understanding of catalytic processes Includes flow diagrams of bench-, pilot- and industrial-scale catalytic processing units and demonstrates the various process technologies involved, enabling easy selection of the best process Incorporates many tables, enabling easy comparison of data based on a critical review of the available literature

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