floods in a megacity geospatial techniques in assessing hazards risk and vulnerability springer geography

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Floods In A Megacity

Author : Ashraf Dewan
ISBN : 9789400758759
Genre : Nature
File Size : 87. 88 MB
Format : PDF
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Flooding is one of the most devastating natural hazards in the world. Available records suggest that both flood frequency and severity are on the rise and this is likely to worsen in the context of climate change. As population, infrastructure and poverty grow rapidly in developing countries, particularly in urban agglomerations of 10 million people or more, floods could cause widespread devastation, economic damage and loss of life. Assessment of vulnerability and risk from naturally occurring phenomena is therefore imperative in order to achieve urban sustainability. This book uses geospatial techniques to evaluate hazards, risk and vulnerability at a metropolitan scale in a data-scarce country. An empirical study was performed using remote sensing, GIS and census data. This research offers a new approach to mapping population, infrastructures and communities at risk which can greatly contribute to the deeper understanding of flood disasters in a rapidly expanding megacity. Examples shown in this book are from Dhaka Megacity, however, the techniques and methods can easily be implemented in medium to large cities of similar characteristics. The book is essential reading for hazard researchers, geospatial scientists, disaster management professionals, geographers, urban planners, and social scientists. Ashraf M. Dewan is currently a Lecturer in the Department of Spatial Sciences at Curtin University, Western Australia (on leave from his substantive position as Associate Professor in the Geography & Environment Department at the University of Dhaka, Bangladesh).

Dhaka Megacity

Author : Ashraf Dewan
ISBN : 9789400767355
Genre : Science
File Size : 74. 32 MB
Format : PDF
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The book Dhaka Megacity: Geospatial Perspectives on Urbanisation, Environment and Health presents the use of geospatial techniques to address a number of environmental issues, including land use change, climatic variability, urban sprawl, population density modelling, flooding, environmental health, water quality, energy resources, urban growth modelling, infectious diseases and the quality of life. Although the work is focused on the Megacity of Dhaka in Bangladesh, the techniques and methods that are used to research these issues can be utilized in any other areas where rapid population growth coupled with unplanned urbanization is leading to environmental degradation. The book is useful for people working in the area of Geospatial Science, Urban Geography, Environmental Management and International Development. Since the chapters in the book cover a range of environmental issues, this book describes useful tools for assisting informed decision making, particularly in developing countries.

Cultures And Disasters

Author : Fred Krüger
ISBN : 9781317754640
Genre : Science
File Size : 29. 95 MB
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Why did the people of the Zambesi Delta affected by severe flooding return early to their homes or even choose to not evacuate? How is the forced resettlement of small-scale farmers living along the foothills of an active volcano on the Philippines impacting on their day-to-day livelihood routines? Making sense of such questions and observations is only possible by understanding how the decision-making of societies at risk is embedded in culture, and how intervention measures acknowledge, or neglect, cultural settings. The social construction of risk is being given increasing priority in understand how people experience and prioritize hazards in their own lives and how vulnerability can be reduced, and resilience increased, at a local level. Culture and Disasters adopts an interdisciplinary approach to explore this cultural dimension of disaster, with contributions from leading international experts within the field. Section I provides discussion of theoretical considerations and practical research to better understand the important of culture in hazards and disasters. Culture can be interpreted widely with many different perspectives; this enables us to critically consider the cultural boundedness of research itself, as well as the complexities of incorporating various interpretations into DRR. If culture is omitted, related issues of adaptation, coping, intervention, knowledge and power relations cannot be fully grasped. Section II explores what aspects of culture shape resilience? How have people operationalized culture in every day life to establish DRR practice? What constitutes a resilient culture and what role does culture play in a society’s decision making? It is natural for people to seek refuge in tried and trust methods of disaster mitigation, however, culture and belief systems are constantly evolving. How these coping strategies can be introduced into DRR therefore poses a challenging question. Finally, Section III examines the effectiveness of key scientific frameworks for understanding the role of culture in disaster risk reduction and management. DRR includes a range of norms and breaking these through an understanding of cultural will challenge established theoretical and empirical frameworks.

Beitr Ge Zur 14 Internationalen Konferenz Zu Stadtplanung Regionalentwicklung Und Informationsgesellschaft

Author : Manfred Schrenk
ISBN : 9783950213973
Genre :
File Size : 31. 96 MB
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Geospatial Techniques In Urban Hazard And Disaster Analysis

Author : Pamela S. Showalter
ISBN : 9048122384
Genre : Science
File Size : 28. 98 MB
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This book is the second in a series that examines how geographic information te- nologies (GIT) are being implemented to improve our understanding of a variety of hazard and disaster situations. The main types of technologies covered under the umbrella of GIT, as used in this volume, are geographic information systems, remote sensing (not including ground-penetrating or underwater systems), and global po- tioning systems. Our focus is on urban areas, broadly de ned in order to encompass rapidly growing and densely populated areas that may not be considered “urban” in the conventional sense. The material presented here is also unabashedly applied – our goal is to provide GIT tools to those seeking more ef cient ways to respond to, recover from, mitigate, prevent, and/or model hazard and disaster events in urban settings. Therefore, this book was created not only with our colleagues in the academic world in mind, but also for hazards professionals and practitioners. We also believe graduate students will nd the material presented here of interest, as may upper division undergraduate students.

The Interplay Between Urban Development Vulnerability And Risk Management

Author : Ebru A. Gencer
ISBN : 9783642294709
Genre : Law
File Size : 59. 86 MB
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Natural disasters are increasingly affecting the world, taking lives unexpectedly and leaving many others injured and homeless. Moreover, disasters disrupt local, national and even global economies, instantly changing the direction of development. In the first half of 2011 alone, 108 natural disasters occurred, killing over 23 thousand people, affecting nearly 44 million others and causing more than 253 billion US dollars of economic damages (CRED 2011,1). Large urban settlements have become increasingly vulnerable to the impacts of natural disasters. The concentration of substandard infrastructure and housing, material assets, and inherent socio-economic inequalities increase vulnerability to disasters in large urban areas, especially in developing countries. The size, number, functions, and geographical distribution of large- and megacities create a special concern for disaster risk. Good urban management practices can be a powerful catalyst for reducing losses from natural disasters, while simultaneously helping to develop a sustainable environment. Yet, the existing situation indicates that sustainable planning and risk management measures are not taken into consideration or may not be put into practice for a variety of financial, political, and social reasons. This book argues that, on one hand, socio-economic disparities resulting from unsustainable urban development can increase vulnerability to natural hazards, and on the other hand, when paired with natural hazards this increased vulnerability can negatively affect urban areas, resulting in further inequality. This book will showcase this argument with theoretical reviews and quantitative analyses on the interplay between sustainable development and disaster vulnerability as well as an in-depth case study of the role of urban planning and risk management practices in creating the socio-economic and spatial vulnerabilities and predicted earthquake risk in the megacity of Istanbul.

Climate Change Extreme Events And Disaster Risk Reduction

Author : Suraj Mal
ISBN : 9783319564692
Genre : Science
File Size : 87. 46 MB
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This book discusses the science, causes, impacts and risk reduction strategies for climate change and disasters. It focuses on the use of traditional knowledge, new innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels in order to promote sustainable development goals in general and disaster risk reduction in particular. The global climate has changed substantially over the last century. There is strong evidence of global climate change in the form of increase in air and sea surface temperature, recession of glaciers, changes and shifting of climate regimes, increasing number of extreme events and sea levels changes. The increasing frequency of climate change induced disasters in particular is posing a threat to resilience, lives and livelihoods at global, regional and local levels. Major ecosystems of the world have experienced several climate induced disaster events in recent past. This book provides new insights into the occurrence and impacts of climatic extremes and strategies for disaster risk reduction. It includes studies on rainfall and temperature trends, floods and drought disasters, weather and climatic related disasters in mountains, changes in plant activities, risk assessment and responses in different ecosystems of the world. The book is particularly useful for environmental and disaster managers, researchers and graduate students, as well as policy makers.

Remote Sensing And Gis Technologies For Monitoring And Prediction Of Disasters

Author : Shailesh Nayak
ISBN : 9783540792598
Genre : Science
File Size : 32. 41 MB
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Lessons learned in the last several years have given clear indications that the prediction and efficient monitoring of disasters is one of the critical factors in decision-making process. In this respect space-based technologies have the great potential of supplying information in near real time. Earth observation satellites have already demonstrated their flexibility in providing data to a wide range of applications: weather forecasting, person and vehicle tracking, alerting to disaster, forest fire and flood monitoring, oil spills, spread of desertification, monitoring of crop and forestry damages. This book focuses on a wider utilisation of remote sensing in disaster management. The discussed aspects comprise data access/delivery to the users, information extraction and analysis, management of data and its integration with other data sources (airborne and terrestrial imagery, GIS data, etc.), data standardization, organisational and legal aspects of sharing remote sensing information.

Landscape Ecology And Water Management

Author : Mehtab Singh
ISBN : 9784431548713
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 82. 51 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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The over-exploitation of important earth resources such as land and water has led to a number of environment-related problems the world over. At the same time, land-use change caused by various human activities has led to extinction of many plant and animal habitats and species. In this context, the relevance of biodiversity for human survival is becoming a major international political issue as scientific evidence builds on the global health implications of biodiversity loss. These issues are closely linked with the issue of climate change, as many of the health risks due to climate change are associated with rapid degradation of biodiversity. This present work focuses on holistic natural resource-based spatio-temporal planning, development and management and considers them as essential to save the degraded ecosystem for sustainable resource management. Contributions are compiled in two volumes: 1. Climate Change and Biodiversity and 2. Landscape Ecology and Water Management. Geoinformatics along with its tools such as remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have been used in assessing the results of various environmental problems both physical and social. These volumes will be useful for geographers, geoscientists, hydrologists, landscape ecologists, environmentalists, engineers, planners and policy makers.

Encyclopedia Of Gis

Author : Shashi Shekhar
ISBN : 9780387308586
Genre : Computers
File Size : 23. 49 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
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The Encyclopedia of GIS provides a comprehensive and authoritative guide, contributed by experts and peer-reviewed for accuracy, and alphabetically arranged for convenient access. The entries explain key software and processes used by geographers and computational scientists. Major overviews are provided for nearly 200 topics: Geoinformatics, Spatial Cognition, and Location-Based Services and more. Shorter entries define specific terms and concepts. The reference will be published as a print volume with abundant black and white art, and simultaneously as an XML online reference with hyperlinked citations, cross-references, four-color art, links to web-based maps, and other interactive features.

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