forensic epidemiology principles and practice

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Forensic Epidemiology

Author : Michael Freeman
ISBN : 9780124046443
Genre : Law
File Size : 70. 85 MB
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It is an inescapable fact that causation, both generally (in populations), and specifically (in individuals), cannot be observed. Rather, causation is determined when it can be inferred that the risk of an observed injury or disease from a plausible cause is greater than the risk from other plausible causes. While many causal evaluations performed in forensic medicine are simplified by the fact that the circumstances surrounding the onset of an injury or disease clearly rules out competing causes (eg, a death following a fall), there are many cases that present a more complicated picture. It is these types of investigations, in which an analysis of comparative levels of risk from competing causes is needed to arrive at a reliable and accurate determination of the most likely cause, that forensic epidemiology (FE) is directed at. In Forensic Epidemiology, the authors present the legal and scientific theories underlying the methods by which risk is used in the investigation of individual causation. Methods and principles from epidemiology are combined with those from a multitude of other disciplines, including general medicine, pharmacology, forensic pathology, biostatistics, and biomechanics, inter alia, as a basis for investigating the plausibility of injury and disease exposures and mechanisms. The ultimate determination of the probability of causation (PC) results from an assessment of the strength of association of the investigated relationship in the individual, based on a comparison between the risk of disease or injury from the investigated exposure versus the risk of the same disease or injury occurring at the same point in time in the individual, but absent the exposure. The principles and methods described in Forensic Epidemiology will be of interest to those who work and study in the fields of forensic medicine, epidemiology, and the law. Historical perspective on how epidemiologic evidence of causation has been used in courts in the US and Europe Theory and science underlying the use of risk to assess individual causation Primer on epidemiologic methods, and various measures used to arrive at individualized comparative risk assessments and PC The use of statistical methods applied to publicly available data for ad hoc analysis of PC applicable to the specific circumstances of a case Background on complementary disciplines, including forensic pathology, death investigation, biomechanics, and survival analysis Examples of applied FE in the investigation of traffic injury and death, automotive and other product defect litigation, medical negligence, and criminal prosecution and defense

Forensic Notes

Author : Connie Darnell
ISBN : 9780803636941
Genre : Medical
File Size : 86. 48 MB
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You will find information about specific forensic topics, step-by-step procedures for retrieving and preserving evidence, and the best practices to follow to promote patient safety.

Forensic Epidemiology

Author : Steven A. Koehler
ISBN : 1420063286
Genre : Law
File Size : 45. 94 MB
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After 9/11, forensic epidemiology emerged as a leading investigative tool, partnering public health officers with law enforcement like never before. Based on the authors’ first-hand experience, Forensic Epidemiology brings to light the vast amounts of information collected by medical examiners that will be useful in advancing death investigation techniques among the forensic science, public health, and law enforcement fields. This practical resource begins with a brief overview of epidemiological science and the history of forensic epidemiology before examining the multiple functions of death certificates and the signature role of forensic epidemiologists in death investigations. Incorporating numerous illustrations and real-world examples, the book: Explains proven methods to collect, analyze, and interpret data for criminal investigations Defines the terminology, methodology, procedures, and goals of all sectors involved for more effective collaboration Examines deaths from natural, suicidal, accidental, homicidal, and undetermined causes Describes the various decomposition states and methods used to establish positive identity The increased frequency of criminal acts that involve deliberate biological and chemical agents underscores the need for collaboration between law enforcement investigators and public health professionals. As Forensic Epidemiology effectively demonstrates, when they work together, they can mount a powerful and successful response to threats to the American public. Dr. Steven A. Koehler was interviewed in Volume 12 of Anil Aggrawal's Internet Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology.

Forensic Epidemiology

Author : Sana Loue
ISBN : 9780763738495
Genre : Law
File Size : 56. 30 MB
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Events on local, national, and international levels have highlighted the need for joint investigation and collaboration between public health and law enforcement. Domestic violence and partner homicide, intentional infection of individuals with HIV, and the anthrax attacks of 2001 are examples that underscore the need for forensic epidemiology in the investigation of criminal acts. Forensic Epidemiology focuses specifically on the integration of the principles and methods of epidemiology with law enforcement functions in the administrative and criminal contexts. Ideal for students and professi

Geriatric Forensic Psychiatry

Author : Jacob Holzer
ISBN : 9780199374656
Genre : Medical
File Size : 41. 99 MB
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Geriatric Forensic Psychiatry: Principles and Practice is one of the first texts to provide a comprehensive review of important topics in the intersection of geriatric psychiatry, medicine, clinical neuroscience, forensic psychiatry, and law. It will speak to a broad audience among varied fields, including clinical and forensic psychiatry and mental health professionals, geriatricians and internists, attorneys and courts, regulators, and other professionals working with the older population. Topics addressed in this text, applied to the geriatric population, include clinical forensic evaluation, regulations and laws, civil commitment, different forms of capacity, guardianship, patient rights, medical-legal issues related to treatment, long term care and telemedicine, risk management, patient safety and error reduction, elder driving, sociopathy and aggression, offenders and the adjudication process, criminal evaluations, corrections, ethics, culture, cognitive impairment, substance abuse, trauma, older professionals, high risk behavior, and forensic mental health training and research. Understanding the relationship between clinical issues, laws and regulations, and managing risk and improving safety, will help to serve the growing older population.

Infectious Disease Epidemiology

Author : Kenrad E. Nelson
ISBN : 9780763795337
Genre : Medical
File Size : 55. 18 MB
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Now in its third edition, this comprehensive volume is recognized as the most authoritative review of the epidemiology of infectious disease. Divided into five sections that cover methods in infectious disease epidemiology, airborne transmission, diarrheal diseases, blood and body fluid as a reservoir of infectious diseases, vectorborne and parasite disease. This book includes chapters on methodological issues, pathogenesis, and comprehensive reviews of virtually all known infectious diseases. New to the Third Edition: HIV chapter completely updated including results of trials of Male Circumcision, HIV-vaccines, female condoms, Microbicides and new drugs. Influenza chapter updated with new material on H1/N1 and control/prevention of Influenza during a pandemic. Malaria chapter updated with new information on bed nets, prophylactic therapy of pregnant women and other high risk populations as well as new detailed examination of the organization, implementation, and accomplishments of the WHO--Roll-Back Malaria program; and a new description of the 5th Human Malaria parasite--P.knowlesi and its Epidemiology. Hepatitis chapter is revised with new information on HEV virus. New brief chapter discussing the various models of behavioral change that are useful in Infectious Diseases research--e.g. Health Belief model etc. and much more!

Concise Epidemiologic Principles And Concepts

Author : Laurens Holmes, Jr.; Franklin Opara
ISBN : 9781491810026
Genre : Science
File Size : 68. 43 MB
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This textbook describes the basics of research in medical, clinical, and biomedical settings as well as the concepts and application of epidemiologic designs in research conduct. Design transcends statistical techniques, and no matter how sophisticated a statistical modeling, errors of design/sampling cannot be corrected. The authors of this textbook have presented a complex field in a very simplified and reader-friendly manner with the intent that such presentation will facilitate the understanding of design process and epidemiologic thinking in clinical and biomedical research. Covers these relevant topics in epidemiology: Case-Cohort Design Prospective Case-Control Quantitative Evidence Synthesis (QES) Instant Cohort Design & Case-Crossover Design Effect Modification & Interaction Epidemiologic Tree - Molecular Epidemiology & Health Disparities Epidemiologic Challenge – “Big Data”, mHealth, Social Media 3 “Ts” - Team Science, Transdisciplinary Research, Translational Research Bias, Random error, Confounding Systems Science & Evidence Discovery Research is presented as an exercise around measurement, with measurement error inevitable in its conduct—hence the inherent uncertainties of all findings in clinical and biomedical research. Concise Epidemiologic Principles and Concepts covers research conceptualization, namely research objectives, questions, hypothesis, design, implementation, data collection, analysis, results, and interpretation. While the primary focus of epidemiology is to assess the relationship between exposure (risk or predisposing factor) and outcome (disease or health-related event), causal association is presented in a simplified manner, including the role of quantitative evidence synthesis (meta-analysis) in causal inference. Epidemiology has evolved over the past three decades resulting in several fields being developed. This text presents in brief the perspectives and future of epidemiology in the era of the molecular basis of medicine. With molecular epidemiology, we are better equipped with tools to identify molecular biologic indicators of risk as well as biologic alterations in the early stages of disease.

Principles And Practice Of Sleep Medicine

Author : Meir H. Kryger
ISBN : 9780323377522
Genre : Medical
File Size : 46. 83 MB
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For nearly 30 years, Dr. Meir Kryger’s must-have guide to sleep medicine has been the gold standard in this fast-changing field. This essential, full-color reference includes more than 20 unique sections and over 170 chapters covering every aspect of sleep disorders, giving you the authoritative guidance you need to offer your patients the best possible care. Evidence-based content helps you make the most well-informed clinical decisions. An ideal resource for preparing for the sleep medicine fellowship examination. New content on sleep apnea, neurological disorders, legal aspects of sleep medicine, dental sleep medicine genetics, circadian disorders, geriatrics, women’s health, cardiovascular diseases, and occupational sleep medicine, keeps you fully up to date. Updates to scientific discoveries and clinical approaches ensure that you remain current with new knowledge that is advancing the diagnosis and management of sleep disorders.

Oral Health Epidemiology

Author : Amit Chattopadhyay
ISBN : 0763754099
Genre : Medical
File Size : 52. 52 MB
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As a result of scientific advancements and changing demographics in the United States and around the world, people of all ethnic groups and nationalities are retaining their teeth longer. Todays oral health professionals must therefore be prepared to make educated and scientifically-reasoned choices addressing a wide range of oral diseases for patients of all ages, and for ambulatory as well as non-ambulatory patients across all demographic profiles. As the first text of its kind, Oral Health Epidemiology: Principles and Practice explores the full spectrum of epidemiological and translational clinical research including fundamental mechanisms of human disease, therapeutic intervention, clinical trials, and oral epidemiology. Topics that are unique to oral health, such as the frequent use of split-mouth design on oral research, crossover techniques and clustered nature of caries, periodontal and other dental disease data, are all thoroughly addressed. Key Features: Thoroughly explores clinicaltranslational research and the special needs of oral health study designs that are applicable across all specialties in dentistry. Serves as a basic guide to advanced techniques such as bioinformatics, genetics, molecular biology, and computer simulation, biostatistics that are now used regularly in oral health research. Prepares the reader to design studies, translate the findings to practice, and conduct logical critique of scientific literature.

Forensic Epidemiology In The Global Context

Author : Sana Loue
ISBN : 9781461467380
Genre : Medical
File Size : 70. 4 MB
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As globalization causes profound changes in business, industry, and trade,it can also have significant effects on populations, environments, and individuals.These effects may be harmful, resulting in injury or illness, prompting the critical question: How best to correct wrongs caused to individuals, communities, and/or the environment of one country by the actions of individuals or corporations of another? Possible answers lie in an emerging discipline. Forensic Epidemiology in the Global Context opens meaningful windows onto the processes of forensic epidemiology, the roles of the epidemiologist in civil disputes, and the potential contribution of the field to legal and justice efforts worldwide. Case examples from the U.K., Nigeria, Ecuador, Romania, and Australia illustrate commonly used methodologies and the challenges involved in their use in U.S. and international courts of law. A chapter on expert testimony takes readers through qualification and admissibility issues, report requirements, and working with attorneys. Included in the coverage: Forensic epidemiology in the international legal arena. The epidemiologist as an expert in litigation. Epidemiological evidence in tort law: dispatches from the U.K. Liability for occupational exposure: the role of epidemiology. Forensic epidemiology and environmental justice. Forensic epidemiology, pathology, ethnics, and human rights. By emphasizing both the scientific and legal components of the equation, Forensic Epidemiology in the Global Context gives researchers and graduate students in epidemiology a unique and timely guide to the present and future of an increasingly salient field.

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