forensic epidemiology principles and practice

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Forensic Epidemiology

Author : Michael Freeman
ISBN : 9780124046443
Genre : Law
File Size : 84. 32 MB
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It is an inescapable fact that causation, both generally (in populations), and specifically (in individuals), cannot be observed. Rather, causation is determined when it can be inferred that the risk of an observed injury or disease from a plausible cause is greater than the risk from other plausible causes. While many causal evaluations performed in forensic medicine are simplified by the fact that the circumstances surrounding the onset of an injury or disease clearly rules out competing causes (eg, a death following a fall), there are many cases that present a more complicated picture. It is these types of investigations, in which an analysis of comparative levels of risk from competing causes is needed to arrive at a reliable and accurate determination of the most likely cause, that forensic epidemiology (FE) is directed at. In Forensic Epidemiology, the authors present the legal and scientific theories underlying the methods by which risk is used in the investigation of individual causation. Methods and principles from epidemiology are combined with those from a multitude of other disciplines, including general medicine, pharmacology, forensic pathology, biostatistics, and biomechanics, inter alia, as a basis for investigating the plausibility of injury and disease exposures and mechanisms. The ultimate determination of the probability of causation (PC) results from an assessment of the strength of association of the investigated relationship in the individual, based on a comparison between the risk of disease or injury from the investigated exposure versus the risk of the same disease or injury occurring at the same point in time in the individual, but absent the exposure. The principles and methods described in Forensic Epidemiology will be of interest to those who work and study in the fields of forensic medicine, epidemiology, and the law. Historical perspective on how epidemiologic evidence of causation has been used in courts in the US and Europe Theory and science underlying the use of risk to assess individual causation Primer on epidemiologic methods, and various measures used to arrive at individualized comparative risk assessments and PC The use of statistical methods applied to publicly available data for ad hoc analysis of PC applicable to the specific circumstances of a case Background on complementary disciplines, including forensic pathology, death investigation, biomechanics, and survival analysis Examples of applied FE in the investigation of traffic injury and death, automotive and other product defect litigation, medical negligence, and criminal prosecution and defense

Forensic Epidemiology

Author : Steven A. Koehler
ISBN : 1420063286
Genre : Law
File Size : 52. 52 MB
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After 9/11, forensic epidemiology emerged as a leading investigative tool, partnering public health officers with law enforcement like never before. Based on the authors’ first-hand experience, Forensic Epidemiology brings to light the vast amounts of information collected by medical examiners that will be useful in advancing death investigation techniques among the forensic science, public health, and law enforcement fields. This practical resource begins with a brief overview of epidemiological science and the history of forensic epidemiology before examining the multiple functions of death certificates and the signature role of forensic epidemiologists in death investigations. Incorporating numerous illustrations and real-world examples, the book: Explains proven methods to collect, analyze, and interpret data for criminal investigations Defines the terminology, methodology, procedures, and goals of all sectors involved for more effective collaboration Examines deaths from natural, suicidal, accidental, homicidal, and undetermined causes Describes the various decomposition states and methods used to establish positive identity The increased frequency of criminal acts that involve deliberate biological and chemical agents underscores the need for collaboration between law enforcement investigators and public health professionals. As Forensic Epidemiology effectively demonstrates, when they work together, they can mount a powerful and successful response to threats to the American public. Dr. Steven A. Koehler was interviewed in Volume 12 of Anil Aggrawal's Internet Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology.

Forensic Epidemiology

Author : Sana Loue
ISBN : 0809322226
Genre : Medical
File Size : 24. 60 MB
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Sana Loue explores the concepts of legal and epidemiological causation, the use of epidemiological data based on populations to determine causation in an individual case, and the use of epidemiological evidence in litigation, including the reliance on experts and expert witnesses. Loue provides a guide for the attorney with little or no background in epidemiological theory and for the epidemiologist contemplating a new role as an expert witness. She assumes of her readers a working knowledge of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure and the Federal Rules of Evidence. Discussing the epidemiologist as expert witness, Loue covers the nature of that testimony, the purpose of the testimony, and the qualifications necessary to be regarded as an expert witness. She examines various legal theories of causation, primarily in the context of product liability and toxic tort, and addresses epidemiological principles and methods used in the process of causal inference. Loue also focuses on legal mechanisms used to assess causation. Her concern here is with depositions and testimony and the preparation of epidemiology experts. She concludes her study by comparing the legal and epidemiological concepts of causation, using actual legal cases as examples. Throughout the text, Loue incorporates excerpts from depositions, interrogatories, and trial testimony to provide concrete examples. She also sets up an appendix to provide nonattorney readers with an overview of the legal system. Ultimately, her goal is to foster a greater understanding between law and epidemiology.

Forensic Epidemiology In The Global Context

Author : Sana Loue
ISBN : 9781461467380
Genre : Medical
File Size : 47. 88 MB
Format : PDF
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As globalization causes profound changes in business, industry, and trade,it can also have significant effects on populations, environments, and individuals.These effects may be harmful, resulting in injury or illness, prompting the critical question: How best to correct wrongs caused to individuals, communities, and/or the environment of one country by the actions of individuals or corporations of another? Possible answers lie in an emerging discipline. Forensic Epidemiology in the Global Context opens meaningful windows onto the processes of forensic epidemiology, the roles of the epidemiologist in civil disputes, and the potential contribution of the field to legal and justice efforts worldwide. Case examples from the U.K., Nigeria, Ecuador, Romania, and Australia illustrate commonly used methodologies and the challenges involved in their use in U.S. and international courts of law. A chapter on expert testimony takes readers through qualification and admissibility issues, report requirements, and working with attorneys. Included in the coverage: Forensic epidemiology in the international legal arena. The epidemiologist as an expert in litigation. Epidemiological evidence in tort law: dispatches from the U.K. Liability for occupational exposure: the role of epidemiology. Forensic epidemiology and environmental justice. Forensic epidemiology, pathology, ethnics, and human rights. By emphasizing both the scientific and legal components of the equation, Forensic Epidemiology in the Global Context gives researchers and graduate students in epidemiology a unique and timely guide to the present and future of an increasingly salient field.

Forensic Nursing Science E Book

Author : Virginia A. Lynch
ISBN : 9780323066389
Genre : Medical
File Size : 75. 17 MB
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Written and edited by the most respected authorities in forensic nursing and forensic sciences, this new edition provides the tools and concepts you need to collect evidence that is admissible in court, determine the significance of that evidence, and provide accurate, reliable testimony while administering high-quality patient care. Now in full color throughout, it remains the most comprehensive, highly illustrated text of its kind. Provides a comprehensive, updated guide to forensic nursing science, paying special attention to the International Association of Forensic Nurses’s (IAFN) goals for forensic nursing. Retains a focus on assessment skills and the collection and preservation of evidence, following the established guidelines of the forensic sciences. Prepares you to provide testimony as a fact witness or a forensic nursing expert. Includes an illustrated case study in almost every chapter, helping you relate the information to clinical practice. Highlights important recommendations for interventions in Best Practice boxes, including the evidence base for each. Summarizes important points in Key Point boxes, so you can quickly review the most important concepts in each chapter. Explores the evolving role of forensic nurses in today’s health care facilities and the community. Edited by Virginia Lynch, founding member and first President of the International Association of Forensic Nurses and Janet Barber Duval, both well-respected pioneers and educators in the field. Contains 300 full-color illustrations integrated throughout the text, so you can view evidence quickly and easily, as it is likely to appear in practice. Presents information on courtroom testimony and depositions in one reorganized, streamlined chapter, giving you a full, organized treatment of this extremely important topic. Includes twelve new chapters: Digital Evidence, Medical Evidence Recovery at the Death Scene, Asphyxia, Electrical and Thermal Injury, Intrafamilial Homicide and Unexplained Childhood Death, Human Trafficking, Credential Development for Forensic Nurses, Gangs and Hate Crimes, Ethics Issues in Forensic Nursing, Forensic Physics and Fracture Analysis, Sexual Deviant Behaviors and Crime and Forensic Epidemiology. Contains heavily revised information on Prehospital Evidence, Forensic Investigation in the Hospital, and Human Abuse and Deaths in Custody. Features critical thinking questions with every case study, so you can thoroughly consider the implications of each clinical scenario. Evolve site will include appendices and additional documentation materials.

A Dictionary Of Epidemiology

Author : Miquel Porta
ISBN : 9780199390052
Genre : Medical
File Size : 87. 71 MB
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This sixth edition of A Dictionary of Epidemiology -- the most updated since its inception -- reflects the profound substantive and methodological changes that have come to characterize epidemiology and its associated disciplines. Sponsored by the International Epidemiological Association, this book remains the essential reference for anyone studying or working in epidemiology, biostatistics, public health, medicine, or the growing number health sciences in which epidemiologic competency is now required. More than just a dictionary, this text is an essential guidebook to the state of the science. It offers the most current, authoritative definitions of terms central to biomedical and public health literature -- everything from confounding and incidence rate to epigenetic inheritance and Number Needed to Treat. As epidemiology continues to change and grow, A Dictionary of Epidemiology will remain its book of record.

Textbook Of Forensic Medicine Toxicology Principles Practice

Author : Krishan Vij
ISBN : 9788131236239
Genre : Medical
File Size : 62. 47 MB
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Thoroughly revamped and revised edition carrying precise information in a concise manner. Radical changes have been effected in the chapters Death and Its Medicolegal Aspects: Forensic Thanatology; Sudden and Unexpected Deaths; Asphyxial Deaths; Deaths Associated with Surgery, Anaesthesia and Blood Transfusion; Custody Related Torture and/or Death; Medicolegal Examination of the Living; Injuries by Firearms; Complications of Trauma: Was Wounding Responsible for Death?; Consent to and Refusal of Treatment; Medical Negligence; and Intricacies of Forensic Toxicology. Enriched with photographs, drawings, sketches, flowcharts, and tables for easy and catchy understanding. Old cases have been replaced with new ones, making way for the readers to appreciate medicolegal implications. Reflects author’s personal experience of about three decades and the knowledge gathered from extensive reading, interactions, deliberations, etc. at various platforms.

Principles And Practice Of Forensic Psychiatry Third Edition

Author : Richard Rosner
ISBN : 9781482262308
Genre : Law
File Size : 54. 5 MB
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The third edition of this award-winning textbook has been revised and thoroughly updated. Building on the success of the previous editions, it continues to address the history and practice of forensic psychiatry, legal regulation of the practice of psychiatry, forensic evaluation and treatment, psychiatry in relation to civil law, criminal law and family law, as well as correctional forensic psychiatry. New chapters address changes in the assessment and treatment of aggression and violence as well as psychological and neuroimaging assessments.

Principles And Practice Of Child And Adolescent Forensic Mental Health

Author : Elissa P. Benedek
ISBN : 9781585629015
Genre : Medical
File Size : 74. 66 MB
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When care of younger patients raises thorny legal questions, you need answers you can trust: that's why this book belongs on every clinician's reference shelf. Principles and Practice of Child and Adolescent Forensic Mental Health is a timely and authoritative source that covers issues ranging from child custody to litigation concerns as it walks clinicians through the often-confusing field of depositions and courtroom testimony. The book expands on the 2002 volume Principles and Practice of Child and Adolescent Forensic Psychiatry winner of the 2003 Manfred S. Guttmacher Award, to meet pressing twenty-first-century concerns, from telepsychiatry to the Internet, while continuing to cover basic issues, such as forensic evaluation, psychological screening, and the interviewing of children for suspected sexual abuse, that are important to both new and experienced practitioners. Many of its chapters have been entirely rewritten by new authors to provide fresh insight into such topics as child custody; juvenile law; abuse, neglect, and permanent wardship cases; transcultural, transracial, and gay/lesbian parenting and adoption; and the reliability and suggestibility of children's statements. It also includes significant material not found in the previous volume: Two chapters on special education offer an introduction to screening instruments and help practitioners determine a child's potential need for special education programs and services. A chapter on cultural competence helps readers improve the accuracy and responsiveness of forensic evaluations and minimize the chance of an unjust outcome resulting from misguided expert opinion. The section on youth violence features three new chapters -- Taxonomy and Neurobiology of Aggression, Prevention of School Violence, and Juvenile Stalkers -- plus a newly written chapter on assessment of violence risk, offering guidance on how to confront problems such as bullying and initiate effective family interventions. A chapter on psychiatric malpractice and professional liability addresses these legal concerns with an eye toward cases involving minors. A chapter on psychological autopsy covers evaluation of the circumstances surrounding pediatric suicides, describing various types of equivocal deaths and discussing legal issues such as admissibility of the autopsy in court. A newly written chapter on the Internet expands the previous book's focus on child pornography to help practitioners deal with issues ranging from online threats to emotional and legal consequences of interactions in cyberspace. This is a valuable reference not only for practitioners in psychiatry and the mental health field but also for attorneys and judges. It opens up a field that may be too often avoided and helps professionals make their way through legal thickets with confidence.

Principles Of Epidemiology

Author : Lewis H. Roht
ISBN : 9781483276342
Genre : Medical
File Size : 53. 47 MB
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Principles of Epidemiology: A Self-Teaching Guide consists of a series of problem-solving exercises designed to introduce and guide readers toward an understanding of the principles and methods of epidemiology, rather than the epidemiology of specific diseases or subject areas such as ""infectious disease"" or ""chronic disease"" epidemiology. The guide has been formulated to be used by itself or as a supplement to standard textbooks. It illustrates and illuminates the principles and concepts of epidemiology and provides the reader an opportunity to practice the application of these principles in a logical sequence. The guide is divided into 14 exercises. Each exercise will help readers to understand principles or methods used by epidemiologist. Topics covered include the patterns of disease, populations at risk and risk assessment, screening for disease, investigation of an epidemic, etiology of disease, principles of causation, study design in epidemiologic investigation, data interpretation, and the uses and applications of epidemiology.

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