foundations of inference in natural science routledge library editions history philosophy of science

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Foundations Of Inference In Natural Science

Author : J O Wisdom
ISBN : 9781135027865
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 71. 2 MB
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Originally published in 1952. This book is a critical survey of the views of scientific inference that have been developed since the end of World War I. It contains some detailed exposition of ideas – notably of Keynes – that were cryptically put forward, often quoted, but nowhere explained. Part I discusses and illustrates the method of hypothesis. Part II concerns induction. Part III considers aspects of the theory of probability that seem to bear on the problem of induction and Part IV outlines the shape of this problem and its solution take if transformed by the present approach.

Theism And Explanation

Author : Gregory W. Dawes
ISBN : 9781135841348
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 35. 64 MB
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In this timely study, Dawes defends the methodological naturalism of the sciences. Though religions offer what appear to be explanations of various facts about the world, the scientist, as scientist, will not take such proposed explanations seriously. Even if no natural explanation were available, she will assume that one exists. Is this merely a sign of atheistic prejudice, as some critics suggest? Or are there good reasons to exclude from science explanations that invoke a supernatural agent? On the one hand, Dawes concedes the bare possibility that talk of divine action could constitute a potential explanation of some state of affairs, while noting that the conditions under which this would be true are unlikely ever to be fulfilled. On the other hand, he argues that a proposed explanation of this kind would rate poorly, when measured against our usual standards of explanatory virtue.

Scientific Method

Author : Barry Gower
ISBN : 9781134806294
Genre : Philosophy
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The central theme running throughout this outstanding new survey is the nature of the philosophical debate created by modern science's foundation in experimental and mathematical method. More recently, recognition that reasoning in science is probabilistic generated intense debate about whether and how it should be constrained so as to ensure the practical certainty of the conclusions drawn. These debates brought to light issues of a philosophical nature which form the core of many scientific controversies today. Scientific Method: A Historical and Philosophical Introduction presents these debates through clear and comparative discussion of key figures in the history of science. Key chapters critically discuss * Galileo's demonstrative method, Bacon's inductive method, and Newton's rules of reasoning * the rise of probabilistic `Bayesian' methods in the eighteenth century * the method of hypotheses through the work of Herschel, Mill and Whewell * the conventionalist views of Poincaré and Duhem * the inductivism of Peirce, Russell and Keynes * Popper's falsification compared with Reichenbach's enumerative induction * Carnap's scientific method as Bayesian reasoning The debates are brought up to date in the final chapters by considering the ways in which ideas about method in the physical and biological sciences have affected thinking about method in the social sciences. This debate is analyzed through the ideas of key theorists such as Kuhn, Lakatos, and Feyerabend.

Fundamentals Of Philosophy

Author : John Shand
ISBN : 0415227100
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 36. 72 MB
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This comprehensive, accessible introduction to philosophy brings together articles on philosophy's key topics. Each chapter provides an authoritative overview of topics commonly taught at undergraduate level, focusing on the major issues that typically arise when studying the subject.

A Companion To The Philosophy Of History And Historiography

Author : Aviezer Tucker
ISBN : 9781444351521
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 50. 25 MB
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The fifty entries in this Companion cover the main issues in the philosophies of historiography and history, including natural history and the practices of historians. Written by an international and multi-disciplinary group of experts A cutting-edge updated picture of current research in the field Part of the renowned Blackwell Companions series

Modal Syllogistics In The Middle Ages

Author : Henrik Lagerlund
ISBN : 9004116265
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 21. 8 MB
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In this book, the medieval development of Aristotle's theory of the modal syllogistic is studied for the first time. The book shows how this previously ignored part of medieval logic may give new insights into several areas of medieval philosophy.

Spektakul Re Experimente

Author : Helmar Schramm
ISBN : 9783110201970
Genre : History
File Size : 39. 34 MB
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This volume is the third of the projected eight volumes in the series Theatrum Scientiarum, which examines the founding phase of art and science in the modern age from a new perspective. It focuses on the question of how experiments and their execution have contributed to a fundamental change in the cultural landscape since the Early Modern Age. The contributors demonstrate that poetological discourse and Baroque theatrical production play a decisive role in the generation and social acceptance of experimental knowledge in the 17th century.

Subject Guide To Books In Print

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ISBN : STANFORD:36105025888533
Genre : American literature
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Science Outside The Laboratory

Author : Marcel Boumans
ISBN : 9780199388295
Genre : Science
File Size : 29. 46 MB
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The conduct of most of social science occurs outside the laboratory. Such studies in field science explore phenomena that cannot for practical, technical, or ethical reasons be explored under controlled conditions. These phenomena cannot be fully isolated from their environment or investigated by manipulation or intervention. Yet measurement, including rigorous or clinical measurement, does provide analysts with a sound basis for discerning what occurs under field conditions, and why. In Science Outside the Laboratory, Marcel Boumans explores the state of measurement theory, its reliability, and the role expert judgment plays in field investigations from the perspective of the philosophy of science. Its discussion of the problems of passive observation, the calculus of observation, the two-model problem, and model-based consensus uses illustrations drawn primarily from economics. Rich in research and discussion, the volume clarifies the extent to which measurement provides valid information about objects and events in field sciences, but also has implications for measurement in the laboratory. Scholars in the fields of philosophy of science, social science, and economics will find Science Outside the Laboratory a compelling and informative read.

The Hibbert Journal

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ISBN : STANFORD:36105012215781
Genre : Theology
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"Jesus or Christ?" issued as monographic supplement, 1909.

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