from prehistoric villages to cities settlement aggregation and community transformation routledge studies in archaeology

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From Prehistoric Villages To Cities

Author : Jennifer Birch
ISBN : 9781135045104
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 44. 5 MB
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Archaeologists have focused a great deal of attention on explaining the evolution of village societies and the transition to a ‘Neolithic’ way of life. Considerable interest has also concentrated on urbanism and the rise of the earliest cities. Between these two landmarks in human cultural development lies a critical stage in social and political evolution. Throughout world, at various points in time, people living in small, dispersed village communities have come together into larger and more complex social formations. These community aggregates were, essentially, middle-range; situated between the earliest villages and emergent chiefdoms and states. This volume explores the social processes involved in the creation and maintenance of aggregated communities and how they brought about revolutionary transformations that affected virtually every aspect of a society and its culture. While there have been a number of studies that address coalescence from a regional perspective, less is understood about how aggregated communities functioned internally. The key premise explored in this volume is that large-scale, long-term cultural transformations were ultimately enacted in the context of daily practices, interactions, and what might be otherwise considered the mundane aspects of everyday life. How did these processes play out "on the ground" in diverse and historically contingent settings? What are the strategies and mechanisms that people adopt in order to facilitate living in larger social formations? What changes in social relations occur when people come together? This volume employs a broadly cross-cultural approach to interrogating these questions, employing case studies which span four continents and more than 10,000 years of human history.

Cretan Cities Formation And Transformation

Author : Florence Gaignerot-Driessen
ISBN : 9782875583284
Genre : History
File Size : 20. 21 MB
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This volume brings together a series of papers reflecting a number of lectures given at the Université catholique de Louvain (UCL) in 2010-2012 in the frame of a seminar entitled La naissance des cités crétoises. Eight Cretan sites (Axos, Phaistos, Prinias, Karphi, Dreros, Azoria, Praisos, and Itanos), recently excavated or re-excavated, are considered in their regional and historical context in order to explore the origin and early development of the Greek city-state on the island.

Killing Civilization

Author : Justin Jennings
ISBN : 9780826356611
Genre : History
File Size : 82. 60 MB
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Killing Civilization uses case studies from across the modern and ancient world to develop a new model of incipient urbanism and its consequences.

Archaeology S Visual Culture

Author : Roger Balm
ISBN : 9781317377443
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 88. 5 MB
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Archaeology’s Visual Culture explores archaeology through the lens of visual culture theory. The insistent visuality of archaeology is a key stimulus for the imaginative and creative interpretation of our encounters with the past. Balm investigates the nature of this projection of the visual, revealing an embedded subjectivity in the imagery of archaeology and acknowledging the multiplicity of meanings that cohere around artifacts, archaeological sites and museum displays. Using a wide range of case studies, the book highlights how archaeologists can view objects and the consequences that ensue from these ways of seeing. Throughout the book Balm considers the potential for documentary images and visual material held in archives to perform cultural work within and between groups of specialists. With primary sources ranging from the mid-nineteenth to the early twenty-first century, this volume also maps the intellectual and social connections between archaeologists and their peers. Geographical settings include Britain, Cyprus, Mesoamerica, the Middle East and the United States, and the sites of visual encounter are no less diverse, ranging from excavation reports in salvage archaeology to instrumentally derived data-sets and remote-sensing imagery. By forensically examining selected visual records from published accounts and archival sources, enduring tropes of representation become apparent that transcend issues of style and reflect fundamental visual sensibilities within the discipline of archaeology.

The Archaeology Of Roman Britain

Author : Adam Rogers
ISBN : 9781317633853
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 88. 18 MB
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Within the colonial history of the British Empire there are difficulties in reconstructing the lives of people that came from very different traditions of experience. The Archaeology of Roman Britain argues that a similar critical approach to the lives of people in Roman Britain needs to be developed, not only for the study of the local population but also those coming into Britain from elsewhere in the Empire who developed distinctive colonial lives. This critical, biographical approach can be extended and applied to places, structures, and things which developed in these provincial contexts as they were used and experienced over time. This book uniquely combines the study of all of these elements to access the character of Roman Britain and the lives, experiences, and identities of people living there through four centuries of occupation. Drawing on the concept of the biography and using it as an analytical tool, author Adam Rogers situates the archaeological material of Roman Britain within the within the political, geographical, and temporal context of the Roman Empire. This study will be of interest to scholars of Roman archaeology, as well as those working in biographical themes, issues of colonialism, identity, ancient history, and classics.

Sharing Archaeology

Author : Peter Stone
ISBN : 9781317800965
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 50. 46 MB
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As a discipline, Archaeology has developed rapidly over the last half-century. The increase in so-called ‘public archaeology,’ with its wide range of television programming, community projects, newspaper articles, and enhanced site-based interpretation has taken archaeology from a closed academic discipline of interest to a tiny minority to a topic of increasing interest to the general public. This book explores how archaeologists share information – with specialists from other disciplines working within archaeology, other archaeologists, and a range of non-specialist groups. It emphasises that to adequately address contemporary levels of interest in their subject, archaeologists must work alongside and trust experts with an array of different skills and specializations. Drawing on case studies from eleven countries, Sharing Archaeology explores a wide range of issues raised as the result of archaeologists’ communication both within and outside the discipline. Examining best practice with wider implications and uses beyond the specified case studies, the chapters in this book raise questions as well as answers, provoking a critical evaluation of how best to interact with varied audiences and enhance sharing of archaeology.

The Maritime Archaeology Of A Modern Conflict

Author : Innes McCartney
ISBN : 9781317601661
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 81. 43 MB
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Over the last 30 years, hydrographical marine surveys in the English Channel helped uncover the potential wreck sites of German submarines, or U-boats, sunk during the conflicts of World War I and World War II. Through a series of systemic dives, nautical archaeologist and historian Innes McCartney surveyed and recorded these wrecks, discovering that the distribution and number of wrecks conflicted with the published histories of U-boat losses. Of all the U-boat war losses in the Channel, McCartney found that some 41% were heretofore unaccounted for in the historical literature of World War I and World War II. This book reconciles these inaccuracies with the archaeological record by presenting case studies of a number of dives conducted in the English Channel. Using empirical evidence, this book investigates possible reasons historical inconsistencies persist and what Allied operational and intelligence-based processes caused them to occur in the first place. This book will be of interest to scholars and researchers in the fields of nautical archaeology and naval history, as well as wreck explorers.

The Archaeology Of Bronze Age Iberia

Author : Gonzalo Aranda Jimenez
ISBN : 9781317588917
Genre : History
File Size : 47. 87 MB
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After more than a century of research, an enormous body of scientific literature in the field of El Argar studies has been generated, comprising some 700 bibliographic items. No fully-updated synthesis of the literature is available at the moment; recent works deal only with specific characteristics of Argaric societies or some of the regions where their influence spread. The Archaeology of Bronze Age Iberia offers a much-needed, comprehensive overview of Argaric Bronze Age societies, based on state-of-the-art research. In addition to expounding on recent insights in such areas as Argaric origin and expansion, social practices, and socio-politics, the book offers reflections on current issues in the field, from questions concerning the genealogy of discourses on the subject, to matters related to professional practices. The book discusses the values and interests guiding the evolution of El Argar studies, while critically reexamining its history. Scholars and researchers in the fields of Prehistory and Archaeology will find this volume highly useful.

Complexity And Autonomy In Bronze Age Europe

Author : Paul R. Duffy
ISBN : 9639911526
Genre : History
File Size : 52. 1 MB
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This work asks what kind of social differentiations emerged in European Bronze Age societies and what changes were associated with this transition. It is clear that during this period large fortified settlements became increasingly common, great inequalities in access to metals and exotic goods appear, and warrior iconography permeates material culture. But the specific forms of political and economic complexity in these societies, such as tribute payments, difference in craft production and household consumption are often unknown. Focusing on Bronze Age settlement and household economies in the Koros Region of the Great Hungarian Plain, this book establishes a more complete picture of these societies.

Eurasia At The Dawn Of History

Author : Manuel Fernández-Götz
ISBN : 9781316943175
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 83. 25 MB
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Our current world is characterized by life in cities, the existence of social inequalities, and increasing individualization. When and how did these phenomena arise? What was the social and economic background for the development of hierarchies and the first cities? The authors of this volume analyze the processes of centralization, cultural interaction, and social differentiation that led to the development of the first urban centres and early state formations of ancient Eurasia, from the Atlantic coasts to China. The chronological framework spans a period from the Neolithic to the Late Iron Age, with a special focus on the early first millennium BC. By adopting an interdisciplinary approach structured around the concepts of identity and materiality, this book addresses the appearance of a range of key phenomena that continue to shape our world.

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