from sword to shield the transformation of the corporate income tax 1861 to present

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From Sword To Shield

Author : Steven A. Bank
ISBN : 9780199716968
Genre : Law
File Size : 58. 65 MB
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The U.S. corporate income tax - and in particular the double taxation of corporate income - has long been one of the most criticized and stubbornly persistent aspects of the federal revenue system. Unlike in most other industrialized countries, corporate income is taxed twice, first at the entity level and again at the shareholder level when distributed as a dividend. The conventional wisdom has been that this double taxation was part of the system's original design over a century ago and has survived despite withering opposition from business interests. In both cases, history tells another tale. Double taxation as we know it today did not appear until several decades after the corporate income tax was first adopted. Moreover, it was embraced by corporate representatives at the outset and in subsequent years businesses have been far more ambivalent about its existence than is popularly assumed. From Sword to Shield: The Transformation of the Corporate Income Tax, 1861 to Present is the first historical account of the evolution of the corporate income tax in America. Professor Steven A. Bank explains the origins of corporate income tax and the political, economic, and social forces that transformed it from a sword against evasion of the individual income tax to a shield against government and shareholder interference with the management of corporate funds.

Anglo American Corporate Taxation

Author : Steven A. Bank
ISBN : 9781139502597
Genre : Law
File Size : 65. 16 MB
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The UK and the USA have historically represented opposite ends of the spectrum in their approaches to taxing corporate income. Under the British approach, corporate and shareholder income taxes have been integrated under an imputation system, with tax paid at the corporate level imputed to shareholders through a full or partial credit against dividends received. Under the American approach, by contrast, corporate and shareholder income taxes have remained separate under what is called a 'classical' system in which shareholders receive little or no relief from a second layer of taxes on dividends. Steven A. Bank explores the evolution of the corporate income tax systems in each country during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to understand the common legal, economic, political and cultural forces that produced such divergent approaches and explains why convergence may be likely in the future as each country grapples with corporate taxation in an era of globalization.

What S Good For Business

Author : Kim Phillips-Fein
ISBN : 9780199912827
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 68. 10 MB
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This volume showcases the most exciting new voices in the fields of business and political history. While the media frequently warns of the newfound power of business in the world of politics, the authors in this book demonstrate that business has mobilized to shape public policy and government institutions, as well as electoral outcomes, for decades. Rather than assuming that business influence is inevitable, the chapters explore the complex evolution of this relationship in a wide range of different arenas--from attempts to create a corporate-friendly tax policy and regulations that would work in the interests of particular industries, to local boosterism as a weapon against New Deal liberalism, to the nexus between evangelical Christianity and the oil industry, to the frustrations that business people felt in struggles with public interest groups. The history that emerges show business actors organizing themselves to affect government in myriad ways, sometimes successfully but other times with outcomes far different than they hoped for. The result in an image of American politics that is more complex and contested than it is often thought to be. The essays represent a new trend in scholarship on political economy, one that seeks to break down the barriers that once separated old subfields to offer a vision of the economy as shaped by politics and political life influenced by economic relationships.

A History Of Money

Author : Duncan Connors
ISBN : 9781783163113
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 84. 20 MB
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A History of Money looks at how money as we know it developed through time. Starting with the barter system, the basic function of exchanging goods evolved into a monetary system based on coins made up of precious metals and, from the 1500s onwards, financial systems were established through which money became intertwined with commerce and trade, to settle by the mid-1800s into a stable system based upon Gold. This book presents its closing argument that, since the collapse of the Gold Standard, the global monetary system has undergone constant crisis and evolution continuing into the present day.

Figuring Out The Tax

Author : Lawrence Zelenak
ISBN : 9781108381888
Genre : Law
File Size : 81. 54 MB
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Figuring Out the Tax recounts the forgotten early development of the federal income tax in the US, resulting from the interplay between Congress and the Treasury Department in the decades following the enactment of the tax in 1913. It covers a wide range of topics including the income tax treatments of marriage, capital losses, charitable contributions and homeownership, as well as the rise, demise and resurrection of income tax withholding. Lawrence Zelenak deftly illustrates how the income tax achieved its current form through a range of stories which are new to tax history scholarship and involve some remarkable personalities and surprising plot twists. Although of particular interest to tax academics and professionals, this book will also serve as a useful introduction to the development of income tax for undergraduate students and law students.

Freedom National The Destruction Of Slavery In The United States 1861 1865

Author : James Oakes
ISBN : 9780393065312
Genre : History
File Size : 37. 1 MB
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Traces the history of emancipation and its impact on the Civil War, discussing how Lincoln and the Republicans fought primarily for freeing slaves throughout the war, not just as a secondary objective in an effort to restore the union. 30,000 first printing.

The Great Transformation

Author : Karl Polanyi
ISBN : 9780807056431
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 61. 25 MB
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One of the twentieth century's most thorough and discerning historians, Karl Polanyi sheds "new illumination on . . . the social implications of a particular economic system, the market economy that grew into full stature in the nineteenth century." -R. M. MacIver

Providing For The Casualties Of War

Author : Bernard D. Rostker
ISBN : 9780833078193
Genre : Medical
File Size : 85. 42 MB
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War has always been a dangerous business, bringing injury, wounds, and death, and--until recently--often disease. What has changed over time, most dramatically in the last 150 or so years, is the care these casualties receive and who provides it. This book looks at the history of how humanity has cared for its war casualties and veterans, from ancient times through the aftermath of World War II.

Constitutionalism And The Separation Of Powers

Author : M. J. C. Vile
ISBN : 0865971757
Genre : Law
File Size : 67. 93 MB
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Arguably no political principle has been more central than the separation of powers to the evolution of constitutional governance in Western democracies. In the definitive work on the subject, M. J. C. Vile traces the history of the doctrine from its rise during the English Civil War, through its development in the eighteenth century—when it was indispensable to the founders of the American republic—through subsequent political thought and constitution-making in Britain, France, and the United States. The author concludes with an examination of criticisms of the doctrine by both behavioralists and centralizers—and with "A Model of a Theory of Constitutionalism." The new Liberty Fund second edition includes the entirety of the original 1967 text published by Oxford, a major epilogue entitled "The Separation of Powers and the Administrative State," and a bibliography. M. J. C. Vile is Professor of Politics at the University of Kent at Canterbury and author also of The Structure of American Federalism.

The Dynamics Of Social Welfare Policy

Author : Joel Blau
ISBN : 9780195385267
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 25. 78 MB
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The Dynamics of Social Welfare Policy reinvented the standard social welfare policy text to speak to students in a vital new way. As we enter a new political era, the third edition deploys its distinctive model of how policies develop to include an analysis of the social policy initiatives of the Obama administration. With more graphics, updated charts, sidebars to highlight main points, and definitions of all of the major policy terms, this third edition is the text that best explains the evolution of U.S. social policy from a conservative to a more progressive era. The book begins by discussing how social problems are constructed. After an analysis of social welfare policy, its purposes, and functions, a unique policy model bolsters the text's overarching progressive narrative. Through this model, students learn how five key social forces-ideology, politics, history, economics, and social movements-interact both to create and to change the social welfare system. By applying this model to five critical social welfare policy issues-income security, employment, housing, health, and food-the text demonstrates to students that every kind of social work practice embodies a social welfare policy. The model is also telling in identifying the triggers of social change and the effects of race, class, and gender. By applying the policy model to the latest developments in social welfare, the chapter-long case studies in this third edition equip students with knowledge about social welfare policy and the tools for comparative analysis. With this knowledge, students begin to understand that both the whole and the parts of the social welfare system affect what they actually do as social workers. The Dynamics of Social Welfare Policy, Third Edition captures the fluidity and change inherent in social policy like no other textbook. Its approach remains the most invigorating, forward-thinking one available. Highlights from this edition include: * The most recent information on the Obama administration's policy initiatives * Revised data in text, charts, and graphs show how government policies are proving the points made throughout the chapters * Exhaustive statistics are included about every major social program's budget, benefits, and participants * Key words section at the end of each chapter explains basic policy terminology * Sidebars, graphics, and study questions highlight the main points and ensure that every student understands the fundamental concepts in social welfare policy * Content and writing style are appropriate to both bachelor's- and master's-level programs

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