frontiers in clinical neuroscience

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Frontiers In Clinical Neuroscience

Author : Laszlo Vecsei
ISBN : 9781441989697
Genre : Medical
File Size : 69. 23 MB
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Dialogues In Music Therapy And Music Neuroscience Collaborative Understanding Driving Clinical Advances

Author : Julian O'Kelly
ISBN : 9782889451371
Genre :
File Size : 60. 70 MB
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Music is a complex, dynamic stimulus with an un-paralleled ability to stimulate a global network of neural activity involved in attention, emotion, memory, communication, motor co-ordination and cognition. As such, it provides neuroscience with a highly effective tool to develop our understanding of brain function, connectivity and plasticity. Increasingly sophisticated neuroimaging technologies have enabled the expanding field of music neuroscience to reveal how musical experience, perception and cognition may support neuroplasticity, with important implications for the rehabilitation and assessment of those with acquired brain injuries and neurodegenerative conditions. Other studies have indicated the potential for music to support arousal, attention and emotional regulation, suggesting therapeutic applications for conditions including ADHD, PTSD, autism, learning disorders and mood disorders. In common with neuroscience, the music therapy profession has advanced significantly in the past 20 years. Various interventions designed to address functional deficits and health care needs have been developed, alongside standardised behavioural assessments. Historically, music therapy has drawn its evidence base from a number of contrasting theoretical frameworks. Clinicians are now turning to neuroscience, which offers a unifying knowledge base and frame of reference to understand and measure therapeutic interventions from a biomedical perspective. Conversely, neuroscience is becoming more enriched by learning about the neural effects of ‘real world’ clinical applications in music therapy. While neuroscientific imaging methods may provide biomarking evidence for the efficacy of music therapy interventions it also offers important tools to describe time-locked interactive therapy processes and feeds into the emerging field of social neuroscience. Music therapy is bound to the process of creating and experiencing music together in improvisation, listening and reflection. Thus the situated cognition and experience of music developing over time and in differing contexts is of interest in time series data. We encouraged researchers to submit papers illustrating the mutual benefits of dialogue between music therapy and other disciplines important to this field, particularly neuroscience, neurophysiology, and neuropsychology. The current eBook consists of the peer reviewed responses to our call for papers.

The Hippocampus In Clinical Neuroscience

Author : K. Szabo
ISBN : 9783318025682
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 61. 41 MB
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The hippocampus is one of the most intriguing structures of the human brain. Damage to this part causes symptoms ranging from transient disorders accompanied by tiny lesions to severely debilitating cognitive disorders with marked tissue loss. This publication provides a predominantly clinical approach to the complex workings of the hippocampus from different perspectives, ranging from basic principles to specific diseases. The first part of the book summarizes current knowledge regarding the structure and physiology of the hippocampus and establishes the ties to basic neuroscience. The second part deals with the function and assessment of the human hippocampus, including memory function, neuropsychological measures, and conventional and functional imaging studies. The chapters of the third part are devoted to the hippocampus in neurological disorders, e.g. the interaction between stress and memory function, and the pathological conditions of common as well as selected rare neurological diseases affecting the hippocampus. The book is highly recommended to clinical neurologists who wish to gain a broad understanding of this complex and fascinating organ in terms of basic principles, modern imaging findings, and specific diseases.

New Advances In Electrocochleography For Clinical And Basic Investigation

Author : Jeffery T. Lichtenhan
ISBN : 9782889455041
Genre :
File Size : 81. 23 MB
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Electrocochleography (ECochG) is an approach for objective measurements of physiologic responses from the inner ear. Measurements have classically been made from electrodes placed in the outer ear canal, on the tympanic membrane, the round window niche, or inside the cochlea. Recent innovations have led to ECochG being used for exciting new purposes that drive clinical practice and contribute to the basic understanding of inner ear physiology. Cochlear implant recording electrodes can monitor the preservation of residual, low-frequency acoustic hearing, both in the operating room and post-operatively. ECochG measurements can quantify differential effects of inner ear surgery or other manipulations on vestibular and auditory physiology simultaneously. Various attributes of cognitive neuroscience can be addressed with ECochG measurements from the auditory periphery. These advances in ECochG provide a way to understand a variety of inner ear diseases and are likely to be of value to many groups in their own clinical and basic research.

Decision Neuroscience

Author : Jean-Claude Dreher
ISBN : 9780128053317
Genre : Medical
File Size : 53. 99 MB
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Decision Neuroscience addresses fundamental questions about how the brain makes perceptual, value-based, and more complex decisions in non-social and social contexts. This book presents compelling neuroimaging, electrophysiological, lesional, and neurocomputational models in combination with hormonal and genetic approaches, which have led to a clearer understanding of the neural mechanisms behind how the brain makes decisions. The five parts of the book address distinct but inter-related topics and are designed to serve both as classroom introductions to major subareas in decision neuroscience and as advanced syntheses of all that has been accomplished in the last decade. Part I is devoted to anatomical, neurophysiological, pharmacological, and optogenetics animal studies on reinforcement-guided decision making, such as the representation of instructions, expectations, and outcomes; the updating of action values; and the evaluation process guiding choices between prospective rewards. Part II covers the topic of the neural representations of motivation, perceptual decision making, and value-based decision making in humans, combining neurcomputational models and brain imaging studies. Part III focuses on the rapidly developing field of social decision neuroscience, integrating recent mechanistic understanding of social decisions in both non-human primates and humans. Part IV covers clinical aspects involving disorders of decision making that link together basic research areas including systems, cognitive, and clinical neuroscience; this part examines dysfunctions of decision making in neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, behavioral addictions, and focal brain lesions. Part V focuses on the roles of various hormones (cortisol, oxytocin, ghrelin/leptine) and genes that underlie inter-individual differences observed with stress, food choices, and social decision-making processes. The volume is essential reading for anyone interested in decision making neuroscience. With contributions that are forward-looking assessments of the current and future issues faced by researchers, Decision Neuroscience is essential reading for anyone interested in decision-making neuroscience. Provides comprehensive coverage of approaches to studying individual and social decision neuroscience, including primate neurophysiology, brain imaging in healthy humans and in various disorders, and genetic and hormonal influences on decision making Covers multiple levels of analysis, from molecular mechanisms to neural-systems dynamics and computational models of how we make choices Discusses clinical implications of process dysfunctions, including schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, eating disorders, drug addiction, and pathological gambling Features chapters from top international researchers in the field and full-color presentation throughout with numerous illustrations to highlight key concepts

Frontiers Of Neurology

Author : Donald J. Reis
ISBN : STANFORD:36105023145076
Genre : Medical
File Size : 81. 76 MB
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This volume comprises contributions by former trainees of Dr. Fred Plum and present faculty in his Department of Neurology and Neuroscience at Cornell University and Medical College, all of whom have achieved prominence in clinical neurology and/or neuroscience. The proceedings focus on recent research in the field, including developmental, molecular, cellular, and systems neuroscience relevant to stroke, demyelinating and degenerative diseases (notably, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's), pain epilepsy, neuro-oncology, neuro-imaging, sensory processing, disorders of skeletal muscle, cerebrovascular regulation, and cognition.

Following Charcot

Author : Julien Bogousslavsky
ISBN : 9783805595568
Genre : Medical
File Size : 55. 1 MB
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Jean-Martin Charcot, the iconic 19th century French scientist, is still regarded today as the most famous and celebrated neurologist in the world. Despite the development of strong independent schools of thought in the USA, UK and Germany, his 'Salpêtrière' school has become symbolic of the early development and rise of neurological practice and research. This book presents a fresh look at the origins of nervous system medicine, and at the fate of Charcot's school and pupils. Special emphasis is placed upon the parallels and interactions between developments in neurology and mental medicine, clearly demonstrating that Charcot is not only the father of clinical neurology, but also wielded enormous influence upon the field we would come to know as psychiatry. Providing new insights into the life and work of Charcot and his pupils, this book will make fascinating reading for neurologists, psychiatrists, physicians and historians.

Mental Practice Clinical And Experimental Research In Imagery And Action Observation

Author : Magdalena Ietswaart
ISBN : 9782889198399
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File Size : 36. 37 MB
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There is now strong evidence demonstrating that the brain simulates action and other functions. Such action simulation can be evoked through conscious mental rehearsal of movement or imagery, but also through passive action observation watching movements in others. Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that mental rehearsal of movement, or mental practice, can produce improvements normally attributed to practising actual movements. It is currently assumed that such improvements are due to neural activation associated with action simulation. However the neuroscience of mental practice efficacy is still poorly understood. The aim of this research topic is to clarify the underlying mechanisms of mental practice, bringing evidence from cognitive neuroscience, experimental neuropsychology, sport and movement science, and clinical neurology. It also attempts to address confusion regarding the concepts of imagery and observation, which has hampered the progression of mental practice research both scientifically and applied. As well as reviews, theoretical, and position articles, this research topic includes original neuroimaging, experimental, and patient research addressing, among others, the following issues. Neuroimaging studies provide strong evidence for action simulation, but the link to behavioural change and functional outcome is weak. What is the evidence that mental practice efficacy is driven by neuroplasticity processes evoked by action simulation? This research topic includes contributions on neural correlates and behaviour with regards to imagery and action observation. Much of the mental practice efficacy evidence comes from longstanding research within sport science. However, what does mental practice entail in these contexts, and to what extent is it compatible with the cognitive neuroscience perspective of action simulation? This research topic will include contributions that consider both evidence and concepts with regards to imagery and action observation, in an attempt to build an interdisciplinary consensus on the nature and application of mental practice. Mental practice is perceived as a promising motor rehabilitation technique, but critically there is lack of clarity or consensus on what mental practice treatment should entail. It is also not clear what are the most appropriate outcomes to measure imagery ability and cognitive or behavioural change following mental practice. A further important issue that needs consideration as part of this research topic is dosage, as it is currently unclear how much mental practice is appropriate and whether this depends on patient variables such as age, cognitive functioning, motor function, or pathophysiology.

Frontiers In Clinical Drug Research Alzheimer Disorders

Author : Atta-ur-Rahman
ISBN : 9781681082318
Genre : Science
File Size : 23. 76 MB
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Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research - Alzheimer Disorders is an e-Book series which covers recent topics related to understanding Alzheimer's disease (AD) that causes dementia and has a neurodegenerative effect on the brain. The disease affects memory, thought process, and language of affected individuals. Chapters in each volume focus on (Alzheimer Disorders) drug research with special emphasis on clinical trials, research on drugs in advanced stages of development and cure for Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research - Alzheimer Disorders will be of particular interest to readers interested in drug therapy of this specific neurodegenerative condition and related brain disorders as the series provides relevant reviews written by experts in field of Alzheimer’s Disease research. The fifth volume of this series features chapters covering critical discussions on AD management and new therapies. The topics reviewed in this volume include: - Current concepts in management of AD - The amyloid cascade hypothesis and stem cell-based AD therapy - Phytochemicals targeting AD - Dementia screening in primary clinical care settings - Updates in dementia / AD clinical research and drug development

Neurobiology Of Sensation And Reward

Author : Jay A. Gottfried
ISBN : 9781420067293
Genre : Science
File Size : 52. 70 MB
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Synthesizing coverage of sensation and reward into a comprehensive systems overview, Neurobiology of Sensation and Reward presents a cutting-edge and multidisciplinary approach to the interplay of sensory and reward processing in the brain. While over the past 70 years these areas have drifted apart, this book makes a case for reuniting sensation and reward by highlighting the important links and interface between the two. Emphasizing the role of reward in reinforcing behaviors, the book begins with an exploration of the history, ecology, and evolution of sensation and reward. Progressing through the five senses, contributors explore how the brain extracts information from sensory cues. The chapter authors examine how different animal species predict rewards, thereby integrating sensation and reward in learning, focusing on effects in anatomy, physiology, and behavior. Drawing on empirical research, contributors build on the themes of the book to present insights into the human sensory rewards of perfume, art, and music, setting the scene for further cross-disciplinary collaborations that bridge the neurobiological interface between sensation and reward.

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