general organic and biological chemistry structures of life 4th edition

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General Organic And Biological Chemistry

Author : Karen C. Timberlake
ISBN : 0321967461
Genre : Education
File Size : 89. 5 MB
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NOTE: You are purchasing a standalone product; MasteringChemistry does not come packaged with this content If you would like to purchase MasteringChemistry search for ISBN-10:03219669291/ISBN-13: 9780321966926. That package includes ISBN-10: 0133858413/ISBN-13: 9780133858419 and ISBN-10: 0321967461/ISBN-13: 9780321967466. General, Organic, and Biological chemistry (2-semester). Give allied health students the chemistry they and when they need it! Designed to prepare students for health-related careers, General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life breaks chemical concepts and problem solving into clear, manageable pieces, ensuring students follow along and stay motivated throughout their first, and often only, chemistry course. Karen Timberlake's friendly writing style, student focus, vetted and refined clinical chemistry problems, and engaging health-related applications help today's students make connections between chemistry and their intended careers as they develop the problem-solving skills they'll need beyond the classroom. The Fifth Edition fully integrates the text with MasteringChemistry to provide an interactive and engaging experience. New Construct a Concept Map activities help students connect ideas through video solutions and live demonstrations, while the text and media establish a clinical focus that ties chemistry directly to allied health. Instructors can also assign MasteringChemistry's new Dynamic Study Modules, which enable students to remediate core math and chemistry skills outside of class, freeing professors to focus on GOB Chemistry concepts and problem solving during class. Also available with MasteringChemistry MasteringChemistry from Pearson is the leading online homework, tutorial, and assessment system, designed to improve results by engaging students before, during, and after class with powerful content. Instructors ensure students arrive ready to learn by assigning educationally effective content before class, and encourage critical thinking and retention with in-class resources such as Learning Catalytics. Students can further master concepts after class through traditional and adaptive homework assignments that provide hints and answer-specific feedback. The Mastering gradebook records scores for all automatically graded assignments in one place, while diagnostic tools give instructors access to rich data to assess student understanding and misconceptions. Mastering brings learning full circle by continuously adapting to each student and making learning more personal than ever-before, during, and after class.

General Organic And Biological Chemistry 4th Ed Karen C Timberlake 2013

Author : Pearson Education, Inc
Genre : Science
File Size : 68. 34 MB
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Welcome to the fourth edition of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life. This chemistry text was written and designed to help you prepare for a career in a health-related profession, such as nursing, dietetics, respiratory therapy, and environmental and agricultural science. This text assumes no prior knowledge of chemistry. My main objective in writing this text is to make the study of chemistry an engaging and positive experience for you by relating the structure and behavior of matter to its role in health and the environment. This new edition introduces more problem-solving strategies, including new Concept Checks, more problem-solving guides, new Analyze the Problem features, conceptual and challenge problems, and new sets of combined problems. It is also my goal to encourage you become a critical thinker by understanding the scientific concepts with current issues concerning health and the environment. Thus, I have utilized materials that • motivate you to learn and enjoy chemistry • relate chemistry to careers that interest you • develop problem-solving skills that lead to your success in chemistry • promote your learning and success in your chosen career I hope that this textbook helps you discover exciting new ideas and gives you a rewarding Â�experience as you develop an understanding and appreciation of the role of chemistry in your life. New for the Fourth Edition New features have been added throughout this fourth edition, including the following: • All new chapter openers provide engaging stories that illustrate how Chemistry is used daily in contemporary professions. • New Analyze the Problem feature illustrates how to break down a word problem into the components required to solve a problem. • A new Chapter 1, Chemistry and Measurements, offers a comprehensive overview of introductory Chemistry and a study plan for learning the fundamentals. • Learning Goals are now included at the end of each chapter section with Questions and Problems to reinforce student retention of the main concepts. • Problems with high difficulty in MasteringChemistry were moved to the Challenge Problems sections or revised, while problems that received low assign values from professors nationwide were rewritten and improved to better support student learning throughout the course. Additionally, over 30 new tutorials specific to this text including activities incorporating Concept Maps will be available with Â�MasteringChemistry for the Fourth Edition. • Two new types of interest boxes, Chemistry Link to Industry and Chemistry Link to History, demonstrate connections between the chemical concepts and real events, then and now. • New Guides to Problem Solving include Using Concentration to Calculate Mass or Volume, Using Density, Writing Formulas with Polyatomic Ions, Using Half- Lives, Drawing Electron-Dot Formulas, Determination of Polarity of a Molecule, and Â�Calculating the Molar Mass of a Gas. • Chapter Reviews now include bulleted lists and thumbnail art samples related to the content of each section. • Statements in Guides to Problem Solving were rewritten and matched to steps of the corresponding Sample Problems. • Problems were rewritten and added to give matched sets of problems for each odd number and its following even number. Chapter-by-Chapter Changes to the Fourth Edition Chapter 1, “Chemistry and Measurements,” now introduces students to the concepts of chemicals and chemistry and asks students to develop a study plan for learning chemistry. Students learn measurement and the need to understand numerical structures of the metric system in the sciences. • The Chemistry Link to Health, “Bone Density,” has been updated to discuss changes in bone density with age and is now included in Chapter 1. • New Guide to Problem Solving, “Using Density,” uses color blocks as visual guides in the step-by-step solution pathway. • Content in Scientific Notation was rewritten to clarify the coefficient and the power of 10. • New photos added that include the standard kilogram, mass of a nickel, a virus, and ophthalmologist. • New material identifies exact and measured numbers and their significant figures within equalities and conversion factors. • New Sample Problem on percent body fat illustrates the use of a percent conversion factor as an equality and the formation of conversion factors. • New numbers added to Study Checks to match the Sample Problem numbers. • New problems added and problems paired to obtain similar content and questions. • More emphasis on metric (SI) units and removed some problems that used U.S. system units. Chapter 2, “Energy and Matter,” now looks at energy, temperature, classification of matter, states of matter, physical and chemical changes, and nutritional energy values. • The Chemistry Link to the Environment updates the content of “Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming.” • New Guide to Problem Solving, “Calculating Temperature,” was added. • New macro-to-micro art emphasizes the atomic level of compounds and changes of state. • New problems relating the burning of fuel to product Â�energy to light a light bulb were added while problems with heat of fusion, heat of vaporization, and multiple step calculations were deleted. Chapter 3, “Atoms and Elements,” looks at elements, atoms, subatomic particles, and atomic mass. The Periodic Table Â�emphasizes the numbering of groups from 1–18. • New element name and symbol Copernicium, Cn, was added to the periodic table. • New atomic number 117 was added to the periodic table. • New Chemistry Link to Industry, “Many Forms of Carbon,” was added, which describes four forms of carbon: diamond, graphite, buckminsterfullerene, and nanotubes. • New Chemistry Link to Health, “Elements Essential to Health,” was added, which describes the essential elements in an adult and the position of each on the periodic table. • New column added in Table 3.8, “Most Prevalent Isotope.” • New shapes of d orbitals added to Shapes of Orbitals. • Material on mass number in Section 3.4 was rewritten. • New Metallic Character text added to Section 3.8, Trends in Periodic Properties. • New problems added that compare metallic character of elements. • New summary of Trends in Periodic Properties added for valence electrons, atomic radius, ionization energy, and metallic character from top to bottom of a group and going left to right in a period. Chapter 4, “Nuclear Chemistry,” extends the concepts of subatomic particles, atomic number, and atomic mass to a discussion of the nucleus of radioisotopes including the positron. Nuclear equations are written and balanced for both naturally occurring and artificially produced radioisotopes. The topic of biological Â�effects of radiation is part of the chapter content. • New column “Type of Radiation” added to Â�Tables 4.7 and 4.8. • Increased the number of radioisotopes in Table 4.8. • New problems added on measuring activity of a radioisotope, positron equation balancing, and positron decay. • Updated to full symbols using mass number and atomic number in Sample Problems for balancing nuclear equations. • Updated art including alpha and beta radiation. • Placed bombarding particles at the beginning of nuclear equations involving bombardment. Chapter 5, “Compounds and Their Bonds,” describes how Â�atoms form ionic and covalent bonds in compounds. Students learn to write chemical formulas and to name ionic compounds—Â� including those with polyatomic ions—and covalent compounds. Students are introduced to the three-dimensional shape of molecules. The discussion of polyatomic ions, which includes more polyatomic ions, follows the formation of ionic compounds. The concept of resonance is discussed for the electron-dot formulas for compounds with multiple bonds. Electronegativity, bond polarity, and the shapes of molecules are discussed. Attractive Forces in Compounds compares the attractive forces between particles and their impact on physical properties and changes of state. • Updated/added Concept Checks to clarify understanding of concepts for problem solving including “Drawing Electron-Dot Formulas” and “Using Electronegativity to Determine the Polarity of Bonds.” • Revised Formation of Ions to emphasize the stability of electron configurations. • Updated/added art in ionic compounds with new colors for Na, Cl, Mg, and S, and to illustrate dispersion forces between two nonpolar molecules • Added more transition elements and their charges to Â�Table 5.5. • Reorganized polarity of molecules by presenting nonpolar molecules followed by polar molecules. • New guides “Writing Formulas with Polyatomic Ions,” “Determination of Polarity of a Molecule,” and “Drawing Electron-Dot Formulas,” were added. • New table “Typical Bonding Patterns of Some Nonmetals in Covalent Compounds” was added. • The discussion of exceptions to bonding patterns now Â�includes models of BCl3 and SF6. • Identification of molecular shape now emphasizes Â�electron-group geometry. • New wedge–dash notation was added to three-dimensional structures of methane and ammonia. Chapter 6, “Chemical Reactions and Quantities,” includes balancing chemical equations and classifying reaction types as combination, decomposition, single and double replacement, and combustion reactions. Calculations include the use of the mole, molar mass, and equation coefficients for problem solving involving mole and mass calculations for chemical reactions. • Updated colors for atoms of H, C, O, and N in models of compounds undergoing reactions. • New combustion reactions are now included in types of reactions. New problems were added for combustion to Questions and Problems. • New number line added to illustrate direction of change in oxidation or reduction. • Rewrote discussion of Oxidation and Reduction in Â�Biological Systems to relate Â�addition of O, loss of H, and loss of electrons to reduction with gain of H, loss of O, or gain of electrons. • New Concept Check, “Calculating Percent Yield,” was added. • Rewrote limiting reactant problems to improve success in problem solving. • Added list, “Three Conditions Required for a Reaction to Occur.” • Added tutorials include “Classifying Chemical Reactions by What Atoms Do,” “Signs of a Chemical Reaction,” “Limiting Reactant and Yield: Mole Calculations,” Â�“Limiting Reactant and Yield: Mass Calculations,” and “The Mole as a Counting Unit.” • Added “draw the formulas of reactants and products” to problems with visual reactants and products. • Added “predict products” of reactions to help students identify formation of products. Chapter 7, “Gases,” discusses the properties of a gas and asks the student to calculate changes in gases using the gas laws Â�including the Ideal Gas Law. • New/added Concept Checks for each of the gas laws and molar volume provide a conceptual transition between text information and problem solving. • New guide “Calculating the Molar Mass of a Gas” was added. • New gas properties that remain constant are now Â�included in gas Sample Problem solutions. • Gas problems were added that relate to real world gases or gas mixtures. Chapter 8, “Solutions,” describes solutions, solubility, saturation, concentrations, insoluble salts, and colligative properties. New problem-solving strategies clarify the use of concentration conversion factors to determine the volume of solution or mass of solute. The volumes and molarities of solutions are used to calculate product quantities in chemical reactions as well as in dilutions and titrations. • Combined percent concentrations and molarity in Â�Section 8.4 to give standard format for concentration calculations. • New table “Summary of Types of Concentration Expressions and Their Units” clarifies the types of units in percent concentrations and molarity. • New Sample Problem for volume/volume percent concentration was added. • New guide “Using Concentration to Calculate Mass or Volume,” was added. • New Explore Your World activity, “Preparing Rock Candy,” for students to experience an everyday saturated solution was added. • Placed dilution in a separate Section 8.5 “Dilution of Â�Solutions and Solution Reactions” that applies dilution to both percent and molarity solutions. • New Concept Check about freezing point changes was added. • New material and photo of the Alaskan Upis beetle that produces biological antifreeze to survive subfreezing environment. • Updated/added tables on concentration factors that combine percent and molarity, organize solution problem data, and identify the type of solution as well as updated the table “Solubility Rules for Ionic Solids in Water.” • New material was added on the function of electrolytes in the cells and organs of the body, Pedialyte, and the Â�impact of solute dissociation on freezing point lowering and boiling point elevation. Chapter 9, “Chemical Equilibrium,” looks at the rates of reactions and the equilibrium condition when forward and reverse rates for a reaction become equal. Equilibrium expressions for reactions are written and equilibrium constants are calculated. Le Châtelier’s principle is used to evaluate the impact on concentrations when a stress is placed on the system • New photo added to content and Sample Problems that illustrate a biological example of enzymes (catalysts) in laundry detergents. • Rewrote several problems to guide students through equilibrium concentration. • Converted old Figures 9.9 and 9.10 to unnumbered art and updated to show correct proportions of reactants and products at equilibrium. • Rewrote and updated Concept Checks and Sample Problems about concentration changes and equilibrium mixtures. • Moved old Figure 9.8 of SO2 and O2 to Section 9.2 to Â�illustrate reversible reactions and updated for more visuals on forward and reverse reactions reaching equilibrium. • Revised Section 9.5 to be more qualitative and less quantitative and added content on the effect of volume changes on equilibrium systems. • New art was added to illustrate Le Châtelier’s Principle to show how adding water to one side of two connected water tanks reaches equilibrium, how addition of reactant places stress on an equilibrium system and how the system responds to reduce stress, and how a container shows shifts in equilibrium conditions when the piston increases or decreases volume. Chapter 10, “Acids and Bases,” discusses acids and bases, Brønsted– Lowry acids and bases, and conjugate acid–base pairs. The dissociation of strong and weak acids and bases is related to their strengths as acids or bases. The ionization of water leads to the ionproduct constant of water, Kw, the pH scale, and the calculation of pH. Chemical equations for acids in reactions are balanced and titration of an acid is illustrated. Buffers are discussed along with their role in the blood. • New Concept Check and photo illustrates the ionization of calcium hydroxide in the preparation of hominy and grits. • New molecular models added to show atoms in carbonic acid, hydrogen carbonate, and carbonate ions, and atoms in formic acid and formate ion were added to illustrate their structures. • New photos added to show use of calcium carbonate added to farm crops to reduce acidity of the soil, the chemical Â�reaction of sodium bicarbonate with an acid and the products of carbon dioxide and a salt, calcium hydroxide as lime and dental filler, and how low dissociation of HF illustrates that hydrofluoric acid is a weak acid. • New art illustrates the parietal cells in the lining of the stomach that secrete gastric acid HCl in Chemistry Link to Health. • New guide “Calculating 3H3O+4 from pH” was added. • New list compares the effect of different ratios of 3H2PO4 - 4 > 3HPO4 2-4 on pH. Chapter 11, “Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes,” discusses the structure, nomenclature, and reactions of Â�alkanes. Guides to Problem Solving (GPS) clarify the rules for Â�nomenclature. The chapter provides an overview of each family of organic compounds and their functional groups and forms a Â�basis for understanding the biomolecules of living systems. • Information on oil spills was updated to include recent British Petroleum oil spill. • Updated colors for atoms of H, C, O, and N in models of compounds undergoing reactions. • New representations of atoms with updated colors were added to Table 11.8. • Updated and simplified the section and problems associated with Naming of Alkanes with Substituents. • Converted Sample Problem 11.3 to Concept Check 11.4 to provide more detail on how to distinguish between structural formulas that are isomers or the same molecule. • Updated the discussion of melting and boiling points of alkanes by adding analogies and photos of licorice sticks and tennis balls to illustrate impact of contact points on boiling points differences of straight-chain Â�alkanes and branched alkanes. • Changed Sample Problem 11.8 to Concept Check 11.7 in which students isolate functional groups in compounds and classify each class of compound. • Rewrote and highlighted functional groups in various classes of organic compounds to help students identify a group of atoms that is a functional group on an alkane chain. Chapter 12, “Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds,” Â�discusses alkenes and alkynes, cis–trans isomers, addition reactions, polymers of alkenes found in everyday items, and aromatic compounds. • Alkene examples were added to introductory paragraph. • Bond angles were added in illustration of alkene and Â�alkyne structures. • Added skeletal formulas to the table of alkanes, Â�alkenes, and alkynes, and added reactions for alkenes and alkynes. • Changed instruction from write to draw a condensed structural formula. • Color screens were added to Sample Problem 12.1 to clarify “Naming Alkenes and Alkynes.” • Rewrote material in Section 12.2 to highlight cis and trans positions of groups attached to carbons and double bonds and discussion of benzene structure stability. • New Concept Check 12.3, “Converting Formulas of Â�Alkenes to Cis and Trans Isomers,” illustrates how to draw groups in cis and trans isomers. • Added photos and formulas of aromatic compounds Chapter 13, “Alcohols, Phenols, Ethers, and Thiols,” Â�discusses structures, names, properties, and reactions of alcohols, phenols, thiols, and ethers. • New skeletal formulas for alcohols and ethers were added and the naming of alcohols was simplified. • Changed instruction from write to draw a condensed structural formula. • Moved classification of alcohols to Section 13.3. • Updated the “Guide to Naming Alcohols.” • New color screens were added to Sample Problems that named alcohols and phenols and IUPAC naming of ethers. • Rewrote Sample Problem 13.4, “Isomers of Alcohols and Ethers” including Study Check. • Reorganized Table 13.1 to include solubility and boiling points of some typical alcohols and ethers and to include the number of carbon atoms and condensed structural formula with up to five carbon atoms. • New Chemistry Link to Health, “Hand Sanitizers and Ethanol,” has been added. • Updated art in Oxidation of Alcohols to include level of oxidation of secondary alcohols. • New colors for H and O atoms involved in oxidation and reduction were used. Chapter 14, “Aldehydes, Ketones, and Chiral Molecules,” discusses the nomenclature and structures of aldehydes and Â�ketones. The discussion of Fischer projections, chiral molecules, and mirror images prepares students for the discussions on carbohydrates in Chapter 15. • New skeletal formulas for aldehydes and ketones were added. • Rewrote Sample Problem 14.3, “Boiling Point and Solubility.” • New problems on Tollens’ and Benedict’s reagents were added. • New glucose example was added to Chemistry Link to Health, “Some Important Aldehydes and Ketones.” • IUPAC names used for alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones in addition reactions. • Rewrote content on Drawing Fischer Projections and addition reactions that form hemiacetals and acetals. • New photos and mirror images for ibuprofen and naproxen were added. Chapter 15, “Carbohydrates,” applies the organic chemistry of alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones to carbohydrates, which relates the study of chemistry to health and medicine. • New art includes photo of iodine test for starch. • Converted green spheres in types of carbohydrates to more representative hexagon shapes. • Converted all CHO groups at top of Fischer projections to C“O and Hi. • Rewrote the descriptions of the glycosidic bonds in monosaccharides, the definitions of anomers and anomeric carbons, and Fischer projections for clarity. • Converted all open-chain structures to Fischer projections. • New discussion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) was included. • Updated Guide to Problem Solving and discussion in Sample Problem for “Drawing Haworth Structures.” • New color coding of iOH groups in open-chain and Haworth structures of d-glucose and of O in Â�carbonyl groups and free hydroxyl group to highlight differences in alpha and beta anomers of monosaccharides. • Described mutarotation for all the monosaccharides and disaccharides maltose and lactose. • Highlighted hemiacetal and acetal linkage in monosaccharides and disaccharides along with iOH groups in Â�alpha and beta anomers. • Ionized the structure of aspartame sweetener. • Rewrote Chemistry Link to Health, “Blood Types and Carbohydrates,” to clarify blood types and antigens. Chapter 16, “Carboxylic Acids and Esters,” discusses two more of the organic families that are important in biochemical systems. The chemical reactions discussed are most applicable to reactions in biochemical systems. • Updated art with proper atom colors of H, O, and C. • Rewrote “Guide to Naming Carboxylic Acids.” • New skeletal formulas and color-coded screens were added to Sample Problem 16.1, “Naming Carboxylic Acids.” • New photos of acetic acid crystals, facial with lactic acid, willow tree (aspirin), fingernail polish, aspirin, Â�Dacron clothing, grapes, strawberries, and raspberries were added. • Reworked naming for esters and turned all ester formulas to place acyl portion first. • New color coding screens were added to Sample Problem 16.6, “Naming Esters.” • New problems for structural isomers of carboxylic acids and esters were added. Chapter 17, “Lipids,” contains the functional groups of alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones in larger molecules such as triacylglycerols, glycerophospholipids, and steroids. • Updated melting points of fatty acids. • New Table 17.3 now compares similarities of organic and lipid reactions of esterification, hydrogenation, Â�hydrolysis, and saponification. • Redesigned the art for the structure of a glycerophospholipid. • New discussion of snake venom, which contains phospholipases, was added. • Updated/added art on the olestra structure and adrenal glands and kidneys. • Replaced Figure 17.10 with new art for lipoprotein transport of HDLs and LDLs Added new material in Chemistry Link to Health, Â�“Converting Unsaturated Fats to Saturated Fats: Â�Hydrogenation and Interesterification” and added a new Chemistry Link to Health, “Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome.” Chapter 18, “Amines and Amides,” emphasizes the nitrogen atom in their functional groups and their names. Alkaloids are discussed as the naturally occurring amines in plants. • Updated the “Guide to the IUPAC Naming of Amines.” • Rewrote Naming Compounds with Two Functional Groups to include names of amino substituents in alcohols, ketones, and carboxylic acid. • New tables added on summarizing the priority of naming in molecules with two functional groups and comparing melting points of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines. • New guide, “Naming Compounds with Two Functional Groups,” was added. • New Sample Problem, “IUPAC Names for Compounds with Two Functional Groups,” was added. • New photos include indigo related to aniline, Benadryl product for antihistamines, and Neo-Synephrine product. • New models of amines showing number of hydrogen bonds between molecules of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines and showing the number of hydrogen bonds for solubility of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines in water. • New section written on the role of amines in Neurotransmitters. • New art on structures of neurotransmitters and over-thecounter products. • New Questions and Problems and Additional Problems written on neurotransmitters. Chapter 19, “Amino Acids and Proteins,” discusses amino Â�acids, formation of proteins, structural levels of proteins, hydrolysis, and denaturation of proteins. • New one-letter abbreviations for amino acids were added to Table 19.2 and in problems. • New list of amino acids, R groups, polarity, and behavior in water was added. • Amino acids now drawn with bond line to H from a-C, and bond line from H to N. • Reactions of zwitterions in acids and bases are now separated into two equations. • Ammonium groups and carboxylate groups in amino Â�acids are now color coded. • New guide “Drawing a Peptide” has been added. • New Table 19.7 “Protein Denaturation” has been added. • Updated artwork of a prion to show both normal and Â�abnormal protein structures. • Updated myoglobin and hemoglobin structures to ribbon models. • New art added including ribbon models of proteins, structures of pentapeptide met-enkephalin, and ball-andstick models for some amino acids. Chapter 20, “Enzymes and Vitamins,” relates the importance of the three-dimensional shape of proteins to their function as Â�enzymes. The shape of an enzyme and its substrate is a factor in enzyme regulation. End products of an enzyme-catalyzed Â�sequence can increase or decrease the rate of an enzyme-Â� catalyzed reaction. Proteins change shape and lose function when subjected to pH changes and high temperatures. The Â�important role of water-soluble vitamins as coenzymes is Â�related to enzyme function. • Changed equation for carbonic anhydrase to CO2 + H2OhHCO3 - + H+. • Combined art of enzyme with new pullout art to give more detail of active site. • Added Enzyme–Product complex (EP complex) to Â�enzyme-catalyzed reactions. • New art added for enzyme-catalyzed reactions includes EP complex, enzymes using ribbon models to show Â�active site with substrate, and proenzymes of proteases. • New emphasis on the dynamic induced-fit model of substrate and active site. • Classification of Enzymes and Names was moved from Section 20.1 to Section 20.2 and shortened. Chapter 21, “Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis,” describes the nucleic acids and their importance as biomolecules that store and direct information for cellular components, growth, and reproduction. The role of complementary base pairing is highlighted in both DNA replication and the formation of mRNA during protein synthesis. Discussions include the Â�genetic code, its relationship to the order of amino acids in a protein, and how mutations can occur when the nucleotide sequence is altered. Recombinant DNA and viruses are also discussed. • New Table 21.1 summarizes the components in DNA and RNA; Table 21.6 summarizes steps in protein synthesis, site and materials, and process; and Table 21.7 summarizes the nucleotide and amino acid sequences in protein synthesis. • Section 21.3 now includes work of Rosalind Franklin on the DNA double helix. Chapter 22, “Metabolic Pathways for Carbohydrates,” Â�describes the stages of metabolism and the digestion of carbohydrates, our most important fuel. The breakdown of glucose to pyruvate is described using the glycolytic pathway, which is followed under aerobic conditions by the decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. The synthesis of glycogen and the synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources are discussed. • Updated Figure 22.1 for stages of metabolism, Figure 22.3 for ATP structure, Figure 22.4 using color blocks to show ADP + Pi forms ATP, and Figure 22.10 to use color blocks for ATP in glycolysis • New tables added to summarize enzymes and coenzymes in metabolic reactions: “Characteristics of Oxidation and Reduction in Metabolic Pathways” (Table 22.2) and Â�“Enzymes and Coenzymes in Metabolic Reactions” Â�(Table 22.3). • New color-coded art was added for structures of NAD and FAD in Figures 22.5 and 22.6. • New art in Figure 22.12 adds glucose structures for reactions for glycogenesis. Chapter 23, “Metabolic Pathways and Energy Production,” looks at the entry of acetyl-CoA into the citric acid cycle and the production of reduced coenzymes for electron transport, oxidative phosphorylation, and the synthesis of ATP. • Updated Figure 23.1 with new coding for components of citric acid cycle, Figure 23.3 to use same colors for components of the citric acid cycle, and Figures 23.5 and 23.7 to include complex notations and model of ATP synthase. • New overall equation at Complex I written as NADH + H+ + CoQhCoQH2 + NAD+. • Structure for oxidation/reduction of CoQ/CoQH2 now Â�included in Complex I discussion. • New ribbon model for cytochrome c was added. • Updated ATP formation at F1 and Fo ATP synthase sites. • Updated color screens for NADH, FADH2, and ATP. Chapter 24, “Metabolic Pathways for Lipids and Amino Acids,” discusses the digestion of lipids and proteins and the metabolic pathways that convert fatty acids and amino acids into energy. Discussions include the conversion of excess carbohydrates to triacylglycerols in adipose tissue and how the intermediates of the citric acid cycle are converted to nonessential amino acids. • Rewrote Mobilization of Fat Stores as Utilization of Fat Stores. • Updated discussion for Transport of Fatty Acids. • New chemical equations added for b-oxidation with the discussion of Reactions 1, 2, 3, and 4. • Replaced vertical representation of b-oxidation. • Changed fatty acids to give different fatty acids in text and in Questions and Problems. • Updated Figure 24.4 with new color coding for components of b-oxidation of capric acid and Figure 24.10 for carbon atoms from degraded amino acids. • Updated color screens for NADH, FADH2, and ATP. • New ribbon model of leptin added to Chemistry Link to Health, “Stored Fat and Obesity.” • Updated colors in Figures 24.8 and 24.12 to be consistent with earlier art of metabolic cycles. Instructional Package General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, fourth edition, provides an integrated teaching and learning package of support material for both students and professors. For Students Study Guide╇╇ for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, fourth edition, by Karen Timberlake. This manual is keyed to the learning goals in the text, and designed to promote active learning through a variety of exercises with answers as well as practice tests. (ISBN 0321767020) Selected Solutions Manual╇╇ for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, fourth edition, by Mark Quirie. This manual contains the complete solutions to the oddnumbered problems. (ISBN 0321767039) MasteringChemistry® (╇ ╇ The most advanced, most widely used online chemistry tutorial and homework program is available for the fourth edition of General, Â�Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life. Â�MasteringChemistry® utilizes the Socratic Method to coach students through problem-solving techniques, offering hints, and simpler questions on request to help students learn, not just practice. A powerful gradebook with diagnostics that gives instructors unprecedented insight into their students’ learning is also available. For the Fourth Edition, 30 new tutorials have been created to guide students through the most challenging General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry topics and help them make connections between different concepts. Pearson eText╇╇ Pearson eText offers students the power to create notes, highlight text in different colors, create bookmarks, zoom, and view single or multiple pages. Â�Access to the Pearson eText for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, fourth edition, is available for purchase Â�either as a stand-alone item (ISBN 0321768701) or within MasteringChemistry® (ISBN 0321638697). Media Icons╇╇ in the margins throughout the text direct you to Â�tutorials within the Item Library and self-study activities and case studies in the Study Area located within MasteringChemistry® for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, fourth edition. Laboratory Manual for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry 2e╇╇ by Karen Â�Timberlake. This best-selling lab Â�manual coordinates 42 experiments with the topics in General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, fourth edition; uses new terms during the lab; and explores chemical concepts. Laboratory investigations develop skills of manipulating equipment, reporting data, solving problems, making calculations, and drawing conclusions. (ISBN 0321695291) Essential Laboratory Manual for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry 2e╇╇ by Karen Timberlake. This manual contains 25 experiments for the standard course sequence of topics in General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, fourth edition. (ISBN 0136055478) For Instructors MasteringChemistry® (╇╇ MasteringChemistry ® is the first adaptive-learning online homework and tutorial system. Instructors can create online assignments for their students by choosing from a wide range of items, including endof- chapter problems and research-enhanced tutorials. Assignments are automatically graded with Â�up-to-date diagnostic information, helping instructors pinpoint where students struggle Â�either individually or as a class as a whole. For the Fourth Edition, new tutorials have been created to guide students through the most challenging General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry topics and help them make connections between different concepts. Instructor Resource DVD╇╇ This DVD includes all the art and tables from the book in JPG format for use in classroom projection or creating study materials and tests. In addition, the instructor can access the PowerPoint™ lecture outlines, featuring over 2000 slides. Also available on the discs are downloadable files of the Instructor Solutions Manual, a set of “clicker questions” suitable for use with classroom-response systems, and the test bank. (ISBN 0321638700) Instructor Solutions Manual╇╇ Prepared by Mark Quirie, this manual highlights chapter topics and includes suggestions for the laboratory. Contains complete solution setups and answers to all problems in the text. (ISBN 0321767292) Printed Test Bank╇╇ Prepared by Bill Timberlake, this test bank contains over 2000 questions in multiple-choice, matching, true– false, and short-answer format. (ISBN 0321767306) Online Instructor Manual to Laboratory Manual╇╇ Contains Â�answers to report pages for the Laboratory Manual and Essential Laboratory Manual. (ISBN 0321751035) Also visit the Pearson Education catalog page for Timberlake’s General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, fourth edition, at to download available instructor supplements. Acknowledgments The preparation of a new edition is a continuous effort of many people. As in my work on other textbooks, I am thankful for the support, encouragement, and dedication of many people who put in hours of tireless effort to produce a high-quality book that provides an outstanding learning package. The editorial team at Pearson has done an exceptional job. I want to thank Adam Â�Jaworski, editor in chief, and executive editor, Jeanne Zalesky, who supported my vision of this fourth edition and the addition of the new Analyze the Problem feature; more Guides to Problem Solving; new Chemistry Links to Health, History, Â�Industry, and the Environment; new learning goals with section questions and problems; thumbnails in Chapter Review; matched problem sets; and an updated art program. I am in awe and much appreciate all the wonderful work of Jessica Â�Neumann, associate editor, who was like an angel encouraging me at each step while skillfully Â�coordinating Â�reviews, art, website materials, and all the things it takes to make a book come together. I appreciate the work of Beth Sweeten, project manager, and Andrea Stefanowicz of Â�PreMediaGlobal, who brilliantly coordinated all phases of the manuscript to the final pages of a beautiful book. Thanks to Mark Quirie and Vincent Dunlap, manuscript reviewers and Â�accuracy checkers, and Denise Rubens, copy editor, who precisely reviewed and edited the manuscript to make sure the words and problems were correct to help students learn chemistry. Their keen eyes and thoughtful comments were extremely helpful in the development of this text. I am especially proud of the art program in this text, which lends beauty and understanding to chemistry. I would like to thank Connie Long and Derek Bacchus, art director and book designer, whose creative ideas provided the outstanding Â�design for the cover and pages of the book. Eric Schrader, photo Â�researcher, was invaluable in researching and selecting vivid photos for the text so that students can see the beauty of chemistry. Thanks also to Bio-Rad Laboratories for their courtesy and use of KnowItAll Â�ChemWindows, drawing software that helped me produce chemical structures for the manuscript. The macro-to-micro illustrations designed by Production Solutions and Precision Graphics give students visual impressions of the atomic and molecular organization of everyday things and are a fantastic learning tool. I want to thank Denne Wesolowski for the hours of proofreading all the pages. I also appreciate all the hard work in the field put in by the marketing team and Erin Gardner, marketing manager. I am extremely grateful to an incredible group of peers for their careful assessment of all the new ideas for the text; for their suggested additions, corrections, changes, and deletions; and for providing an incredible amount of feedback about Â�improvements for the book. In addition, I appreciate the time scientists took to let us take photos and discuss their work with them. I admire and appreciate every one of you. If you would like to share your experience with chemistry or have questions and comments about this text, I would appreciate hearing from you. Karen Timberlake Email: [email protected]


Author : Karen C. Timberlake
ISBN : 0321908449
Genre : Science
File Size : 46. 78 MB
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Some printings include access code card, "Mastering Chemistry."

General Organic And Biological Chemistry Pearson New International Edition

Author : Karen C. Timberlake
ISBN : 9781292033891
Genre : Science
File Size : 66. 40 MB
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Were you looking for the book with access to MasteringChemistry? This product is the book alone, and does NOT come with access to MasteringChemistry. Buy the book and access card package to save money on this resource. Designed to prepare students for health-related careers, General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life breaks chemical concepts down into manageable pieces and offers a step-by-step approach that clarifies student understanding. Timberlake’s friendly writing style, student focus, strong problems, and engaging, health-related applications make this book a best seller among its peers. The Fourth Edition emphasizes connections between chemistry and students’ future careers — and develops the problem-solving skills students need beyond the classroom. Each chapter now includes NEW chapter-opening Career Interviews and Career Focus features to illustrate the role chemistry plays in modern, health-related professions. A new Analyze the Problem feature furthers critical-thinking skills by showing students how to break down a word problem into the components needed to solve that problem. Throughout the new edition, national student performance data collected through MasteringChemistry® on assigned problems informed the extensive revisions to end-of-chapter problems, ensuring their effectiveness. This package contains: General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, Fourth Edition


Author : Hans Walter Heldt
ISBN : 9783662443989
Genre : Science
File Size : 50. 56 MB
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Die „Pflanzenbiochemie" hat sich im deutschsprachigen Raum, aber auch in zahlreichen Übersetzungen als Standardlehrbuch etabliert. Birgit Piechulla, Dozentin an der Universität Rostock, zeichnet als Co-Autorin bei dieser 5. Auflage verantwortlich und hat zusammen mit Hans-Walter Heldt das Buch gründlich überarbeitet und aktualisiert. Neueste wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse fanden Eingang in dieses Buch, die sich auch in neuen Abbildungen sowie der stark überarbeiteten Literatur widerspiegeln. Besonderen Wert legen die Autoren darauf, die offenen, zukunftsweisenden Fragen, die den derzeitigen Stand unseres Wissens markieren, aufzuzeigen. Aktualität sowie die klare und verständliche Didaktik komplexer Sachverhalte darzustellen -- das sind die Kennzeichen dieses Lehrbuches. Mit sorgfältig erstellten zweifarbigen Abbildungen erfüllt es einen hohen didaktischen Anspruch und reiht sich unter die besten Biochemie-Lehrbücher.

General Organic And Biological Chemistry Structures Of Life

Author : CTI Reviews
ISBN : 9781497070998
Genre : Education
File Size : 34. 25 MB
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Facts101 is your complete guide to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Structures of Life. In this book, you will learn topics such as as those in your book plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.

Physikalische Chemie

Author : Peter W. Atkins
ISBN : 9783527315468
Genre : Science
File Size : 26. 88 MB
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Author : Donald Voet
ISBN : 3527282424
Genre :
File Size : 22. 74 MB
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Organische Chemie

Author : Kurt Peter C. Vollhardt
ISBN : 9783527327546
Genre : Chemistry, Organic
File Size : 64. 63 MB
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Besser Konzepte und Ideen der organischen Chemie verstehen, als eine Vielzahl von Fakten auswendig beherrschen! Diesem Motto bleibt der "Vollhardt/Schore" auch in der neuesten Auflage treu. Das neu gestaltete Layout, beispielhaft gelöste Übungsaufgaben und die deutlich erweiterten Verständnisübungen führen einprägsam an die Methodik zur Lösung organisch-chemischer Probleme heran. So werden nicht nur die stofflichen Grundlagen der organischen Chemie, sondern auch das "Gewusst wie" fast schon spielerisch vermittelt. Nicht nur für Chemiestudenten, auch für Biochemiker, Pharmazeuten, Biologen und Mediziner ist der "Vollhardt/Schore" der fachliche Grundstock für die organische Chemie.

Chemie F R Dummies

Author : John T. Moore
ISBN : 9783527816934
Genre : Science
File Size : 66. 77 MB
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Wenn es knallt und stinkt, dann ist Chemie im Spiel! "Chemie für Dummies" macht deutlich, dass Chemie nicht nur aus Formeln, sondern vor allem aus unzähligen interessanten Stoffen, Versuchen und Reaktionen besteht. In diesem etwas anderen Chemie-Buch lernen Sie die Grundlagen der Chemie kennen und erfahren, wo sich chemische Phänomene im Alltag bemerkbar machen. John T. Moore macht für Sie so schwer vorstellbare Begriffe wie Atom, Base oder Molekül begreiflich und zeigt, wie man mit dem Periodensystem umgeht. Mit Übungsaufgaben am Ende eines jeden Kapitels können Sie dann noch Ihr Wissen überprüfen.

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