geological methods for archaeology

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Geological Methods For Archaeology

Author : Norman Herz
ISBN : 9780195090246
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 26. 34 MB
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This book discusses the application of geological methods and theory to archaeology. Written as a survey text covering appropriate methods and techniques taken from geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and geochronology, it shows the student the practicality and importance of each technique's use in solving archaeological problems. Specific techniques are illustrated by practical results obtained from the authors' use on archaeological digs. With an international geographical scope, the book draws on sites from both hemispheres, including the Franchthi Cave in Greece, St. Catherines Island in the U.S., the Roman site of Drand in France, and Monte Verde, Chile. The authors also address applications in less traditional areas such as underwater, historical, industrial, and conservation archaeology.

Techniques In Archaeological Geology

Author : Ervan Garrison
ISBN : 9783319302324
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 83. 25 MB
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This 2nd edition is a survey level review of key areas of archaeological geology/geoarchaeology. Principal subject areas include: historical principles; archaeologic and geomorphic surfaces and landforms types; sediments and sediment analytic methods; archaeological stoney materials - petrographic and mineralogic attributes; ceramic materials - mineralogic composition and analytic methods; geochemical methods useful in archaeological geology - studies of materials; commonly used geochronological methods for archaeological geology. Contributions to paleoecology, paleoclimate and ancient cultures as well as multivariate ICP and EDX data are now included.

Techniques In Archaeological Geology

Author : Erv Garrison
ISBN : 9783662051634
Genre : Science
File Size : 52. 25 MB
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The archaeological geology of the Quaternary or the geological epoch during which humankind evolved is a scientific endeavor with much to offer in the fields of archaeology and palaeoanthropology. Earth science techniques offer diverse ways of characterizing the elements of past landscapes and archaeological facies. This book is a survey of techniques used in archaeological geology for the study of soils, sediments, rocks and minerals. The techniques presented represent those most commonly used today. They are discussed in detail and examples are provided, in many cases, to demonstrate their usefulness to archaeologists.

Earth Sciences And Archaeology

Author : Paul Goldberg
ISBN : 9781461511830
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 84. 8 MB
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This volume brings together contributions from an experienced group of archaeologists and geologists whose common objective is to present thorough and current reviews of the diverse ways in which methods from the earth sciences can contribute to archaeological research. Many areas of research are addressed here, including artifact analysis and sourcing, landscape reconstruction and site formation analysis, soil micromorphology and geophysical exploration of buried sites.

Second Nordic Conference On The Application Of Scientific Methods In Archaeology

Author :
ISBN : 8755008720
Genre : Archaeology
File Size : 27. 3 MB
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Ground Penetrating Radar For Archaeology

Author : Lawrence B. Conyers
ISBN : 0759107734
Genre : Science
File Size : 88. 38 MB
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Conyers succinctly and clearly lays out for archaeological practitioners the theory behind, and applications of, ground-penetrating radar as a non-invasive method of subsurface prospection. Describing the technology, the equipment, the analysis and interpretation necessary to produce usable results and full of examples from GPR projects throughout the world, this book also details advances in computer simulation, statistical modeling, virtual reality techniques, and data integration in recent years. Visit our website for sample chapters!

Practices In Archaeological Stratigraphy

Author : Edward C. Harris
ISBN : 9781483295824
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 28. 62 MB
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Practices of Archaeological Stratigraphy brings together a number of examples which illustrate the development and use of the Harris Matrix in describing and interpreting archaeological sites. This matrix, the theory of which is described in two editions of the previous book by Harris, Principles of Archaeological Stratigaphy, made possible for the first time a simple diagramatic representation of the strategraphic sequence of a site, no matter how complex. The Harris Matrix, by showing in one diagram all three linear dimensions, plus time, represents a quantum leap over the older methods which relied on sample sections only. In this book 17 essays present a sample of new work demonstrating the strengths and uses of the Harris Matrix, the first ever published collection of papers devoted solely to stratigraphy in archaeology. The crucial relationships between the Harris methods, open-area excavation techniques, the interpretation of interfaces, and the use of single-context plans and recording sheets, is clarified by reference to specific sites. These sites range from medieval Europe, through Mayan civilizations to Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia. This book will be of great value to all those involved in excavating and recording archaeological sites and should help to ensure that the maximum amount of stratigraphic information can be gathered from future investigations. * Presents case studies which illuminate the Harris matrix method, invented by Edward C. Harris * Senior editor is the inventor of this method and principle in the field * Serves as a companion volume to Harris's Principles of Archaeological Stratigraphy

Case Studies In Environmental Archaeology

Author : Elizabeth Jean Reitz
ISBN : 0306452529
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 82. 1 MB
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This volume contains case studies in environmental archaeology that apply data obtained from various disciplines-including zooarchaeology, archaeobotany, human biology, and geoarchaeology-to explore important anthropological issues. Studies include geological and biological data from sites located in North America, the Caribbean basin, and South America. Rather than critiquing or advocating specific environmental techniques, each study demonstrates how and why the information obtained from their use is important to anthropologists and archaeologists.

Nuclear Methods In Science And Technology

Author : Yuri M. Tsipenyuk
ISBN : 0750304227
Genre : Science
File Size : 21. 54 MB
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The application of nuclear physics methods is now widespread throughout physics, chemistry, metallurgy, biology, clinical medicine, geology, and archaeology. Accelerators, reactors, and various instruments that have developed together with nuclear physics have often been found to offer the basis for increasingly productive and more sensitive analytical techniques. Nuclear Methods in Science and Technology provides scientists and engineers with a clear understanding of the basic principles of nuclear methods and their potential for applications in a wide range of disciplines. The first part of the book covers the major points of basic theory and experimental methods of nuclear physics, emphasizing concepts and simple models that give a feel for the behavior of real systems. Using many examples, the second part illustrates the extraordinary possibilities offered by nuclear methods. It covers the Mossbauer effect, slow neutron physics, activation analysis, radiography, nuclear geochronology, channeling effects, nuclear microprobe, and numerous other topics in modern applied nuclear physics. The book explores applications such as tomography, the use of short-lived isotopes in clinical diagnoses, and nuclear physics in ecology and agriculture. Where alternative nonnuclear analytical techniques are available, the author compares the relevant nuclear method, enabling readers to judge which technique may be most useful for them. Complete with a bibliography and extensive reference list for readers who want to delve deeper into a particular topic, this book applies various methods of nuclear physics to a wide range of disciplines.

Obsidian

Author : M. Steven Shackley
ISBN : 0816523967
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 72. 96 MB
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Obsidian was long valued by ancient peoples as a raw material for producing stone tools, and archaeologists have increasingly come to view obsidian studies as a crucial aid in understanding the past. Steven Shackley now shows how the geochemical and contextual analyses of archaeological obsidian can be applied to the interpretation of social and economic organization in the ancient Southwest. This book, the capstone of decades of investigation, integrates a wealth of obsidian research in one volume. It covers advances in analytical chemistry and field petrology that have enhanced our understanding of obsidian source heterogeneity, presents the most recent data on and interpretations of archaeological obsidian sources in the Southwest, and explores the ethnohistorical and contemporary background for obsidian use in indigenous societies. Shackley provides a thorough examination of the geological origin of obsidian in the region and the methods used to collect raw material and determine its chemical composition, and descriptions of obsidian sources throughout the Southwest. He then describes the occurrence of obsidian artifacts and shows how their geochemical fingerprints allow archaeologists to make conclusions regarding the procurement of obsidian. The book presents three groundbreaking applications of obsidian source studies. It first discusses an application to early Preceramic groups, showing how obsidian sources can reflect the range they inhabited over time as well as their social relationships during the Archaic period. It then offers an examination of the Late Classic Salado in Arizona's Tonto Basin, where obsidian data, along with ceramic and architectural evidence, suggest that Mogollon migrants lived in economic and social harmony with the Hohokam, all the while maintaining relationships with their homeland. Finally, it provides an intensive look at social identity and gender differences in the Preclassic Hohokam of central Arizona, where obsidian source provenance and projectile point styles suggest that male Hohokam sought to create a stylistically defined identity in at least three areas of the Hohokam core area. These male "sodalities" were organized quite differently from female ceramic production groups. Today, obsidian research in the American Southwest enjoys an equal standing with ceramic, faunal, and floral studies as a method of revealing social process and change in prehistory. Shackley's book discusses the ways in which archaeologists should approach obsidian research, no matter what the region, offering a thorough survey of archaeological obsidian studies that will have methodological and theoretical applications worldwide. The volume includes an extensive glossary created specifically for archaeologists.

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