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Global Pharmaceuticals

Author : Adriana Petryna
ISBN : 9780822387916
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 24. 36 MB
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In some parts of the world spending on pharmaceuticals is astronomical. In others people do not have access to basic or life-saving drugs. Individuals struggle to afford medications; whole populations are neglected, considered too poor to constitute profitable markets for the development and distribution of necessary drugs. The ethnographies brought together in this timely collection analyze both the dynamics of the burgeoning international pharmaceutical trade and the global inequalities that emerge from and are reinforced by market-driven medicine. They demonstrate that questions about who will be treated and who will not filter through every phase of pharmaceutical production, from preclinical research to human testing, marketing, distribution, prescription, and consumption. Whether considering how American drug companies seek to create a market for antidepressants in Japan, how Brazil has created a model HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment program, or how the urban poor in Delhi understand and access healthcare, these essays illuminate the roles of corporations, governments, NGOs, and individuals in relation to global pharmaceuticals. Some essays show how individual and communal identities are affected by the marketing and availability of medications. Among these are an exploration of how the pharmaceutical industry shapes popular and expert understandings of mental illness in North America and Great Britain. There is also an examination of the agonizing choices facing Ugandan families trying to finance AIDS treatment. Several essays explore the inner workings of the emerging international pharmaceutical regime. One looks at the expanding quest for clinical research subjects; another at the entwining of science and business interests in the Argentine market for psychotropic medications. By bringing the moral calculations involved in the production and distribution of pharmaceuticals into stark relief, this collection charts urgent new territory for social scientific research. Contributors. Kalman Applbaum, João Biehl, Ranendra K. Das, Veena Das, David Healy, Arthur Kleinman, Betty Kyaddondo, Andrew Lakoff, Anne Lovell, Lotte Meinert, Adriana Petryna, Michael A. Whyte, Susan Reynolds Whyte

When Experiments Travel

Author : Adriana Petryna
ISBN : 1400830826
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 30. 84 MB
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The phenomenal growth of global pharmaceutical sales and the quest for innovation are driving an unprecedented search for human test subjects, particularly in middle- and low-income countries. Our hope for medical progress increasingly depends on the willingness of the world's poor to participate in clinical drug trials. While these experiments often provide those in need with vital and previously unattainable medical resources, the outsourcing and offshoring of trials also create new problems. In this groundbreaking book, anthropologist Adriana Petryna takes us deep into the clinical trials industry as it brings together players separated by vast economic and cultural differences. Moving between corporate and scientific offices in the United States and research and public health sites in Poland and Brazil, When Experiments Travel documents the complex ways that commercial medical science, with all its benefits and risks, is being integrated into local health systems and emerging drug markets. Providing a unique perspective on globalized clinical trials, When Experiments Travel raises central questions: Are such trials exploitative or are they social goods? How are experiments controlled and how is drug safety ensured? And do these experiments help or harm public health in the countries where they are conducted? Empirically rich and theoretically innovative, the book shows that neither the language of coercion nor that of rational choice fully captures the range of situations and value systems at work in medical experiments today. When Experiments Travel challenges conventional understandings of the ethics and politics of transnational science and changes the way we think about global medicine and the new infrastructures of our lives.

An Anthropology Of Biomedicine

Author : Margaret Lock
ISBN : 9781405110723
Genre : Medical
File Size : 60. 91 MB
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"By convincingly articulating critical medical anthropology and social studies of science, analyzing questions emerging from the most recent technologies in medicine and reflecting on public health issues in developing countries, this book will become a reference for social scientists and more broadly for all those interested in contemporary changes and challenges." Didier Fassin, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, and Ecole des Hautes Eludes en Sciences Sociales, Paris "An Anthropology of Biomedicine is a magisterial review of the knowledge claims of biomedicine that establishes the salience of local biologies in the field of global health. Original and compelling - it is a stunning achievement." Veena Das, Johns Hoplcins University "Because Lock and Nguyen take seriously the ongoing co-constitution of diverse biological and social bodies-human, microbial, and more-they have written a timely, densely ethnographic, theoretically astute, and necessary book. This book proposes an anthropology of biomedicine as technology that can better contribute to actually realizing health as a basic human right globally." Donna Haraway, University of California, Santa cruz "An Anthropology of Biomedicine introduces biomedicine from an anthropological perspective, exploring the entanglement of material bodies with history, environment, culture, and politics. Focusing on the ways in which the application of biomedical technologies bring about radical changes to societies at large, medical anthropologist Margaret Lock and physician and medical anthropologist Vinh-Kim Nguyen advance the theory that the human body in health and illness is not an ontological given but a moveable, malleable entity that is the elusive product of nature and culture. Tracking the historic global application of biomedical technologies, the authors reveal the intended and unintended local consequences and the exacerbation of global inequalities and health disparities that such technologies bring about.

Drugs For Life

Author : Joseph Dumit
ISBN : 9780822348719
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 67. 24 MB
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Joseph Dumit argues that underlying Americans' burgeoning consumption of prescription drugs and the skyrocketing cost of healthcare is a relatively new perception of ourselves as inherently ill and in need of chronic treatment.

Ethics And The Pharmaceutical Industry

Author : Michael A. Santoro
ISBN : 1139448579
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 73. 39 MB
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Despite the pharmaceutical industry's notable contributions to human progress, including the development of miracle drugs for treating cancer, AIDS, and heart disease, there is a growing tension between the industry and the public. Government officials and social critics have questioned whether the multibillion-dollar industry is fulfilling its social responsibilities. This doubt has been fueled by the national debate over drug pricing and affordable healthcare, and internationally by the battles against epidemic diseases, such as AIDS, in the developing world. Debates are raging over how the industry can and should be expected to act. The contributions in this book by leading figures in industry, government, NGOs, the medical community, and academia discuss and propose solutions to the ethical dilemmas of drug industry behavior. They examine such aspects as the role of intellectual property rights and patent protection, the moral and economic requisites of research and clinical trials, drug pricing, and marketing.

Pharmaceutical Reason

Author : Andrew Lakoff
ISBN : 1139447637
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 62. 41 MB
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Andrew Lakoff argues that a new 'pharmaceutical' way of thinking about and acting upon mental disorder is coming to reshape not only the field of psychiatry, but also our very notions of self. Drawing from a comprehensive ethnography of psychiatric practice in Argentina (a country which boasts the most psychoanalysts per capita in the world) Lakoff looks at new ways of understanding and intervening in human behaviour. He charts the globalization of pharmacology, particularily the global impact of US psychiatry and US models of illness, and further illustrates the clashes, conflicts, alliances and reformulations that take place when psychoanalytic and psychopharmacological models of illness and cure meet. Highlighting the social and political implications that these new forms of expertise about human behaviour and human thought bring, Lakoff presents an arresting case-study that will appeal to scholars and students alike.

Health Geographies

Author : Tim Brown
ISBN : 9781118739020
Genre : Medical
File Size : 31. 64 MB
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Health Geographies: A Critical Introduction explores health and biomedical topics from a range of critical geographic perspectives. Building on the field’s past engagement with social theory it extends the focus of health geography into new areas of enquiry. Introduces key topics in health geography through clear and engaging examples and case studies drawn from around the world Incorporates multi-disciplinary perspectives and approaches applied in the field of health geography Identifies both health and biomedical issues as a central area of concern for critically oriented health geographers Features material that is alert to questions of global scale and difference, and sensitive to the political and economic as well sociocultural aspects of health Provides extensive pedagogic materials within the text and guidance for further study

Reimagining Bio Medicalization Pharmaceuticals And Genetics

Author : Susan E. Bell
ISBN : 9781317643630
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 47. 17 MB
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In recent years medicalization, the process of making something medical, has gained considerable ground and a position in everyday discourse. In this multidisciplinary collection of original essays, the authors expertly consider how issues around medicalization have developed, ways in which it is changing, and the potential shapes it will take in the future. They develop a unique argument that medicalization, biomedicalization, pharmaceuticalization and geneticization are related and co-evolving processes, present throughout the globe. This is an ideal addition to anthropology, sociology and STS courses about medicine and health.

Collaborators Collaborating

Author : Monica Konrad
ISBN : 9780857454812
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 22. 5 MB
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As bio-capital in the form of medical knowledge, skills and investments moves with greater frequency from its origin in First World industrialized settings to resource-poor communities with weak or little infrastructure, countries with emerging economies are starting to expand new indigenous science bases of their own. The case studies here, from the UK, West Africa, Sri Lanka, Papua New Guinea, Latin America and elsewhere, explore the forms of collaborative knowledge relations in play and the effects of ethics review and legal systems on local communities, and also demonstrate how anthropologically-informed insights may hope to influence key policy debates. Questions of governance in science and technology, as well as ethical issues related to bio-innovation, are increasingly being featured as topics of complex resourcing and international debate, and this volume is a much-needed resource for interdisciplinary practitioners and specialists in medical anthropology, social theory, corporate ethics, science and technology studies.

Pharmacy Practice In Developing Countries

Author : Ahmed Fathelrahman
ISBN : 9780128017111
Genre : Medical
File Size : 60. 7 MB
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Pharmacy Practice in Developing Countries: Achievements and Challenges offers a detailed review of the history and development of pharmacy practice in developing countries across Africa, Asia, and South America. Pharmacy practice varies substantially from country to country due to variations in needs and expectations, culture, challenges, policy, regulations, available resources, and other factors. This book focuses on each country’s strengths and achievements, as well as areas of weakness, barriers to improvement and challenges. It sets out to establish a baseline for best practices, taking all of these factors into account and offering solutions and opportunities for the future. This book is a valuable resource for academics, researchers, practicing pharmacists, policy makers, and students involved in pharmacy practice worldwide as it provides lessons learned on a global scale and seeks to advance the pharmacy profession. Uses the latest research and statistics to document the history and development of pharmacy practice in developing countries Describes current practice across various pharmacy sectors to supply a valuable comparative analysis across countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, and South America Highlights areas of achievement, strengths, uniqueness, and future opportunities to provide a basis for learning and improvement Establishes a baseline for best practices and solutions

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