handbook of property estimation methods for chemicals environmental health sciences

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Handbook Of Property Estimation Methods For Chemicals

Author : Donald Mackay
ISBN : 9781420026283
Genre : Science
File Size : 23. 16 MB
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A complete restructuring and updating of the classic 1982 Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods (commonly known as "Lyman's Handbook"), the Handbook of Property Estimation Methods for Chemicals: Environmental and Health Sciences reviews and recommends practical methods for estimating environmentally important properties of organic chemicals. One of the most eagerly anticipated revisions in scientific publishing, the new Handbook includes both a foreword and a chapter by Dr. Lyman. Written for convenient and frequent use, each chapter integrates recent developments while retaining the elements that made the first version a classic. As a reference tool, the New Edition is indispensable. It comprehensively reviews recent developments in chemical property estimation methods and focuses on the properties most critical to environmental fate assessment.

In Silico Toxicology

Author : Mark Cronin
ISBN : 9781849732093
Genre : Science
File Size : 77. 9 MB
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In Silico methods to predict toxicity have become increasingly important recently, particularly in light of European legislation such as REACH and the Cosmetics Regulation. They are also being used extensively worldwide e.g. in the USA, Canada, Japan and Australia. In assessing the risk that a chemical may pose to human health or to the environment, focus is now being directed towards exploitation of in silico methods to replace in vivo or in vitro techniques. A prediction of potential toxicity requires several stages: 1) Collation and organisation of data available for the compound, or if this is not available, information for related compounds. 2) An assessment of the quality of the data. 3) Generation of additional information about the compound using computational techniques at various levels of complexity - calculation of physico-chemical properties, 2-D, 3-D / MO descriptors and specific receptor modelling / interaction. 4) Use of an appropriate strategy to predict toxicity - ie a statistically valid method which makes best use of all available information (mechanism of action, activity for related compounds, extrapolation across species and endpoints, likely exposure scenario amounts over time etc). 5) Consideration then needs to be given to how this information is used in the real world ie use of expert systems / tools as relevant to assessors (if sufficiently different to previous) - weight of evidence approaches. 6) Finally evidence should be presented from case studies within this area. No other publication brings together information on all of these areas in one book and this publication is unique in that it provides a logical progression through every one of these key stages and defines the use of computational approaches to predict the environmental toxicity and human health effects of organic chemicals. The volume is aimed at the developers and users of in silico toxicology and provides an analysis of all aspects required for in silico prediction of toxicology, including data collation, quality assessment and computational approaches. The contributions from recognised leaders in each of these areas include evidence of the use and applicability of approaches using real world case studies concerning both environmental and human health effects. The book provides a very useful single source reference for people working in this area including academics, professionals, under- and post-graduate students as well as Governmental Regulatory Scientists involved in chemical risk assessment and REACH.

Chemicals In The Environment

Author : R M Harrison
ISBN : 9781847552440
Genre : Science
File Size : 73. 74 MB
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Rising concern in recent years over the possible adverse environmental consequences of the use of chemicals has led to a steady increase in national activity towards greater regulation, as well as voluntary agreements with manufacturers for risk management of certain products. This book begins by reviewing the current framework of legislation for the regulation of chemicals in the UK and then reports expert views on both the current situation and possible future developments. Subsequent chapters consider some of the scientific and technical issues, including the evaluation of the risks which chemicals can pose to human life and the environment, and the problems relating to evaluating the risks associated with metals in the environment. Finally, the predictive methods used to model the behaviour of organic chemicals within the environment are described. Highly topical, and with authoritative contributions from international experts, this book covers both the scientific underpinning and the legislative and practical issues of this emotive subject. The detailed coverage of a topic that affects many sectors of industry and society will make it popular with a wide audience of individuals from government organisations, industry or academic research, particularly those in environmental chemistry sectors.

Phthalate Esters

Author : Charles Staples
ISBN : 3540009922
Genre : Science
File Size : 83. 30 MB
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Phthalate esters are an important class of chemicals widely used in commercial applications, primarily as plasticizers to soften vinyl, but they are also used in consumer products. This book reviews the state of the scientific knowledge of phthalate esters in the environment. Key information reported includes: analytical methodologies; a compilation of concentration measurements in water, sediment, soil, air, dust, and food; plus an assessment of critical exposure pathways. In addition, key physical properties data and fate characteristics that control exposure are reviewed. Also included are pertinent ecotoxicity data and mammalian toxicity and human health information. Finally, the monograph addresses potential environmental risks.

Multimedia Environmental Models

Author : Donald Mackay
ISBN : 9781420032543
Genre : Science
File Size : 75. 46 MB
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Completely revised and updated, Multimedia Environmental Models: The Fugacity Approach, Second Edition continues to provide simple techniques for calculating how chemicals behave in the environment, where they accumulate, how long they persist, and how this leads to human exposure. The book develops, describes, and illustrates the framework and procedures for calculating the behavior of chemicals in our multimedia environment of air, water, soil, and sediments, as well as the diversity of biota that reside in these media. While other books focus on specific compartments, such as the atmosphere, or specific substances, such as PCBs, this book presents the big picture of how organic chemicals behave in the total environment. It does this by providing examples of calculation methods based on the fugacity approach and explaining how to access up-to-date property databases and estimation methods as well as computer programs, which are available from the Internet. In addition, the models are Web based, instead of on a floppy disk as in the previous edition. Building on the work developed in the First Edition, the Second Edition includes: A how-to modeling section, more worked examples and problems- most with solutions and answers Expanded treatment of structure-activity relationships and modern estimation methods More material illustrating applications to bioaccumulation is specific organisms and food webs Emphasis on current efforts to identify PBT chemicals and exposure analysis as a component of risk assessment Examples that provide each step of modeling calculations Web-based models, and references to property databases, estimation methods, and computer programs from the Internet When you need to make assessments of chemical behavior you need current, comprehensive. Multimedia Environmental Models: The Fugacity Approach provides you with not only an understanding of how the multitude of organic chemicals behave in the total environment, but also with practical examples of how this behavior can be predicted using the fugacity approach.

Chemical Properties Handbook

Author : Carl Yaws
ISBN : 0070734011
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 40. 5 MB
Format : PDF
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Necessary data that's often hard to find or difficult to calculate, all in one place, in easy-access format. That's what this Handbook provides to scientific, engineering, and environmental professionals, and students, who seek information on how chemicals will behave at different temperatures and under different conditions. Covering both organic and inorganic substances, and providing both experimental values and estimated values based on methods developed by the author and other noted experts, this book can save countless hours of searching for the right source or performing complicated calculations. Useful for hundreds of on-the-job information requirements, this much-needed Handbook makes it easy to obtain critical values for temperature and pressure for design or operation of compressors and turbines; find heat capacity data for heat exchangers; accurately design and safely operate vaporizers and condensers with precise information on enthalpy of vaporization; size vaporizer/condenser storage vessels with density data; determine the heating and cooling requirements of reactors with values for the enthalpy of formation; determine chemical equilibria for reactions using Gibbs’ energy of formation; design and operate effective stripping operations for water pollutant removal using water solubility data and Henry’s Law Constant; find needed adsorption capacities of activated carbon for cleaning air of various pollutants; use soil sorption coefficient for agricultural applications; solve problems for fluid flow of gases and liquids using viscosity data; use thermal conductivity data for heat transfer applications; use lower and upper explosion limits in air, flock point and autoignition temperature for safety in designs and operations; use threshold limit value (ACGIH), permissible exposure limit (OSHA) and recommended exposure limit (NIOSH) to design facilities while safeguarding health; use thermal expansion coefficient data to design relief systems; and find thousands of other time-saving uses.

Environmental Toxicology And Chemistry

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105122663441
Genre : Environmental chemistry
File Size : 90. 23 MB
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Handbook On The Toxicology Of Metals

Author : Gunnar F. Nordberg
ISBN : 9780123973399
Genre : Medical
File Size : 28. 43 MB
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Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Fourth Edition bridges the gap between established knowledgebase and new advances in metal toxicology to provide one essential reference for all those involved in the field. This book provides comprehensive coverage of basic toxicological data, emphasizing toxic effects primarily in humans, but also those of animals and biological systems in vitro. The fourth edition also contains several new chapters on important topics such as nanotoxicology, metals in prosthetics and dental implants, gene-environment interaction, neurotoxicology, metals in food, renal, cardiovascular, and diabetes effects of metal exposures and more. Volume I covers “General Considerations and Volume II is devoted to “Specific Metals. A multidisciplinary resource with contributions from internationally-recognized experts, the fourth edition of the Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals is a prominent and indispensable reference for toxicologists, physicians, pharmacologists, engineers, and all those involved in the toxicity of metals. Contains 61 peer reviewed chapters dealing with the effects of metallic elements and their compounds on biological systems Includes information on sources, transport and transformation of metals in the environment and on certain aspects of the ecological effects of metals to provide a basis for better understanding of the potential for adverse effects on human health Covers the toxicology of metallic nanomaterials in a new comprehensive chapter Metal toxicology in developing countries is dealt with in another new chapter emphasizing the adverse effects on human health by the inadequate handling of "ewaste Other new chapters in the 4th edition include: Toxic metals in food; Toxicity of metals released from medical devices; Gene-environment interactions; Neurotoxicology of metals; Cardiovascular disease; Renal effects of exposure to metals; Gold and gold mining; Iridium; Lanthanum; Lithium and Rhodium

Handbook Of Physical Chemical Properties And Environmental Fate For Organic Chemicals Second Edition

Author : Donald Mackay
ISBN : 1566706874
Genre : Science
File Size : 34. 60 MB
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Transport and transformation processes are key for determining how humans and other organisms are exposed to chemicals. These processes are largely controlled by the chemicals’ physical-chemical properties. This new edition of the Handbook of Physical-Chemical Properties and Environmental Fate for Organic Chemicals is a comprehensive series in four volumes that serves as a reference source for environmentally relevant physical-chemical property data of numerous groups of chemical substances. The handbook contains physical-chemical property data from peer-reviewed journals and other valuable sources on over 1200 chemicals of environmental concern. The handbook contains new data on the temperature dependence of selected physical-chemical properties, which allows scientists and engineers to perform better chemical assessments for climatic conditions outside the 20–25-degree range for which property values are generally reported. This second edition of the Handbook of Physical-Chemical Properties and Environmental Fate for Organic Chemicals is an essential reference for university libraries, regulatory agencies, consultants, and industry professionals, particularly those concerned with chemical synthesis, emissions, fate, persistence, long-range transport, bioaccumulation, exposure, and biological effects of chemicals in the environment. This resource is also available on CD-ROM

Atmospheric Degradation Of Organic Substances

Author : Walter Klöpffer
ISBN : 352731606X
Genre : Science
File Size : 77. 7 MB
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Since many commercially important bulk chemicals are volatile, their eventual degradation, mostly by photochemical reactions, is a critical factor for the pollution and environmental hazards so caused. This compilation on the breakdown of 1,100 commercially important chemical products is the first publication to make this knowledge publicly accessible in one book. The data and annotations have been painstakingly assembled over a 10-year period in a cooperation among academia and regulatory authorities. It explains in detail the methods, including computational ones, for the environmental assessment of volatile and semi-volatile substances, and is rounded off with data tables of degradation rates. From the contents: PhotodegradationHeterogeneous degradationExperimental determinationEnvironmental relevanceData tables of degradation rates A key resource for manufacturers and regulators of such substances.

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