handbook of set theory

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Handbook Of Set Theory

Author : Matthew Foreman
ISBN : 9781402057649
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 71. 20 MB
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Numbers imitate space, which is of such a di?erent nature —Blaise Pascal It is fair to date the study of the foundation of mathematics back to the ancient Greeks. The urge to understand and systematize the mathematics of the time led Euclid to postulate axioms in an early attempt to put geometry on a ?rm footing. With roots in the Elements, the distinctive methodology of mathematics has become proof. Inevitably two questions arise: What are proofs? and What assumptions are proofs based on? The ?rst question, traditionally an internal question of the ?eld of logic, was also wrestled with in antiquity. Aristotle gave his famous syllogistic s- tems, and the Stoics had a nascent propositional logic. This study continued with ?ts and starts, through Boethius, the Arabs and the medieval logicians in Paris and London. The early germs of logic emerged in the context of philosophy and theology. The development of analytic geometry, as exempli?ed by Descartes, ill- tratedoneofthedi?cultiesinherentinfoundingmathematics. Itisclassically phrased as the question ofhow one reconciles the arithmetic with the geom- ric. Arenumbers onetypeofthingand geometricobjectsanother? Whatare the relationships between these two types of objects? How can they interact? Discovery of new types of mathematical objects, such as imaginary numbers and, much later, formal objects such as free groups and formal power series make the problem of ?nding a common playing ?eld for all of mathematics importunate. Several pressures made foundational issues urgent in the 19th century.

Handbook Of Research On Fuzzy And Rough Set Theory In Organizational Decision Making

Author : Sangaiah, Arun Kumar
ISBN : 9781522510093
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 83. 84 MB
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Soft computing techniques are innovative tools that use nature-inspired algorithms to run predictive analysis of industries from business to software measurement. These tools have gained momentum in recent years for their practicality and flexibility. The Handbook of Research on Fuzzy and Rough Set Theory in Organizational Decision Making collects both empirical and applied research in the field of fuzzy set theory, and bridges the gap between the application of soft computational approaches and the organizational decision making process. This publication is a pivotal reference for business professionals, IT specialists, software engineers, and advanced students of business and information technology.

Handbook Of Set Theoretic Topology

Author : K. Kunen
ISBN : 9781483295152
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 40. 51 MB
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This Handbook is an introduction to set-theoretic topology for students in the field and for researchers in other areas for whom results in set-theoretic topology may be relevant. The aim of the editors has been to make it as self-contained as possible without repeating material which can easily be found in standard texts. The Handbook contains detailed proofs of core results, and references to the literature for peripheral results where space was insufficient. Included are many open problems of current interest. In general, the articles may be read in any order. In a few cases they occur in pairs, with the first one giving an elementary treatment of a subject and the second one more advanced results. These pairs are: Hodel and Juhász on cardinal functions; Roitman and Abraham-Todorčević on S- and L-spaces; Weiss and Baumgartner on versions of Martin's axiom; and Vaughan and Stephenson on compactness properties.

Handbook Of Mathematical Logic

Author : J. Barwise
ISBN : 0080933645
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 29. 34 MB
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The handbook is divided into four parts: model theory, set theory, recursion theory and proof theory. Each of the four parts begins with a short guide to the chapters that follow. Each chapter is written for non-specialists in the field in question. Mathematicians will find that this book provides them with a unique opportunity to apprise themselves of developments in areas other than their own.

Handbook Of Measure Theory

Author : E. Pap
ISBN : 0080533094
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 73. 78 MB
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The main goal of this Handbook is to survey measure theory with its many different branches and its relations with other areas of mathematics. Mostly aggregating many classical branches of measure theory the aim of the Handbook is also to cover new fields, approaches and applications which support the idea of "measure" in a wider sense, e.g. the ninth part of the Handbook. Although chapters are written of surveys in the various areas they contain many special topics and challenging problems valuable for experts and rich sources of inspiration. Mathematicians from other areas as well as physicists, computer scientists, engineers and econometrists will find useful results and powerful methods for their research. The reader may find in the Handbook many close relations to other mathematical areas: real analysis, probability theory, statistics, ergodic theory, functional analysis, potential theory, topology, set theory, geometry, differential equations, optimization, variational analysis, decision making and others. The Handbook is a rich source of relevant references to articles, books and lecture notes and it contains for the reader's convenience an extensive subject and author index.

Handbook Of Proof Theory

Author : S.R. Buss
ISBN : 0080533183
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 48. 35 MB
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This volume contains articles covering a broad spectrum of proof theory, with an emphasis on its mathematical aspects. The articles should not only be interesting to specialists of proof theory, but should also be accessible to a diverse audience, including logicians, mathematicians, computer scientists and philosophers. Many of the central topics of proof theory have been included in a self-contained expository of articles, covered in great detail and depth. The chapters are arranged so that the two introductory articles come first; these are then followed by articles from core classical areas of proof theory; the handbook concludes with articles that deal with topics closely related to computer science.

Set Theory

Author : Abhijit Dasgupta
ISBN : 9781461488545
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 25. 65 MB
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What is a number? What is infinity? What is continuity? What is order? Answers to these fundamental questions obtained by late nineteenth-century mathematicians such as Dedekind and Cantor gave birth to set theory. This textbook presents classical set theory in an intuitive but concrete manner. To allow flexibility of topic selection in courses, the book is organized into four relatively independent parts with distinct mathematical flavors. Part I begins with the Dedekind–Peano axioms and ends with the construction of the real numbers. The core Cantor–Dedekind theory of cardinals, orders, and ordinals appears in Part II. Part III focuses on the real continuum. Finally, foundational issues and formal axioms are introduced in Part IV. Each part ends with a postscript chapter discussing topics beyond the scope of the main text, ranging from philosophical remarks to glimpses into landmark results of modern set theory such as the resolution of Lusin's problems on projective sets using determinacy of infinite games and large cardinals. Separating the metamathematical issues into an optional fourth part at the end makes this textbook suitable for students interested in any field of mathematics, not just for those planning to specialize in logic or foundations. There is enough material in the text for a year-long course at the upper-undergraduate level. For shorter one-semester or one-quarter courses, a variety of arrangements of topics are possible. The book will be a useful resource for both experts working in a relevant or adjacent area and beginners wanting to learn set theory via self-study.

Introduction To Modern Set Theory

Author : Judith Roitman
ISBN : 0471635197
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 36. 44 MB
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This is modern set theory from the ground up--from partial orderings and well-ordered sets to models, infinite cobinatorics and large cardinals. The approach is unique, providing rigorous treatment of basic set-theoretic methods, while integrating advanced material such as independence results, throughout. The presentation incorporates much interesting historical material and no background in mathematical logic is assumed. Treatment is self-contained, featuring theorem proofs supported by diagrams, examples and exercises. Includes applications of set theory to other branches of mathematics.

The Higher Infinite

Author : Akihiro Kanamori
ISBN : 9783540888673
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 77. 10 MB
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Over the years, this book has become a standard reference and guide in the set theory community. It provides a comprehensive account of the theory of large cardinals from its beginnings and some of the direct outgrowths leading to the frontiers of contemporary research, with open questions and speculations throughout.

Handbook Of Mathematical Induction

Author : David S. Gunderson
ISBN : 113819901X
Genre :
File Size : 67. 64 MB
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Handbook of Mathematical Induction: Theory and Applications shows how to find and write proofs via mathematical induction. This comprehensive book covers the theory, the structure of the written proof, all standard exercises, and hundreds of application examples from nearly every area of mathematics. In the first part of the book, the author discusses different inductive techniques, including well-ordered sets, basic mathematical induction, strong induction, double induction, infinite descent, downward induction, and several variants. He then introduces ordinals and cardinals, transfinite induction, the axiom of choice, Zorn s lemma, empirical induction, and fallacies and induction. He also explains how to write inductive proofs. The next part contains more than 750 exercises that highlight the levels of difficulty of an inductive proof, the variety of inductive techniques available, and the scope of results provable by mathematical induction. Each self-contained chapter in this section includes the necessary definitions, theory, and notation and covers a range of theorems and problems, from fundamental to very specialized. The final part presents either solutions or hints to the exercises. Slightly longer than what is found in most texts, these solutions provide complete details for every step of the problem-solving process. "

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