handbook of spent hydroprocessing catalysts regeneration rejuvenation reclamation environment and safety

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Handbook Of Spent Hydroprocessing Catalysts

Author : Meena Marafi
ISBN : 9780444638854
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 61. 63 MB
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Handbook of Spent Hydroprocessing Catalysts, Second Edition, covers all aspects of spent hydroprocessing catalysts, both regenerable and non-regenerable. It contains detailed information on hazardous characteristics of spent and regenerated catalysts. The information forms a basis for determining processing options to make decisions on whether spent catalysts can be either reused on refinery site after regeneration or used as the source of new materials. For non-regenerable spent catalysts, attention is paid to safety and ecological implications of utilizing landfill and other waste handling and storage options to ensure environmental acceptance. As such, this handbook can be used as a benchmark document to develop threshold limits of regulated species. Includes experimental results and testing protocols which serve as a basis for the development of methodologies for the characterization of solid wastes Presents a database which assists researchers in selecting/designing research projects on spent catalysts, i.e., regeneration vs. rejuvenation and metal reclamation Provides the environmental laws, acts, and liabilities to raise awareness in safety and health issues in all aspects of spent catalysts Contains solid waste management procedures specific to hydroprocessing that serve as a model for designing research projects in other solid waste areas

Waste Management And The Environment Vi

Author : V. Popov
ISBN : 9781845646066
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 87. 97 MB
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Waste management can be problematic. Especially with the emphasis in many countries now being on sustainability, there is a great need for more research on disposal methods. While we have found ways to reduce the volume of waste that needs to disposed. questions remain about the environmental and safety aspects of certain recycled materials and the by-products of waste management activities, current technology improvements, and regulatory and monitoring problems. Featuring papers published at the Sixth International Conference on Waste Management and the Environment, this book contains contributions on the topics such as: Advanced Waste Treatment Technology, Wastewater Treatment; Resources Recovery; Waste Incineration and Gasification; Waste Pre-Treatment; Separation and Transformation; Landfills; Soil and Groundwater Clean-up; Public Awareness; Air Pollution Control; Hazardous Waste, Waste Management; Construction and Demolition Waste Costs; Waste Reduction; Reuse and Recycling, Energy from Waste; Electrical Waste; Rare Metals; Computer Modelling; Methodologies and Practices; Risk Assessment; Nuclear Waste; Environmental Economics Assessment; Laws and Regulations; Biological Treatments; Agricultural Wastes.

Waste Management And The Environment Vii

Author : C. A. Brebbia
ISBN : 9781845647605
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 63. 41 MB
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The proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Waste Management and the Environment follows on from the success of previous meetings held in Cadiz (2002), Rhodes (2004), Malta (2006), Granada (2008), Tallin (2010) and the New Forest (2012). There is growing awareness of the detrimental effects of current waste disposal and a movement towards greater accountability for effective waste management. Better practices and safer solutions are required. This creates a need for more research on current disposal methods such as landfills, incineration, chemical and effluent treatment as well as recycling, waste incineration, clean technologies, waste monitoring, public and corporate awareness, and general education. Waste Management is one of the key problems of modern society due to the ever expanding volume and complexity of discarded domestic and industrial waste. Unfortunately many of the policies adopted in the past were aimed at short term solutions without due regard to the long term implications on health and the environment, leading in many cases to the need to take difficult and expensive remedial action. The desired direction of waste management is towards sustainable strategies. The approach which has emerged as the most sustainable strategy has been called 3Rs, where reduction, reuse and recycling, in this order, are seen as the best actions. Recently recovery is added as the fourth action (4Rs) applied in order to; for example, recover energy from waste that cannot be classified under the 3Rs. This largely decreases the volume of the waste that needs final disposal. Further steps are required towards improvement of current technologies, increased collaboration between the public, government and private sectors and increased involvement of all stakeholders. Topics covered include: Environmental impact; Reduce, reuse, recycle and recovery (4Rs); Cost and benefits of management options; Waste incineration and gasification; Energy from waste; Industrial waste management; Nuclear and hazardous waste; Agricultural waste; Wastewater; eWaste; Landfill optimization and mining; Remote sensing; Thermal treatment; Emergent pollutants; Environmental remediation; Legislation; Behavioural issues.

Practical Advances In Petroleum Processing

Author : Chang Samuel Hsu
ISBN : 9780387257891
Genre : Science
File Size : 45. 96 MB
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Includes topics not found together in books on petroleum processing: economics, automation, process modeling, online optimization, safety, environmental protection Combines overviews of petroleum composition, refinery processes, process automation, and environmental protection with comprehensive chapters on recent advances in hydroprocessing, FCC, lubricants, hydrogen management Gives diverse perspectives, both geographic and topical, because contributors include experts from eight different countries in North America, Europe and Asia, representing oil companies, universities, catalyst vendors, process licensors, consultants and engineering contractors

Pollution Control In Oil Gas And Chemical Plants

Author : Alireza Bahadori
ISBN : 9783319012346
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 60. 60 MB
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This book covers the fundamental requirements for air, soil and water pollution control in oil and gas refineries, chemical plants, oil terminals, petrochemical plants, and related facilities. In this concise volume, Dr. Bahadori elucidates design and operational considerations relevant to critical systems such as the waste water treatment units, solid waste disposal, and waste water sewer treatment as well as engineering/technological methods related to soil and air pollutions control. Engineers and technical managers in a range of industries will benefit from detail on a diverse list of topics.

Plastics And The Environment

Author : Anthony L. Andrady
ISBN : 0471095206
Genre : Science
File Size : 45. 67 MB
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An original, comprehensive survey on the complex relationship between plastics and the environment Plastics offer a variety of environmental benefits. However, their production, applications, and disposal present many environmental concerns. Plastics and the Environment provides state-of-the-art technical and research information on the complex relationship between the plastic and polymer industry and the environment, focusing on the sustainability, environmental impact, and cost-benefit tradeoffs associated with different technologies. Bringing together the field's leading researchers, Anthony Andrady's innovative collection not only covers how plastics affect the environment, but also how environmental factors affect plastics. The relative benefits of recycling, resource recovery, and energy recovery are also discussed in detail. The first of the book's four sections represents a basic introduction to the key subject matter of plastics and the environment; the second explores several pertinent applications of plastics with environmental implications-packaging, paints and coatings, textiles, and agricultural film use. The third section discusses the behavior of plastics in some of the environments in which they are typically used, such as the outdoors, in biotic environments, or in fires. The final section consists of chapters on recycling and thermal treatment of plastics waste. Chapters include: * Commodity Polymers * Plastics in Transportation * Biodegradation of Common Polymers * Thermal Treatment of Polymer Waste * Incineration of Plastics The contributors also focus on the effectiveness of recent technologies in mitigating environmental impacts, particularly those for managing plastics in the solid waste stream. Plastic and design engineers, polymer chemists, material scientists, and ecologists will find Plastics and the Environment to be a vital resource to this critical industry.

Handbook Of Bioenergy Crop Plants

Author : Chittaranjan Kole
ISBN : 9781439816851
Genre : Science
File Size : 24. 27 MB
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As the world’s population is projected to reach 10 billion or more by 2100, devastating fossil fuel shortages loom in the future unless more renewable alternatives to energy are developed. Bioenergy, in the form of cellulosic biomass, starch, sugar, and oils from crop plants, has emerged as one of the cheaper, cleaner, and environmentally sustainable alternatives to traditional forms of energy. Handbook of Bioenergy Crop Plants brings together the work of a panel of global experts who survey the possibilities and challenges involved in biofuel production in the twenty-first century. Section One explores the genetic improvement of bioenergy crops, ecological issues and biodiversity, feedstock logistics and enzymatic cell wall degradation to produce biofuels, and process technologies of liquid transportation fuels production. It also reviews international standards for fuel quality, unique issues of biofuel-powered engines, life-cycle environmental impacts of biofuels compared with fossil fuels, and social concerns. Section Two examines commercialized bioenergy crops, including cassava, Jatropha, forest trees, maize, oil palm, oilseed Brassicas, sorghum, soybean, sugarcane, and switchgrass. Section Three profiles emerging crops such as Brachypodium, diesel trees, minor oilseeds, lower plants, Paulownia, shrub willow, sugarbeet, sunflower, and sweet potato. It also discusses unconventional biomass resources such as vegetable oils, organic waste, and municipal sludge. Highlighting the special requirements, major achievements, and unresolved concerns in bioenergy production from crop plants, the book is destined to lead to future discoveries related to the use of plants for bioenergy production. It will assist in developing innovative ways of ameliorating energy problems on the horizon.

Physiotherapy For Respiratory And Cardiac Problems

Author : Jennifer A. Pryor
ISBN : 9780702039744
Genre : Medical
File Size : 20. 62 MB
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Now in it’s fourth edition, Physiotherapy for Respiratory and Cardiac Problems continues to be an essential textbook and reference source for undergraduate and postgraduate students, and for the clinician working with patients with cardiac and respiratory problems. It strengths lie in integrating the evidence with clinical practice and in covering the whole patient lifespan - infants, children, adolescents and adults. new chapters on: critical care, surgery, and psychological aspects of care expanded evidence for clinical practice case studies multi-contributed chapters written by internationally recognised experts extensively revised text with new illustrations and photographs comprehensive reference lists which directs the reader to further sources of information Part of the Physiotherapy Essentials series - core textbooks for both students and lecturers Online image bank now available! Log on to http://evolve.elsevier.com/Pryor/physiotherapy and type in your unique pincode for access to over 300 downloadable images

Catalysts For Upgrading Heavy Petroleum Feeds

Author : Edward Furimsky
ISBN : 9780080549316
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 75. 8 MB
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The book provides the most up-to-date information on testing and development of hydroprocessing catalysts with the aim to improve performance of the conventional and modified catalysts as well as to develop novel catalytic formulations. Besides diverse chemical composition, special attention is devoted to pore size and pore volume distribution of the catalysts. Properties of the catalysts are discussed in terms of their suitability for upgrading heavy feeds. For this purpose atmospheric residue was chosen as the base for defining other heavy feeds which comprise vacuum gas oil, deasphalted oil and vacuum residues in addition to topped heavy crude and bitumen. Attention is paid to deactivation with the aim to extent catalyst life during the operation. Into consideration is taken the loss of activity due to fouling, metal deposition, coke formed as the result of chemical reaction and poisoning by nitrogen bases. Mathematical models were reviewed focussing on those which can simulate performance of the commercial operations. Configurations of hydroprocessing reactors were compared in terms of their capability to upgrade various heavy feeds providing that a suitable catalyst was selected. Strategies for regeneration, utilization and disposal of spent hydroprocesing catalysts were evaluated. Potential of the non-conventional hydroprocessing involving soluble/dispersed catalysts and biocatalysts in comparison with conventional methods were assessed to identify issues which prevent commercial utilization of the former. A separate chapter is devoted to catalytic dewaxing because the structure of dewaxing catalysts is rather different than that of hydroprocessing catalysts, i.e., the objective of catalytic dewaxing is different than that of the conventional hydroprocessing, The relevant information in the scientific literature is complemented with the Patent literature covering the development of catalysts and novel reactor configurations. Separate chapter was added to distinguish upgrading capabilities of the residues catalytic cracking processes from those employing hydroprocessing. Upper limits on the content of carbon residue and metals in the feeds which can still be upgraded by the former processes differ markedly from those in the feeds which can be upgraded by hydroprocessing. It is necessary that the costs of modifications of catalytic cracking processes to accommodate heavier feeds are compared with that of hydroprocessing methods. Objective of the short chapter on upgrading by carbon rejecting processes was to identify limits of contaminants in heavy feeds beyond which catalytic upgrading via hydroprocessing becomes uneconomical because of the costs of catalyst inventory and that of reactors and equipment. - Comprehensive and most recent information on hydroprocessing catalysts for upgrading heavy petroleum feeds. - Compares conventional, modified and novel catalysts for upgrading a wide range of heavy petroleum feeds. - Comparison of conventional with non-conventional hydroprocessing, the latter involving soluble/dispersed catalysts and biocatalysts. - Development and comparison of mathematical models to simulate performance of catalytic reactors including most problematic feeds. - Residues upgrading by catalytic cracking in comparison to hydroprocessing.

Environmental Security Assessment And Management Of Obsolete Pesticides In Southeast Europe

Author : Lubomir I. Simeonov
ISBN : 9789400764613
Genre : Science
File Size : 50. 74 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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The present work is a fine contribution to the broad field of environmental security in the context of risk assessment and management of obsolete pesticides for the region of Southeast Europe. The purpose of this book is to evaluate the existing knowledge of improper disposal of obsolete pesticides in the region, to estimate the associated impact on environmental health, and to develop recommendations to mitigate or eliminate threats posed to the environment, biodiversity and human life. The issues discussed in the book include: reviews of the transport and fate of pesticides and associated contaminated materials in different environmental media and identification of the principal sources, emission routes and patterns of environmental pollution with pesticides; a recognition of the most suitable methods for environmental sampling analysis and sample preparation; an evaluation of the current methods and techniques for chemical and mass analysis of environmental and biological samples and discussion of the metrological and quality aspects of trace analyses; a characterization of the environmental and human health impacts of pesticide pollution, the health effects associated with acute and chronic exposure and the use of epidemiological data for risk assessment; a revision of the existing chemical safety regulations and strategies for protection and management of obsolete pesticide stocks; a survey of the international conventions, directives and standards concerning pesticide use.

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