historical variability of rainfall in the african east sahel of sudan implications for development springerbriefs in earth sciences

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Historical Variability Of Rainfall In The African East Sahel Of Sudan

Author : John F. Hermance
ISBN : 9783319005751
Genre : Science
File Size : 36. 41 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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The northward migration of the African monsoon rains in summer, associated with the seasonal march of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) across the plains south of the Sahara, is the most critical asset for the livelihoods of indigenous peoples and local economies of the Sahel. It is essential that climate science (and its publicly available database) play a key role in characterizing the variabilities of these rainfall patterns in space and time if sustainable life styles are to accommodate the expanding populations of the region. This study turns to the East Sahel of Sudan by analyzing over 100 years of historical rainfall data from three of the few long term standard WMO rain gauge stations in substantially different rainfall settings. From north to south, transecting the Sahel, the stations with their annual rainfall are Khartoum (130 mm); Kassala (280 mm); and Gedaref (600 mm). The conclusions challenge a popular notion that changing climate, drought and desertification in the East Sahel may have already accelerated the deterioration of its water resources. However, any evidence of a persistent and coherent regional trend of diminishing rainfall is obscure. Quite the contrary, the evidence demonstrates that the fluctuations of climate and weather patterns over the ensuing decades of the past century - at all temporal scales from days to years to decades - profoundly overwhelm any suggestion of a large-scale, coherent decrease (or increase) in rainfall. The implication is that, it is not long term change, but the highly localized interseasonal, interannual and multiannual variability of rainfall that poses the greatest and most immediate societal threat from naturally-induced causes; a process constantly destabilizing an agrarian economy struggling to survive in a climate that irregularly vacillates between years of drought and years of flooding. While this report may have some interest for climate scientists, it is primarily directed to a general readership (including students in public policy and anthropology) concerned with the availability of water in the Sahel, particularly the long term sustainability of local small-scale farms and transhumant pastoralism.

Concise Hydrology

Author : Dawei Han
ISBN : 1489572198
Genre : Science
File Size : 42. 60 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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Concise hydrology: The Arab World as a Model By Dawei Han, Edited and translated by Ayman A. Ahmed Full description in English and Arabic languages: Please access the following links for full book contents: Contents http://concisehydrology.blogspot.com/2013/07/httpwww.html https://www.facebook.com/notes/dr-ayman-ahmed/concise-hydrology-the-arab-world-as-a-model/10200539078773544/ Brief book description Hydrology is a branch of scientific and engineering discipline that deals with the occurrence, distribution, movement, and properties of the waters of the earth. A knowledge of hydrology is fundamental to water and environmental professionals (engineers, scientists and decision makers) in such tasks as the design and operation of water resources, wastewater treatment, irrigation, flood defense, navigation, pollution control, hydropower, ecosystem modelling, etc. The book covers the fundamental theories on hydrological cycle (water balance, atmospheric water, subsurface water, surface water), precipitation analysis, evaporation and evapotranspiration processes, infiltration, ground water movement, hydrograph analysis, rainfall runoff modelling (unit hydrograph), hydrological flow routing, measurements and data collection, hydrological statistics and hydrological design. The text has been written in a concise format that is integrated with the relevant graphics. There are many examples to further explain the theories introduced. The questions at the end of each chapter are accompanied by the corresponding answers and full solutions. The book is a translation version into Arabic language with examples illustrations from the Arab world to be suitable for the Arab readers. An English-Arabic dictionary for the scientific terms used in the book is also provided at the end of the book. Now the price is $18 instead of $36 (50% discount through January 2014)

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