historical variability of rainfall in the african east sahel of sudan implications for development springerbriefs in earth sciences

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Historical Variability Of Rainfall In The African East Sahel Of Sudan

Author : John F. Hermance
ISBN : 9783319005751
Genre : Science
File Size : 50. 64 MB
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The northward migration of the African monsoon rains in summer, associated with the seasonal march of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) across the plains south of the Sahara, is the most critical asset for the livelihoods of indigenous peoples and local economies of the Sahel. It is essential that climate science (and its publicly available database) play a key role in characterizing the variabilities of these rainfall patterns in space and time if sustainable life styles are to accommodate the expanding populations of the region. This study turns to the East Sahel of Sudan by analyzing over 100 years of historical rainfall data from three of the few long term standard WMO rain gauge stations in substantially different rainfall settings. From north to south, transecting the Sahel, the stations with their annual rainfall are Khartoum (130 mm); Kassala (280 mm); and Gedaref (600 mm). The conclusions challenge a popular notion that changing climate, drought and desertification in the East Sahel may have already accelerated the deterioration of its water resources. However, any evidence of a persistent and coherent regional trend of diminishing rainfall is obscure. Quite the contrary, the evidence demonstrates that the fluctuations of climate and weather patterns over the ensuing decades of the past century - at all temporal scales from days to years to decades - profoundly overwhelm any suggestion of a large-scale, coherent decrease (or increase) in rainfall. The implication is that, it is not long term change, but the highly localized interseasonal, interannual and multiannual variability of rainfall that poses the greatest and most immediate societal threat from naturally-induced causes; a process constantly destabilizing an agrarian economy struggling to survive in a climate that irregularly vacillates between years of drought and years of flooding. While this report may have some interest for climate scientists, it is primarily directed to a general readership (including students in public policy and anthropology) concerned with the availability of water in the Sahel, particularly the long term sustainability of local small-scale farms and transhumant pastoralism.

Pastoralism And Development In Africa

Author : Andy Catley
ISBN : 9780415540711
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 84. 51 MB
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Once again, the Horn of Africa has been in the headlines. And once again the news has been bad: drought, famine, conflict, hunger, suffering and death. The finger of blame has been pointed in numerous directions: to the changing climate, to environmental degradation, to overpopulation, to geopolitics and conflict, to aid agency failures, and more. But it is not all disaster and catastrophe. Many successful development efforts at 'the margins' often remain hidden, informal, sometimes illegal; and rarely in line with standard development prescriptions. If we shift our gaze from the capital cities to the regional centres and their hinterlands, then a very different perspective emerges. These are the places where pastoralists live. They have for centuries struggled with drought, conflict and famine. They are resourceful, entrepreneurial and innovative peoples. Yet they have been ignored and marginalised by the states that control their territory and the development agencies who are supposed to help them. This book argues that, while we should not ignore the profound difficulties of creating secure livelihoods in the Greater Horn of Africa, there is much to be learned from development successes, large and small. This book will be of great interest to students and scholars with an interest in development studies and human geography, with a particular emphasis on Africa. It will also appeal to development policy-makers and practitioners.

Use Of The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Ndvi To Assess Land Degradation At Multiple Scales

Author : Genesis T. Yengoh
ISBN : 9783319241128
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 37. 95 MB
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This report examines the scientific basis for the use of remotely sensed data, particularly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), primarily for the assessment of land degradation at different scales and for a range of applications, including resilience of agro-ecosystems. Evidence is drawn from a wide range of investigations, primarily from the scientific peer-reviewed literature but also non-journal sources. The literature review has been corroborated by interviews with leading specialists in the field. The report reviews the use of NDVI for a range of themes related to land degradation, including land cover change, drought monitoring and early warning systems, desertification processes, greening trends, soil erosion and salinization, vegetation burning and recovery after fire, biodiversity loss, and soil carbon. This SpringerBrief also discusses the limits of the use of NDVI for land degradation assessment and potential for future directions of use. A substantial body of peer-reviewed research lends unequivocal support for the use of coarse-resolution time series of NDVI data for studying vegetation dynamics at global, continental and sub-continental levels. There is compelling evidence that these data are highly correlated with biophysically meaningful vegetation characteristics such as photosynthetic capacity and primary production that are closely related to land degradation and to agroecosystem resilience.

Hydrological Extremes

Author : International Symposium HS1 on Hydrological Extremes: Understanding, Predicting, Mitigating
ISBN : 1901502856
Genre : Drought forecasting
File Size : 79. 73 MB
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Water And Sustainable Agriculture

Author : Iván Francisco García-Tejero
ISBN : 9400720912
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 77. 93 MB
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Irrigated agriculture, a vital component of general agriculture, supplies fruits, vegetables, and cereals consumed by humans and grains fed to animals. Consequently, agriculture is the largest user of fresh water globally, and irrigation practices in many parts of the world are biologically, economically, and socially unsustainable. Water management should balance the need for agricultural water and the need for a sustainable environment. Water-use efficiency is the prime challenge in worldwide farming practices where problems of water shortages are widespread. Currently, agriculture is undergoing significant changes in innovative irrigation, fertilizer technology, and agronomic expertise. These elements constitute a vital platform for sustainable agricultural success and for preventing environmental damage. This review presents several processes linked to environmental irrigation, balancing environmental protection with improved agricultural production.

Energy In Africa

Author : Manfred Hafner
ISBN : 9783319922195
Genre : Africa—Economic conditions
File Size : 65. 75 MB
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This open access book presents a picture of the current energy challenges on the African continent (and the Sub-Saharan region in particular) and proposes pathways to an accelerated energy transition. Starting with an analysis of the status quo and the outlook for Africa’s energy demand and energy access, it provides an account of the available resources, including hydrocarbons and renewable energy resources, which are playing an increasingly crucial role. It then moves on to analyze the level of investment required to scale-up Africa’s energy systems, shedding light on the key barriers and elaborating on potential solutions. It also provides a suggestion for improving the effectiveness of EU–Africa cooperation. While mainly intended for policymakers and academics, this book also speaks to a broader audience interested in gaining an overview of the challenges and opportunities of the African energy sector today and in the future.

Risk And Social Change In An African Rural Economy

Author : John G. McPeak
ISBN : 9781136650796
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 89. 59 MB
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Pastoralists’ role in contemporary Africa typically goes underappreciated and misunderstood by development agencies, external observers, and policymakers. Yet, arid and semi-arid lands (ASAL), which are used predominantly for extensive livestock grazing, comprise nearly half of the continent’s land mass, while a substantial proportion of national economies are based on pastoralist activities. Pastoralists use these drylands to generate income for themselves through the use of livestock and for the coffers of national trade and revenue agencies. They are frequently among the continent’s most contested and lawless regions, providing sanctuary to armed rebel groups and exposing residents to widespread insecurity and destructive violence. The continent’s millions of pastoralists thus inhabit some of Africa’s harshest and most remote, but also most ecologically, economically, and politically important regions. This study summarizes the findings of a multi-year interdisciplinary research project in pastoral areas of Kenya and Ethiopia. The cultures and ecology of these areas are described, with a particular focus on the myriad risks that confront people living in these drylands, and how these risks are often triggered by highly variable rainfall conditions. The authors examine the markets used by residents of these areas to sell livestock and livestock products and purchase consumer goods before turning to an analysis of evolving livelihood strategies. Furthermore, they focus on how well-being is conditioned upon access to livestock and access to the cash economy, gender patterns within households and the history of development activities in the area. The book concludes with a report on how these activities are assessed by people in the area and what activities they prioritize for the future. Policy in pastoral areas is often formulated on the basis of assumptions and stereotypes, without adequate empirical foundations. This book provides evidence on livelihood strategies being followed in pastoral areas, and investigates patterns in decision making and well being. It indicates the importance of livestock to the livelihoods of people in these areas, and identifies the critical and widespread importance of access to the cash economy, concluding that future development activities need to be built on the foundation of the livestock economy, instead of seeking to replace it.

Pediatric Orthopedics

Author : Amr Abdelgawad
ISBN : 9781461471264
Genre : Medical
File Size : 86. 74 MB
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​Topics in pediatric orthopedics routinely surface in general pediatrics and primary care, whether on board exams or in clinical practice. From birth injuries to musculoskeletal infections, there are many conditions and presenting complaints that must be addressed by the primary care physician or pediatrician. This concise and targeted handbook contains just the need to know conditions, injuries, and diseases necessary for residents and even seasoned clinicians to brush up on pediatric orthopedic topics with ease. Information is contained within themed chapters (like neuromuscular diseases or musculoskeletal infections) and also by anatomical region (hip, knee foot, spine, etc.). This book gives readers the basic knowledge to be able to identify common orthopedic conditions, indications to either treat these conditions or refer patient to an orthopedist, and covers the entire required curriculum needed to answer musculoskeletal questions on the pediatrics board exam.

Plant Responses To Air Pollution And Global Change

Author : Kenji Omasa
ISBN : 9784431310143
Genre : Science
File Size : 87. 97 MB
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This book reviews current topics on plant metabolism of air pollutants and elevated CO2, responses of whole plants and plant ecosystems, genetics and molecular biology for functioning improvement, experimental ecosystems and climate change research, global carbon-cycle monitoring in plant ecosystems, and other important issues. The authors, conducting research in Europe, the United States, Australia, and East Asia, present a wealth of information on their work in the field.

Autoimmune Disease

Author : Duncan Dartrey Adams
ISBN : 9789400769373
Genre : Medical
File Size : 39. 67 MB
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This book describes how the Jerne-Burnet Forbidden Clone Theory and the Adams-Knight H Gene Theory, solved the pathogenesis and genetics of the autoimmune diseases showing how specific immunotherapy and prophylaxis can be developed. Furthermore, Ebringer's discovery of two microbial triggers of autoimmune diseases is described and the conclusion drawn that all autoimmune diseases have microbial triggers, so will be preventable by the finding of the triggers and vaccination against them.

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