human subjects research after the holocaust

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Human Subjects Research After The Holocaust

Author : Sheldon Rubenfeld
ISBN : 9783319057026
Genre : Medical
File Size : 89. 61 MB
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“An engaging, compelling and disturbing confrontation with evil ...a book that will be transformative in its call for individual and collective moral responsibility." – Michael A. Grodin, M.D., Professor and Director, Project on Medicine and the Holocaust, Elie Wiesel Center for Judaic Studies, Boston University Human Subjects Research after the Holocaust challenges you to confront the misguided medical ethics of the Third Reich personally, and to apply the lessons learned to contemporary human subjects research. While it is comforting to believe that Nazi physicians, nurses, and bioscientists were either incompetent, mad, or few in number, they were, in fact, the best in the world at the time, and the vast majority participated in the government program of “applied biology.” They were not coerced to behave as they did—they enthusiastically exploited widely accepted eugenic theories to design horrendous medical experiments, gas chambers and euthanasia programs, which ultimately led to mass murder in the concentration camps. Americans provided financial support for their research, modeled their medical education and research after the Germans, and continued to perform unethical human subjects research even after the Nuremberg Doctors’ Trial. The German Medical Association apologized in 2012 for the behavior of its physicians during the Third Reich. By examining the medical crimes of human subjects researchers during the Third Reich, you will naturally examine your own behavior and that of your colleagues, and perhaps ask yourself "If the best physicians and bioscientists of the early 20th century could do evil while believing they were doing good, can I be certain that I will never do the same?"

Pediatric Epidemiology

Author : W. Kiess
ISBN : 9783318061239
Genre : Medical
File Size : 74. 86 MB
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Pediatric epidemiology differs substantially from general epidemiology especially when it comes to ethical, developmental and societal aspects. This unique book addresses biological considerations and ethical and legal questions in dealing with pediatric and adolescent populations. Classic topics, such as how to recruit representative samples, how to deal with confounding variables, and how to work with genetic information are the core areas of the book are also in focus. Last but not the least, this volume adds to the current understanding of global trends in occurrence, transmission, and control of epidemic pediatric diseases. This book not only serves as a textbook for epidemiologists, pediatricians, geneticists, and child and public health specialists but is also a key reference for those embarking on pediatric cohort studies and epidemiological studies involving the pediatric population.

Medicine After The Holocaust

Author : S. Rubenfeld
ISBN : 9780230102293
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 87. 92 MB
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Rubenfeld and the contributors to this collection posit that German physicians betrayed the Hippocratic Oath when they chose knowledge over wisdom, the state over the individual, a führer over God, and personal gain over professional ethics.

Holocaust War And Transnational Memory

Author : Stijn Vervaet
ISBN : 9781317121411
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 30. 23 MB
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Until now, there has been little scholarly attention given to the ways in which Eastern European Holocaust fiction can contribute to current debates about transnational and transgenerational memory. Yugoslav and post-Yugoslav literary narratives about the Holocaust offer a particularly interesting case because time and again Holocaust memory is represented as intersecting with other stories of extreme violence: with the suffering of the non-Jewish South-Slav population during the Second World War, with the fate of victims of Stalinist terror, and with the victims of ethnic cleansing in the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s. This book examines the emergence and transformations of Holocaust memory in the socialist Yugoslav and post-Yugoslav eras. It discusses literary texts about the Holocaust by Yugoslav and post-Yugoslav writers, situating their oeuvre in the historical and discursive context in which it emerged and paying attention to its reception at the time. The book shows how in the writing of different generational groups (the survivor generation, the 1.5, and the second and third generations), the Holocaust is a motif for understanding the nature of extreme violence, locally and globally. The book offers comparative studies of several authors as well as readings of the work of individual writers. It uncovers forgotten authors and discusses internationally well-known and translated authors such as Danilo Kiš and David Albahari. By focusing on work by Jewish and non-Jewish authors of three generations, it sheds light on the ethical and aesthetical aspects of the transgenerational transmission of Holocaust memory in the Yugoslav context. As such, this book will appeal to both students and scholars of Holocaust studies, cultural memory studies, literary studies, cultural history, cultural sociology, Balkan studies, and Eastern European politics.

Tuberculosis And War

Author : J.F. Murray
ISBN : 9783318060959
Genre : Medical
File Size : 25. 90 MB
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Tuberculosis (TB) remains the largest cause of adult deaths from any single infectious disease, and ranks among the top 10 causes of death worldwide. When TB and war occur simultaneously, the inevitable consequences are disease, human misery, suffering, and heightened mortality. TB is, therefore, one of the most frequent and deadly diseases to complicate the special circumstances of warfare. Written by internationally acclaimed experts, this book provides a comprehensive analysis of the status of TB before, during and after WWII in the 25 belligerent countries that were chiefly involved. It summarizes the history of TB up to the present day. A special chapter on “Nazi Medicine, Tuberculosis and Genocide” examines the horrendous, inhuman Nazi ideology, which during WWII used TB as a justification for murder, and targeted the disease by eradicating millions who were afflicted by it. The final chapter summarizes the lessons learned from WWII and more recent wars and recommends anti-TB measures for future conflicts. This publication is not only of interest to TB specialists and pulmonologists but also to those interested in public health, infectious diseases, war-related issues and the history of medicine. It should also appeal to nonmedical readers like journalists and politicians.

The Nuremberg Trials International Criminal Law Since 1945

Author : Lawrence Raful
ISBN : 9783110944846
Genre : History
File Size : 80. 33 MB
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60 years after the trials of the main German war criminals, the articles in this book attempt to assess the Nuremberg Trials from a historical and legal point of view, and to illustrate connections, contradictions and consequences. In view of constantly reoccurring reports of mass crimes from all over the world, we have only reached the halfway point in the quest for an effective system of international criminal justice. With the legacy of Nuremberg in mind, this volume is a contribution to the search for answers to questions of how the law can be applied effectively and those committing crimes against humanity be brought to justice for their actions.

For The Good Of Mankind

Author : Vicki Oransky Wittenstein
ISBN : 9781467706599
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 82. 88 MB
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Experiment: A child is deliberately infected with the deadly smallpox disease without his parents' informed consent. Result: The world's first vaccine. Experiment: A slave woman is forced to undergo more than thirty operations without anesthesia. Result: The beginnings of modern gynecology. Incidents like these paved the way for crucial, lifesaving medical discoveries. But they also harmed and humiliated their test subjects, many of whom did not agree to the experiments in the first place. How do doctors balance the need to test new medicines and procedures with their ethical duty to protect the rights of human subjects? Take a harrowing journey through some of history's greatest medical advances?and its most horrifying medical atrocities?to discover how human suffering has gone hand in hand with medical advancement.

Human Subjects Research Regulation

Author : I. Glenn Cohen
ISBN : 9780262320832
Genre : Law
File Size : 35. 44 MB
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The current framework for the regulation of human subjects research emerged largely in reaction to the horrors of Nazi human experimentation, revealed at the Nuremburg trials, and the Tuskegee syphilis study, conducted by U.S. government researchers from 1932 to 1972. This framework, combining elements of paternalism with efforts to preserve individual autonomy, has remained fundamentally unchanged for decades. Yet, as this book documents, it has significant flaws -- including its potential to burden important research, overprotect some subjects and inadequately protect others, generate inconsistent results, and lag behind developments in how research is conducted. Invigorated by the U.S. government's first steps toward change in over twenty years, Human Subjects Research Regulation brings together the leading thinkers in this field from ethics, law, medicine, and public policy to discuss how to make the system better. The result is a collection of novel ideas -- some incremental, some radical -- for the future of research oversight and human subject protection.After reviewing the history of U.S. research regulations, the contributors consider such topics as risk-based regulation; research involving vulnerable populations (including military personnel, children, and prisoners); the relationships among subjects, investigators, sponsors, and institutional review boards; privacy, especially regarding biospecimens and tissue banking; and the possibility of fundamental paradigm shifts.ContributorsAdam Braddock, Alexander Morgan Capron, Ellen Wright Clayton, I. Glenn Cohen, Susan Cox, Amy L. Davis, Hilary Eckert, Barbara J. Evans, Nir Eyal, Heidi Li Feldman, Benjamin Fombonne, Elisa A. Hurley, Ana S. Iltis, Gail H. Javitt, Greg Koski, Nicole Lockhart, Holly Fernandez Lynch, Michael McDonald, Michelle N. Meyer, Osagie K. Obasogie, Efthimios Parasidis, Govind Persad, Rosamond Rhodes, Suzanne M. Rivera, Zachary M. Schrag, Seema K. Shah, Jeffrey Skopek, Laura Stark, Patrick Taylor, Anne Townsend, Carol Weil, Brett A. Williams, Leslie E. Wolf

Handbook Of Models For Human Aging

Author : P. Michael Conn
ISBN : 0080460062
Genre : Medical
File Size : 25. 17 MB
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The Handbook of Models for Human Aging is designed as the only comprehensive work available that covers the diversity of aging models currently available. For each animal model, it presents key aspects of biology, nutrition, factors affecting life span, methods of age determination, use in research, and disadvantages/advantes of use. Chapters on comparative models take a broad sweep of age-related diseases, from Alzheimer's to joint disease, cataracts, cancer, and obesity. In addition, there is an historical overview and discussion of model availability, key methods, and ethical issues. Utilizes a multidisciplinary approach Shows tricks and approaches not available in primary publications First volume of its kind to combine both methods of study for human aging and animal models Over 200 illustrations

Rethinking The Holocaust

Author : Yehuda Bauer
ISBN : 0300093004
Genre : History
File Size : 74. 45 MB
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Drawing on research from various historians, the author offers opinions on how to define and explain the Holocaust, comparison to other genocides, and the connection between the Holocaust and the establishment of Israel.

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