imaging of the human brain in health and disease

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Imaging Of The Human Brain In Health And Disease

Author : Philip Seeman
ISBN : 9780124186842
Genre : Medical
File Size : 50. 52 MB
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Brain imaging technology remains at the forefront of advances in both our understanding of the brain and our ability to diagnose and treat brain disease and disorders. Imaging of the Human Brain in Health and Disease examines the localization of neurotransmitter receptors in the nervous system of normal, healthy humans and compares that with humans who are suffering from various neurologic diseases. Opening chapters introduce the basic science of imaging neurotransmitters, including sigma, acetylcholine, opioid, and dopamine receptors. Imaging the healthy and diseased brain includes brain imaging of anger, pain, autism, the release of dopamine, the impact of cannabinoids, and Alzheimer's disease. This book is a valuable companion to a wide range of scholars, students, and researchers in neuroscience, clinical neurology, and psychiatry, and provides a detailed introduction to the application of advanced imaging to the treatment of brain disorders and disease. A focused introduction to imaging healthy and diseased brains Focuses on the primary neurotransmitter release Includes sigma, acetylcholine, opioid, and dopamine receptors Presents the imaging of healthy and diseased brains via anger, pain, autism, and Alzheimer's disease

Magnetic Source Imaging Of The Human Brain

Author : Zhong-Lin Lu
ISBN : 9781135625689
Genre : HEALTH & FITNESS
File Size : 89. 93 MB
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This book is designed to acquaint serious students, scientists, and clinicians with magnetic source imaging (MSI)--a brain imaging technique of proven importance that promises even more important advances. The technique permits spatial resolution of neural events on a scale measured in millimeters and temporal resolution measured in milliseconds. Although widely mentioned in literature dealing with cognitive neuroscience and functional brain imaging, there is no single book describing both the foundations and actual methods of magnetoencephalopgraphy and its underlying science, neuromagnetism. This volume fills a long-standing need, as it is accessible to scientists and students having no special background in the field, and makes it possible for them to understand this literature and undertake their own research. A self-contained unit, this book covers MSI from beginning to end, including its relationship to allied technologies, such as electroencephalography and modern functional imaging modalities. In addition, the book: *introduces the field to the non-specialist, providing a framework for the rest of the book; *provides a thorough review of the physiological basis of MSI; *describes the mathematical bases of MSI--the forward and inverse problems; *outlines new signal processing methods that extract information from single-trial MEG; *depicts the early, as well as the most recent versions of MSI technology; *compares MSI with other imaging methodologies; *describes new paradigms and analysis techniques in applying MSI to study human perception and cognition, which are also applicable to EEG; and *reviews some of the most important results in MSI from the most prominent researchers and laboratories around the world.

Medical Imaging Physics

Author : William R. Hendee
ISBN : 9780471461135
Genre : Science
File Size : 75. 17 MB
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This comprehensive publication covers all aspects of image formation in modern medical imaging modalities, from radiography, fluoroscopy, and computed tomography, to magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. It addresses the techniques and instrumentation used in the rapidly changing field of medical imaging. Now in its fourth edition, this text provides the reader with the tools necessary to be comfortable with the physical principles, equipment, and procedures used in diagnostic imaging, as well as appreciate the capabilities and limitations of the technologies.

Mental Processes In The Human Brain

Author : Jon Driver
ISBN : 9780199230617
Genre : Medical
File Size : 47. 95 MB
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Mental Processes in the Human Brain provides an integrative overview of the rapid advances and future challenges in understanding the neurobiological basis of mental processes that are characteristically human. With chapters from leading figures in the brain sciences, it will be essential for all those in the cognitive and brain sciences.

Transmitters And Modulators In Health And Disease

Author : Seiji Shioda
ISBN : 9784431990390
Genre : Medical
File Size : 85. 33 MB
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Prominent international researchers contributed to this volume of reports advancing the study of brain function and morphology. Comprising investigations in several areas of neuroscience, the book includes research in neurodegenerative diseases and in neuroregeneration in adults. Described here are the effects of neuropeptides and biogenic amines on feeding, respiration, and other autonomic functions as well as on behavior. One chapter focuses on regulation of the blood brain barrier function by various neuropeptides, proteins, receptors, and transporters. Another is concerned with the modulation of higher brain functions by neuropeptides and biogenic monoamines. Yet another chapter presents research on ischemic neuronal damage and hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult mouse. Morphological or physiological techniques to study neuropeptides and neuromodulators influencing higher-order or brain-stem functions are given particular attention. The use of bio-imaging tools such as brain navigation systems and fMRIs with patients in a clinical setting creates new possibilities for investigation of human brain function and specialization of treatment.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Of Disturbed Brain Connectivity In Psychiatric Illness

Author : Alex Fornito
ISBN : 9782889190515
Genre :
File Size : 61. 32 MB
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The widespread application of brain imaging to the study of psychiatric disorders has led to a revolution in our understanding of the neural basis of psychiatric illness. In particular, the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has provided an unprecedented capacity for quantifying diverse aspects of brain structure and function in vivo, and has been used to identify brain changes associated with the full spectrum of psychopathology. With respect to major psychiatric disorders, it is now abundantly clear from this literature that focal brain dysfunction is rare. Rather, most disorders are associated with abnormalities in large-scale networks of spatially distributed and interconnected brain regions; i.e., they are disorders of brain connectivity. Such considerations highlight the need to understand brain dysfunction in psychiatric illness from a network-based perspective. This goal is starting to be realized through recent advances in the use of MRI to map the brain’s complex connectivity architecture. In this special edition, we invite contributions that address brain network dysfunction in psychiatric illnesses. Specifically, the work must be concerned with understanding interactions between brain regions, and how their alterations are affected by psychiatric disease. These interactions can be studied at the level of anatomy using diffusion-MRI or function using functional MRI (fMRI), with the full range of methods available (e.g., tractography, seed-based correlations, independent component analysis, graph analysis, dynamic causal modeling, etc.). Contributions can be either reviews of recent, relevant literature addressing brain network dysfunction in psychiatric disease, or experimental papers describing novel insights into brain network disturbances in such illnesses. Contributions will be invited covering a broad spectrum of psychiatric disease, including mood and anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and neurodegenerative conditions. It is intended that this volume will provide important insights into how brain networks are perturbed by psychiatric disease, and allow identification of commonalities and differences across diagnostic categories.

Nas Colloquium Neuroimaging Of Human Brain Function

Author : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
ISBN : 0309184703
Genre : Medical
File Size : 70. 76 MB
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The colloquium on "Imaging of Cognitive Function" speaks to the many audiences whose interests relate to efforts to map cognitive processes in the human brain. There are things of great interest in this collection of papers for specialists in cognition and neuroscience and imaging science as well as in disciplines interested in human development through education and training and others with intrinsic interest in the latest information on how the human brain supports thought. The papers were presented at a meeting sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences in its western home the Beckman Center at the University of California, Irvine.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Of Healthy And Diseased Brain Networks

Author : Yong He
ISBN : 9782889194353
Genre :
File Size : 70. 82 MB
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An important aspect of neuroscience is to characterize the underlying connectivity patterns of the human brain (i.e., human connectomics). Over the past few years, researchers have demonstrated that by combining a variety of different neuroimaging technologies (e.g., structural MRI, diffusion MRI and functional MRI) with sophisticated analytic strategies such as graph theory, it is possible to noninvasively map the patterns of structural and functional connectivity of human whole-brain networks. With these novel approaches, many studies have shown that human brain networks have nonrandom properties such as modularity, small-worldness and highly connected hubs. Importantly, these quantifiable network properties change with age, learning and disease. Moreover, there is growing evidence for behavioral and genetic correlates. Network analysis of neuroimaging data is opening up a new avenue of research into the understanding of the organizational principles of the brain that will be of interest for all basic scientists and clinical researchers. Such approaches are powerful but there are a number of challenging issues when extracting reliable brain networks from various imaging modalities and analyzing the topological properties, e.g., definitions of network nodes and edges and reproducibility of network analysis. We assembled contributions related to the state-of-the-art methodologies of brain connectivity and the applications involving development, aging and neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and mood and anxiety disorders. It is anticipated that the articles in this Research Topic will provide a greater range and depth of provision for the field of imaging connectomics.

Handbook Of Growth And Growth Monitoring In Health And Disease

Author : Victor R. Preedy
ISBN : 9781441917942
Genre : Health & Fitness
File Size : 44. 7 MB
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Growth is one of the human body’s most intricate processes: each body part or region has its own unique growth patterns. Yet at the individual and population levels, growth patterns are sensitive to adverse conditions, genetic predispositions, and environmental changes. And despite the body’s capacity to compensate for these developmental setbacks, the effects may be far-reaching, even life-long. The Handbook of Growth and Growth Monitoring in Health and Disease brings this significant and complex field together in one comprehensive volume: impact of adverse variables on growth patterns; issues at different stages of prenatal development, childhood, and adolescence; aspects of catch-up growth, endocrine regulation, and sexual maturation; screening and assessment methods; and international perspectives. Tables and diagrams, applications to other areas of health and disease, and summary points help make the information easier to retain. Together, over 180 self-contained chapters in 15 sections cover every area of human growth, including: Intrauterine growth retardation. Postnatal growth in normal and abnormal situations. Cells and growth of tissues. Sensory growth and development. Effects of disease on growth. Methods and standards for assessment of growth, and more. The Handbook of Growth and Growth Monitoring in Health and Disease is an invaluable addition to the reference libraries of a wide range of health professionals, among them health scientists, physicians, physiologists, nutritionists, dieticians, nurses, public health researchers, epidemiologists, exercise physiologists, and physical therapists. It is also useful to college-level students and faculty in the health disciplines, and to policymakers and health economists.

Angelo Mosso S Circulation Of Blood In The Human Brain

Author : Marcus E. Raichle
ISBN : 9780199359004
Genre : Medical
File Size : 77. 66 MB
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Modern brain imaging is revolutionizing the study of brain function in health and disease. However, few realize that its origins began in the nineteenth century with Dr. Angelo Mosso's pioneering experiments. A foremost Italian physiologist and scientist, Angelo Mosso studied several patients brought to him with head injuries that exposed their live brains to direct, long-term observation. He took advantage of these rare opportunities to document, for the first time, changes in cerebral blood flow in response to different stimuli, behaviors, and emotions, the very same changes that are now the basis for the measurements underlying modern functional brain imaging. Mosso was widely recognized by his contemporaries for his highly original studies, published both in Italian in 1878 and in German in 1881. Yet there has never been a translation through which this groundbreaking work could be appreciated by the English-speaking world. Indeed, Angelo Mosso's sophisticated experiments were to neuroscience what surgeon William Beaumont's in vivo observations were to gastric physiology fifty years earlier. This unique monograph establishes Mosso's rightful role as the pioneer of brain imaging. Through it, the modern reader, whether expert neuroscientist or interested student, can gain a new perspective on the author's remarkable insights: how behaviors as subtle as thinking about a subject or feeling an emotion produce the changes in pulsations of the brain that he observed and recorded for posterity. Special features of this volume include first a brief summary of Mosso's life. Two pioneers of modern brain imaging, Marcus E. Raichle (winner of the Kavli Prize for Neuroscience) and Gordon M. Shepherd (Yale University Professor of Neurobiology) then review Mosso's work and provide extensive commentary to explain its relevance to modern brain science. The authors not only emphasize Mosso's pioneering role in brain imaging, but also his fundamental contribution to the rise of cognitive neuroscience. The English translation (by historian of medicine Christiane Nockels Fabbri) follows, together with all of the plates and illustrations of the original volume. The result is a classic of neuroscience, now available for wide appreciation by neuroscientists, neurologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, historians of science and medicine, and the general public.

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