imitation of life how biology is inspiring computing mit press

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Imitation Of Life

Author : Nancy Forbes
ISBN : 0262562154
Genre : Computers
File Size : 63. 54 MB
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As computers and the tasks they perform become increasingly complex, researchers are looking to nature -- as model and as metaphor -- for inspiration. The organization and behavior of biological organisms present scientists with an invitation to reinvent computing for the complex tasks of the future. In Imitation of Life, Nancy Forbes surveys the emerging field of biologically inspired computing, looking at some of the most impressive and influential examples of this fertile synergy.Forbes points out that the influence of biology on computing goes back to the early days of computer science -- John von Neumann, the architect of the first digital computer, used the human brain as the model for his design. Inspired by von Neumann and other early visionaries, as well as by her work on the "Ultrascale Computing" project at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Forbes describes the exciting potential of these revolutionary new technologies. She identifies three strains of biologically inspired computing: the use of biology as a metaphor or inspiration for the development of algorithms; the construction of information processing systems that use biological materials or are modeled on biological processes, or both; and the effort to understand how biological organisms "compute," or process information.Forbes then shows us how current researchers are using these approaches. In successive chapters, she looks at artificial neural networks; evolutionary and genetic algorithms, which search for the "fittest" among a generation of solutions; cellular automata; artificial life -- not just a simulation, but "alive" in the internal ecosystem of the computer; DNA computation, which uses the encoding capability of DNA to devise algorithms; self-assembly and its potential use in nanotechnology; amorphous computing, modeled on the kind of cooperation seen in a colony of cells or a swarm of bees; computer immune systems; bio-hardware and how bioelectronics compares to silicon; and the "computational" properties of cells.

Catalyzing Inquiry At The Interface Of Computing And Biology

Author : Committee on Frontiers at the Interface of Computing and Biology
ISBN : 9780309096126
Genre : Science
File Size : 58. 80 MB
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Advances in computer science and technology and in biology over the last several years have opened up the possibility for computing to help answer fundamental questions in biology and for biology to help with new approaches to computing. Making the most of the research opportunities at the interface of computing and biology requires the active participation of people from both fields. While past attempts have been made in this direction, circumstances today appear to be much more favorable for progress. To help take advantage of these opportunities, this study was requested of the NRC by the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, the National Institutes of Health, and the Department of Energy. The report provides the basis for establishing cross-disciplinary collaboration between biology and computing including an analysis of potential impediments and strategies for overcoming them. The report also presents a wealth of examples that should encourage students in the biological sciences to look for ways to enable them to be more effective users of computing in their studies.

Fundamentals Of Natural Computing

Author : Leandro Nunes de Castro
ISBN : 9781420011449
Genre : Science
File Size : 82. 44 MB
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Natural computing brings together nature and computing to develop new computational tools for problem solving; to synthesize natural patterns and behaviors in computers; and to potentially design novel types of computers. Fundamentals of Natural Computing: Basic Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications presents a wide-ranging survey of novel techniques and important applications of nature-based computing. This book presents theoretical and philosophical discussions, pseudocodes for algorithms, and computing paradigms that illustrate how computational techniques can be used to solve complex problems, simulate nature, explain natural phenomena, and possibly allow the development of new computing technologies. The author features a consistent and approachable, textbook-style format that includes lucid figures, tables, real-world examples, and different types of exercises that complement the concepts while encouraging readers to apply the computational tools in each chapter. Building progressively upon core concepts of nature-inspired techniques, the topics include evolutionary computing, neurocomputing, swarm intelligence, immunocomputing, fractal geometry, artificial life, quantum computing, and DNA computing. Fundamentals of Natural Computing is a self-contained introduction and a practical guide to nature-based computational approaches that will find numerous applications in a variety of growing fields including engineering, computer science, biological modeling, and bioinformatics.

Engineering Optimization

Author : Singiresu S. Rao
ISBN : 9780470183526
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 56. 90 MB
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Technology/Engineering/Mechanical Helps you move from theory to optimizing engineering systems in almost any industry Now in its Fourth Edition, Professor Singiresu Rao's acclaimed text Engineering Optimization enables readers to quickly master and apply all the important optimization methods in use today across a broad range of industries. Covering both the latest and classical optimization methods, the text starts off with the basics and then progressively builds to advanced principles and applications. This comprehensive text covers nonlinear, linear, geometric, dynamic, and stochastic programming techniques as well as more specialized methods such as multiobjective, genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, neural networks, particle swarm optimization, ant colony optimization, and fuzzy optimization. Each method is presented in clear, straightforward language, making even the more sophisticated techniques easy to grasp. Moreover, the author provides: Case examples that show how each method is applied to solve real-world problems across a variety of industries Review questions and problems at the end of each chapter to engage readers in applying their newfound skills and knowledge Examples that demonstrate the use of MATLAB® for the solution of different types of practical optimization problems References and bibliography at the end of each chapter for exploring topics in greater depth Answers to Review Questions available on the author's Web site to help readers to test their understanding of the basic concepts With its emphasis on problem-solving and applications, Engineering Optimization is ideal for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in mechanical, civil, electrical, chemical, and aerospace engineering. In addition, the text helps practicing engineers in almost any industry design improved, more efficient systems at less cost.

Culture As Capital

Author : Slavko Kacunko
ISBN : 9783832538996
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 41. 68 MB
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By following and reproducing the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and, ultimately, financial affair. In some of its media and site-(un)specific manifestations, process art - which aims to encompass both old and new media art - seems to resist this pressure, despite, nonetheless, not being protected from regulations and incorporations. In the present collection of his recent essays, Slavko Kacunko discusses the process art by crossing the disciplines of art history and comparative media-, visual- and -cultural studies. As a first approximation, several historiographical remarks on closed-circuit video installations underline their importance as a core category of process art. In the second part, the problems of process art, seen as a threshold of art history, are further examined in another retroanalytical step, in which concepts and objects related to `mirror', `frame' and `immediacy' are analyzed as the triple delimitation of visual culture studies. In the third part, previously outlined manifestations of what is termed the `post-visual condition' are summarized and projected to the `coreless core' of the emerging art and research related to the coreless beings par excellence, the bacteria.

The Genie In The Machine

Author : Robert Plotkin
ISBN : 9780804756990
Genre : Law
File Size : 40. 1 MB
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The Genie in the Machine examines how computers are being used to automate the process of inventing, and explains the steps that high-tech companies, patent lawyers, inventors, and consumers should take to thrive in the upcoming Artificial Invention Age.

Imitation In Animals And Artifacts

Author : Chrystopher L. Nehaniv
ISBN : 0262042037
Genre : Computers
File Size : 49. 3 MB
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An interdisciplinary overview of current research on imitation in animals and artifacts.

Faraday Maxwell And The Electromagnetic Field

Author : Nancy Forbes
ISBN : 9781616149437
Genre : Science
File Size : 80. 6 MB
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The story of two brilliant nineteenth-century scientists who discovered the electromagnetic field, laying the groundwork for the amazing technological and theoretical breakthroughs of the twentieth century Two of the boldest and most creative scientists of all time were Michael Faraday (1791-1867) and James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879). This is the story of how these two men - separated in age by forty years - discovered the existence of the electromagnetic field and devised a radically new theory which overturned the strictly mechanical view of the world that had prevailed since Newton's time. The authors, veteran science writers with special expertise in physics and engineering, have created a lively narrative that interweaves rich biographical detail from each man's life with clear explanations of their scientific accomplishments. Faraday was an autodidact, who overcame class prejudice and a lack of mathematical training to become renowned for his acute powers of experimental observation, technological skills, and prodigious scientific imagination. James Clerk Maxwell was highly regarded as one of the most brilliant mathematical physicists of the age. He made an enormous number of advances in his own right. But when he translated Faraday's ideas into mathematical language, thus creating field theory, this unified framework of electricity, magnetism and light became the basis for much of later, 20th-century physics. Faraday's and Maxwell's collaborative efforts gave rise to many of the technological innovations we take for granted today - from electric power generation to television, and much more. Told with panache, warmth, and clarity, this captivating story of their greatest work - in which each played an equal part - and their inspiring lives will bring new appreciation to these giants of science.

Alan Turing His Work And Impact

Author : S. Barry Cooper
ISBN : 9780123870124
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 80. 16 MB
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In this 2013 winner of the prestigious R.R. Hawkins Award from the Association of American Publishers, as well as the 2013 PROSE Awards for Mathematics and Best in Physical Sciences & Mathematics, also from the AAP, readers will find many of the most significant contributions from the four-volume set of the Collected Works of A. M. Turing. These contributions, together with commentaries from current experts in a wide spectrum of fields and backgrounds, provide insight on the significance and contemporary impact of Alan Turing's work. Offering a more modern perspective than anything currently available, Alan Turing: His Work and Impact gives wide coverage of the many ways in which Turing's scientific endeavors have impacted current research and understanding of the world. His pivotal writings on subjects including computing, artificial intelligence, cryptography, morphogenesis, and more display continued relevance and insight into today's scientific and technological landscape. This collection provides a great service to researchers, but is also an approachable entry point for readers with limited training in the science, but an urge to learn more about the details of Turing's work. 2013 winner of the prestigious R.R. Hawkins Award from the Association of American Publishers, as well as the 2013 PROSE Awards for Mathematics and Best in Physical Sciences & Mathematics, also from the AAP Named a 2013 Notable Computer Book in Computing Milieux by Computing Reviews Affordable, key collection of the most significant papers by A.M. Turing Commentary explaining the significance of each seminal paper by preeminent leaders in the field Additional resources available online

Turing S Cathedral

Author : George Dyson
ISBN : 9780375422775
Genre : Science
File Size : 27. 75 MB
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Documents the innovations of a group of eccentric geniuses who developed computer code in the mid-20th century as part of mathematician Alan Turin's theoretical universal machine idea, exploring how their ideas led to such developments as digital television, modern genetics and the hydrogen bomb.

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