in black and white race and sports in america

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In Black And White

Author : Kenneth L. Shropshire
ISBN : 9780814739679
Genre : Sports & Recreation
File Size : 33. 10 MB
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From the days of the Negro Leagues in baseball up to the present when collegiate basketball factories entice and then fail to educate young black men, sports in America have long served as a barometer of the country's racial climate. Just as blacks are generally absent from the upper echelons of corporate America, they are similarly underrepresented from the front offices of the sports industry as well. In this compact volume, Kenneth L. Shropshire confronts prominent racial myths head-on, offering both a descriptive history of--and prescriptive solutions for--the most pressing problems currently plaguing sports. At present, whites have a 95% ownership stake in professional basketball, baseball, and football teams. And yet, when confronted with programs intended to diversify their front offices, many teams resort to the familiar refrain of merit-based excuses: there simply aren't enough qualified black candidates or they don't know how to network. While more subtle, this approach has the same effect as the racist comments of an Al Campanis or a Marge Schott: it stigmatizes and excludes African-Americans. In the insular world of sports, characterized by a feeder system through which former players often move up to become coaches, managers, executives, and owners, blacks are eminently qualified. For example, after decades of active involvement with their sport, they often bring to the table experiences more relevant to the black players which make up the majority of professional athletes. Given the centrality of sport in American life, it is imperative that the industry be a leader, not a laggard, in the arena of racial equality. Informed by Frederick Douglass's belief that power concedes nothing without a demand, In Black and White casts its net widely, dissecting claims of colorblindness and reverse racism as self-serving, rhetorical camouflage and scrutinizing professional and collegiate sports, sports agents, and owners alike. No mere critique, however, the volume looks optimistically forward, outlining strategies of interest to all those who have a stake, professional or otherwise, in sports and racial equality.

White Sports Black Sports Racial Disparities In Athletic Programs

Author : Lori Latrice Martin Ph.D.
ISBN : 9781440800542
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 35. 60 MB
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The racial makeup of sports in the United States serves as a classic example of racism in the 21st century. This book examines the racial disparities in sports and the continuing significance of race in 21st-century America, debunking the myth of a "postracial society." • Examines how race and sports are powerful social constructions • Presents examples of how sports can serve as both a liberating and an oppressive force • Explains how sports influence and are influenced by society and the ways in which institutional barriers and personal practices perpetuate racism in sports and in the society at large • Documents how historic racial stereotypes, such as the "brute" and "sapphire" caricatures, are alive and well in the world of sports

Darwin S Athletes

Author : John Milton Hoberman
ISBN : 0395822920
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 70. 33 MB
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A provocative, disturbing, and important look at society's distorted fixation on African-American athletic achievement discredits the American myth that sports provide an escape from the ghetto and many other common beliefs about athletics and racial equality. Reprint.

Sports And The Racial Divide

Author : Michael E. Lomax
ISBN : 9781617030468
Genre : African American athletes
File Size : 85. 25 MB
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With essays by Ron Briley, Michael Ezra, Sarah K. Fields, Billy Hawkins, Jorge Iber, Kurt Kemper, Michael E. Lomax, Samuel O. Regalado, Richard Santillan, and Maureen Smith This anthology explores the intersection of race, ethnicity, and sports and analyzes the forces that shaped the African American and Latino sports experience in post-World War II America. Contributors reveal that sports often reinforced dominant ideas about race and racial supremacy but that at other times sports became a platform for addressing racial and social injustices. The African American sports experience represented the continuation of the ideas of Black Nationalism--racial solidarity, black empowerment, and a determination to fight against white racism. Three of the essayists discuss the protest at the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City. In football, baseball, basketball, boxing, and track and field, African American athletes moved toward a position of group strength, establishing their own values and simultaneously rejecting the cultural norms of whites. Among Latinos, athletic achievement inspired community celebrations and became a way to express pride in ethnic and religious heritages as well as a diversion from the work week. Sports was a means by which leadership and survival tactics were developed and used in the political arena and in the fight for justice.Michael E. Lomax is associate professor of health and sport studies at the University of Iowa and the author of Black Baseball Entrepreneurs, 1860-1901: Operating by Any Means Necessary.Kenneth L. Shropshire is David W. Hauck Professor at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and director of the school's Sports Business initiative.

Taboo

Author : Jon Entine
ISBN : 9780786724505
Genre : Sports & Recreation
File Size : 47. 70 MB
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In virtually every sport in which they are given opportunity to compete, people of African descent dominate. East Africans own every distance running record. Professional sports in the Americas are dominated by men and women of West African descent. Why have blacks come to dominate sports? Are they somehow physically better? And why are we so uncomfortable when we discuss this? Drawing on the latest scientific research, journalist Jon Entine makes an irrefutable case for black athletic superiority. We learn how scientists have used numerous, bogus "scientific" methods to prove that blacks were either more or less superior physically, and how racist scientists have often equated physical prowess with intellectual deficiency. Entine recalls the long, hard road to integration, both on the field and in society. And he shows why it isn't just being black that matters—it makes a huge difference as to where in Africa your ancestors are from.Equal parts sports, science and examination of why this topic is so sensitive, Taboois a book that will spark national debate.

Out Of Bounds Racism And The Black Athlete

Author : Lori Latrice Martin Ph.D.
ISBN : 9780313399381
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 26. 30 MB
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This collection of essays highlights the controversies surrounding racism in sports and African American athletes, examining the racial discrimination that exists in one of the most public arenas in the 21st century. • Enables readers to comprehend how sports influence—and are influenced by—society, and grasp that both race and sports are powerful social constructions • Contains contributions from sociologist and social theorist Joe Feagin, a highly respected authority on the subject of race • Identifies and discusses the institutional barriers and personal practices regarding African Americans that perpetuate racism in sports and our society at large

Ballers Of The New School

Author : Thabiti Lewis
ISBN : 0883783118
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 89. 25 MB
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"Ballers of the New School is indeed an apropos title for Thabiti Lewis's Challenging and innovative take on a new generation of black athletes. Punctuated with striking candor and an adroit understanding of contemporary popular cuture, Lewis's Ballers of the New School is a much needed addition to scholarship on race and sports." ---Mark Anthony Neal, author of New Black Man "Coming out of nowhere like a Mike Tyson uppercut, Thabiti Lewis's Ballers of the New School is a shock to the system. Rarely has the intersection of sports and race and race-ISM been discussed with such bracing honesty, such generosity and such anger born of love. It's an absolute stunner." ---Dave Zirin, author of A People's History of Sports in the United States Ballers of the New School is a timely and important work. At once a scholarly triumph, powerful social critique, and moving personal story, it challenges readers to set aside received wisdom that sports are the epitome of racial harmony and progress and reflect seriously on structures of racial inequality and how African Americans have struggled against them. Lewis is to be commended for pairing a penetrating critical analysis with an impassioned call for action directed at players, gatekeepers, and fans." ---Richard King, Washington State University, Ethnic Studies Chairman

Race Sport And Politics

Author : Ben Carrington
ISBN : 9781849204293
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 42. 99 MB
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Written by one of the leading international authorities on the sociology of race and sport, this is the first book to address sport's role in 'the making of race', the place of sport within black diasporic struggles for freedom and equality, and the contested location of sport in relation to the politics of recognition within contemporary multicultural societies. Race, Sport and Politics shows how, during the first decades of the twentieth century, the idea of 'the natural black athlete' was invented in order to make sense of and curtail the political impact and cultural achievements of black sportswomen and men. More recently, 'the black athlete' as sign has become a highly commodified object within contemporary hyper-commercialized sports-media culture thus limiting the transformative potential of critically conscious black athleticism to re-imagine what it means to be both black and human in the twenty-first century. Race, Sport and Politics will be of interest to students and scholars in sociology of culture and sport, the sociology of race and diaspora studies, postcolonial theory, cultural theory and cultural studies.

The Unlevel Playing Field

Author : David Kenneth Wiggins
ISBN : 0252028201
Genre : Sports & Recreation
File Size : 65. 91 MB
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This extraordinarily rich compendium of primary sources charts the significant, intertwining history of African Americans and sport. The Unlevel Playing Field contains more than one hundred documents -- ranging chronologically from a challenge issued by prize fighter Tom Molineaux in the London Times in 1810 to a forward-looking interview with Harry Edwards in 2000. Introductions and head-notes provided by David K. Wiggins and Patrick B. Miller place each document in context, shaping an unrivaled narrative.Readers will find dozens of accounts taken from newspapers (both black and white), periodicals, and autobiographies, by literary and sports figures, activists, historians, and others. Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. DuBois, Booker T. Washington, Marcus Garvey, James Weldon Johnson, Richard Wright, A. S. "Doc" Young, Eldredge Cleaver, Nikki Giovanni, John Edgar Wideman, bell hooks, James Baldwin, Roy Wilkins, Henry Louis Gates, and Gerald Early are included here.Tracing the participation of blacks in American sport from the days of slavery, The Unlevel Playing Field touches on nearly every major sport and covers the full sweep of America's past. Documents include discussions of the color line in organized baseball during the Jim Crow era and athletics in the American army, as well as portraits of turn-of-the-century figures like the champion sprint cyclist Marshall "Major" Taylor and boxers George Dixon and Jack Johnson.Other selections tackle the National Tennis Association championship, high school basketball, debates over participation of black athletes in the 1968 Olympics, and the place of African American women in sport. Countless pioneering and modern-day African American athletes are spotlighted here, from Jackie Robinson, Jesse Owens, Joe Louis, Muhammad Ali, and Althea Gibson, to Michael Jordan, Tiger Woods, and Venus and Serena Williams.A thorough and informative bibliographical essay by Wiggins and Miller concludes the volume.

The Oxford Handbook Of Sports History

Author : Robert Edelman
ISBN : 9780199858927
Genre : History
File Size : 27. 12 MB
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Orwell was wrong. Sports are not "war without the shooting", nor are they "war by other means." To be sure sports have generated animosity throughout human history, but they also require rules to which the participants agree to abide before the contest. Among other things, those rules are supposed to limit violence, even death. More than anything else, sports have been a significant part of a historical "civilizing process." They are the opposite of war. As the historical profession has taken its cultural turn over the last few decades, scholars have turned their attention to subject once seen as marginal. As researchers have come to understand the centrality of the human body in human history, they have come to study this most corporeal of human activities. Taking early cues from physical educators and kinesiologists, historians have been exploring sports in all their forms in order to help us answer the most fundamental questions to which scholars have devoted their lives. We have now seen a veritable explosion excellent work on this subject, just as sports have assumed an even greater share of a globalizing world's cultural, political and economic space. Practiced by millions and watched by billions, sports provide an enormous share of content on the Internet. This volume combines the efforts of sports historians with essays by historians whose careers have been devoted to more traditional topics. We want to show how sports have evolved from ancient societies to the world we inhabit today. Our goal is to introduce those from outside this sub-field to this burgeoning body of scholarship. At the same time, we hope here to show those who may want to study sport with rigor and nuance how to embark on a rewarding journey and tackle profound matters that have affected and will affect all of humankind.

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