industrial espionage and technology transfer britain and france in the eighteenth century

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Industrial Espionage And Technology Transfer

Author : John R Harris
ISBN : 9781351927772
Genre :
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Britain and France were the leading industrial nations in 18th-century Europe. This book examines the rivalry which existed between the two nations and the methods used by France to obtain the skilled manpower and technology which had given Britain the edge - particularly in the new coal-based technologies. Despite the British Act of 1719 which outlawed industrial espionage and technology transfer, France continued to bring key industrial workers from Britain and to acquire British machinery and production methods. Drawing on a mass of unpublished archival material, this book investigates the nature and application of British laws and the involvement of some major British industrialists in these issues, and discusses the extent to which French espionage had any real success. In the process it presents an in-depth understanding of 18th-century economies, and the cultures and bureaucracies which were so important in shaping economic life. Above all, the late John Harris saw the history of industrial espionage as 'one means of restoring the thoughts and activities of human beings to the centre stage of industrial history'. These are the stories of individuals - Holkers, Trudaines, Wilkinsons, or Milnes - and their impact on the world.

Women And Work In Eighteenth Century France

Author : Daryl M. Hafter
ISBN : 9780807158333
Genre : History
File Size : 85. 2 MB
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In the eighteenth century, French women were active in a wide range of employments-from printmaking to running whole-sale businesses-although social and legal structures frequently limited their capacity to work independently. The contributors to Women and Work in Eighteenth-Century France reveal how women at all levels of society negotiated these structures with determination and ingenuity in order to provide for themselves and their families. Recent historiography on women and work in eighteenth-century France has focused on the model of the "family economy," in which women's work existed as part of the communal effort to keep the family afloat, usually in support of the patriarch's occupation. The ten essays in this volume offer case studies that complicate the conventional model: wives of ship captains managed family businesses in their husbands' extended absences; high-end prostitutes managed their own households; female weavers, tailors, and merchants increasingly appeared on eighteenth-century tax rolls and guild membership lists; and female members of the nobility possessed and wielded the same legal power as their male counterparts. Examining female workers within and outside of the context of family, Women and Work in Eighteenth-Century France challenges current scholarly assumptions about gender and labor. This stimulating and important collection of essays broadens our understanding of the diversity, vitality, and crucial importance of women's work in the eighteenth-century economy.

An Administrative Bureau During The Old Regime

Author : Harold Talbot Parker
ISBN : 0874134676
Genre : Political Science
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"This scholarly work throws light on the qualities of the French royal administration during the reign of Louis XVI, which was one of the most enduring legacies of the French monarchy to later regimes, and on the relations of that administration to the French economy and people." "In the Controller General's department, the Bureau of Commerce was the center of administrative thought about the relations of the French royal government to French industry. Through a flow-of-activity, flow-of-consciousness narrative, author Harold T. Parker seeks to discover and to communicate how the Bureau's four executive intendants of commerce, individually and collegially, operated during twenty-nine months in routine performance and in the management of two major crises: the mass mutiny of most French textile artisans against the Bureau's new textile regulations and the developing surge of British inventions, productivity, and competitiveness, especially in textiles and iron and steel." "This book thus bears on the nature of the royal administration on the eve of the French Revolution. It tends to confirm and illustrate the thesis advanced in other monographs that, except in the realm of financing the deficit, Louis XVI was a dutiful and reasonably successful administrative monarch. He appointed professionals to head his major administrative departments - War (Army), Navy, Foreign Affairs, and Controller-Generalcy. He himself did his part in hearing reports and reaching decisions, and together with his ministers and their subordinate civil servants he was restoring French strength in the army, navy, foreign affairs, and administrative/industrial effort." "Not only were the four intendants hampered by the two crises in industry but also by the encrusted legal legacy of multitudinous privileges of provinces, towns, clergy, nobles, semipublic agencies (Farmers General), and other ministerial departments. Nevertheless, in their own minds the intendants thought they were making solid advances toward the development of a balanced French economy." "The response of the French people, it seems, varied. Between the managers at the center of legal authority and power and the subordinate subjects the relationship was not necessarily one of automatic obedience to royal command. Rather there was often a gray zone of stalling and negotiation, always with the lurking possibility of successful defiance of any royal order." "Dr. Parker's study is also a quiet comment on how narrative history ought to be written. Most narrative historians purport to represent symbolically what actually happened - yet they introduce a degree of narrative order and abstraction that never existed. History is actually often meandering and frequently a surprise, and the narrative in this book tries to suggest that. The account is therefore rich both in what it says and in what it suggests."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Bourgeois Revolution In France 1789 1815

Author : Henry Heller
ISBN : 1845456505
Genre : History
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In the last generation the classic Marxist interpretation of the French Revolution has been challenged by the so-called revisionist school. The Marxist view that the Revolution was a bourgeois and capitalist revolution has been questioned by Anglo-Saxon revisionists like Alfred Cobban and William Doyle as well as a French school of criticism headed by Francois Furet. Today revisionism is the dominant interpretation of the Revolution both in the academic world and among the educated public. Against this conception, this book reasserts the view that the Revolution - the capital event of the modern age - was indeed a capitalist and bourgeois revolution. Based on an analysis of the latest historical scholarship as well as on knowledge of Marxist theories of the transition from feudalism to capitalism, the work confutes the main arguments and contentions of the revisionist school while laying out a narrative of the causes and unfolding of the Revolution from the eighteenth century to the Napoleonic Age.

Essays In Industry And Technology In The 18th Century

Author : John Raymond Harris
ISBN : UCAL:B4438970
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 81. 59 MB
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This collection of essays is devoted to the industrial history of England and France in the 18th century and concentrates in particular on transfers of technology between them. There are specific studies of technical transfer in the steel, glass and hardware industries, and on the place of the skills of the workmen in the diffusion of technology. Industrial espionage, too, early had its place, and one essay investigates why it was resorted to and how it was carried out. In the new introductory chapter, John Harris surveys the rise of a new range of technologies in England, based on dramatic increase in the use of coal, and emphasises that this was basic to British industrial leadership and a main reason for her expertise being desired abroad. Throughout, the part played by individuals - from inventors and entrepreneurs to managers, ministers and skilled workers - is regarded as essential to the process of industrial development.Ce recueil est voué à l'histoire industrielle de l'Angleterre et de la France au 18e siècle et se concentre plus particulièrement sur les transferts de technologie entre les deux pays. Certaines études traitent spécifiquement des échanges techniques dans l'industrie de l'acier et celle du verre, ainsi que de l'importance de la compétence des ouvriers quant à la diffusion de la technologie. L'espionage industriel, qui lui aussi a rapidement vu jour, fait le sujet d'un article enquêtant sur sa raison d'être et les méthodes employées. Dans le nouveau chapître d'introduction, John Harris évalue l'essor d'un nouvel éventail de technologie en Angleterre, basé sur l'augmentation dramatique de la consommation de charbon; il insiste que ce fait était à la base de la préponderance industrielle britannique et l'une des raisons principales pour lesquelles son expertise était si recherchée à l'étranger. Le rôle joué par l'individu - de l'inventeur à l'administrateur en passant par les entrepreneurs, les ministres et les ouvriers spécialisés - est constamment souligné au travers du volume comme étant l'un des facteurs essentiels du processus de développement industriel.

International Technology Transfer

Author : David J. Jeremy
ISBN : UOM:39015019850588
Genre : Business & Economics
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Technology transfer is widely recognized as a principal means of relieving world poverty. In the absence of a comprehensive theory of transfer, developing countries must rely on the experience of their predecessors, that is on case studies of earlier transfers. This volume provides ten such case studies. Ranging over the period 1700 1914 and across Britain, France, Germany, Russia, the United States and Japan, the cases span technologies as diverse as textiles, iron and steel, railways, heavy chemicals, the telegraph, the telephone and electric lamp manufacture. While focused on a particular technology or range of technologies, each study examines one or more aspects of the transfer process: inhibiting factors in the originating society, vehicles and routes of transfer, conditions for successful adoption in a receptor economy, circumstances shaping modifications and benefits from reverse flows.

Journal Of Economic Literature

Author :
ISBN : UCSD:31822027659267
Genre : Economics
File Size : 90. 29 MB
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The Fibre That Changed The World

Author : D. A. Farnie
ISBN : STANFORD:36105114256709
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 75. 32 MB
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This volume offers new and global perspectives on the cotton industry. One group of essays sets it in its global context. A second group undertakes a detailed survey of eight different states, including the major players in the world league of cotton textile producers. The data and the views presented offer a range of challenges to currently-accepted interpretations, not least the depreciation of the role of the industry during British industrialization and the myth of the destructive impact of western competition upon the craft industries of Asia.

Global Technology Transfer

Author : John Chumack
ISBN : 1590331818
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 75. 85 MB
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Governments the world over fret continuously about the low level of transfer of technology, especially within their own countries. The general problem is military to industry although the variations are numerous. Problems of presentation, offering and support complicate an already byzantine world. Yet somewhere within this dilemma lie the seeds of tomorrow's economic uptick. Besides the nontrivial problems involved here, the reluctance of the people having the technology to share it with someone who can profit from it, stands out. This book presents the issues and offers a comprehensive bibliography for easy access.

The French Revolution And British Culture

Author : Ceri Crossley
ISBN : UOM:39015015334637
Genre : History
File Size : 43. 88 MB
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This volume of essays by distinguished British and North American scholars examines British responses to the French Revolution and the ways in which the idea of the Revolution was mediated into British culture. The manner in which the culture of one country appropriates the culture of another is complex and is a process which develops over time. After the initial political impact of the French Revolution, facts and events were transformed and reinterpreted within British culture. For the modern intellectual historian, what is significant is the variety of ways in which British culture represented the French Revolution and assigned meanings to it. The Revolution exercised its greatest influence on politics and political thought, but it is equally possible to trace its presence in such diverse areas as economic and social history, historiography and sociology, literature, and political philosophy--topics which are all represented in this volume.

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