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Information Theory Models Of Instabilities In Critical Systems

Author : Rodrick Wallace
ISBN : 9789813147300
Genre : Computers
File Size : 32. 14 MB
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The book is a unique exploration of a spectrum of unexpected analogs to psychopathologies likely to afflict real-time critical systems, written by a specialist in the epidemiology of mental disorders. The purpose of this book is to develop a set of information-theoretic statistical tools for analyzing the instabilities of real-time cognitive systems at those varying scales and levels of organization, with special focus on high level machine function. The book should be of particular interest to both industry and academic scientists, and government regulators, concerned with driverless cars on intelligent roads. Many of the same concerns also afflict high-end automated weapons systems. The book should appeal to students, researchers, and industrial and governmental administrators facing the design, operation, and maintenance of real time critical systems ranging across manufacturing facilities, transportation, finance, and military operations.

Computational Psychiatry

Author : Rodrick Wallace
ISBN : 9783319539102
Genre : Science
File Size : 48. 32 MB
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This book explores mental disorders from a uniquely evolutionary perspective. Although there have been many attempts to mathematically model neural processes and, to some extent, their dysfunction, there is very little literature that models mental function within a sociocultural, socioeconomic, and environmental context. Addressing this gap in the extant literature, this book explores essential aspects of mental disorders, recognizing the ubiquitous role played by the exaptation of crosstalk between cognitive modules at many different scales and levels of organization, the missing heritability of complex diseases, and cultural epigenetics. Further, it introduces readers to valuable control theory tools that permit the exploration of the environmental induction of neurodevelopmental disorders, as well as the study of the synergism between culture, psychopathology and sleep disorders, offering a distinctively unique resource.

Information Studies And The Quest For Transdisciplinarity Unity Through Diversity

Author : Burgin Mark
ISBN : 9789813109018
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 70. 31 MB
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This book is the second volume of a two-volume edition based on the International Society for Information Studies Summit Vienna 2015 on "The Information Society at the Crossroads. Response and Responsibility of the Sciences of Information" (see summit.is4is.org). The book gives an up-to-date multiaspect exposition of contemporary studies in the field of information and related areas. It presents most recent achievements, ideas and opinions of leading researchers in this domain reflecting their quest for advancing information science and technology. With the goal of building a better society, in which social and technological innovations help make information key to the flourishing of humanity, we dispense with the bleak view of the dark side of information society. It is aimed at readers that conduct research into any aspect of information, information society and information technology, who develop or implement social or technological applications. It is also for those who have an interest in participating in setting the goals for the sciences of information and the social applications of technological achievements and the scientific results.

Gene Expression And Its Discontents

Author : Rodrick Wallace
ISBN : 9783319480787
Genre : Medical
File Size : 61. 83 MB
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This book describes how epigenetic context, in a large sense, affects gene expression and the development of an organism, using the asymptotic limit theorems of information theory to construct statistical models useful in data analysis. The approach allows deep understanding of how embedding context affects development. We find that epigenetic information sources act as tunable catalysts, directing ontogeny into characteristic pathways, a perspective having important implications for epigenetic epidemiology. In sum, environmental stressors can induce a broad spectrum of developmental dysfunctions, and the book explores a number of pandemic chronic diseases, using U.S. data at different scales and levels of organization. In particular, we find the legacy of slavery has been grossly compounded by accelerating industrial decline and urban decay. Individual chapters are dedicated to obesity and its sequelae, coronary heart disease, cancer, mental disorders, autoimmune dysfunction, Alzheimer’s disease, and other conditions. Developmental disorders are driven by environmental factors channeled by historical trajectory and are unlikely to respond to medical interventions at the population level in the face of persistent individual and community stress. Drugs powerful enough to affect deleterious epigenetic programming will likely have side effects leading to shortened lifespan. Addressing chronic conditions and developmental disorders requires significant large-scale changes in public policy and resource allocation.

Information And Complexity

Author : Burgin Mark
ISBN : 9789813109049
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 88. 97 MB
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The book is a collection of papers of experts in the fields of information and complexity. Information is a basic structure of the world, while complexity is a fundamental property of systems and processes. There are intrinsic relations between information and complexity. The research in information theory, the theory of complexity and their interrelations is very active. The book will expand knowledge on information, complexity and their relations representing the most recent and advanced studies and achievements in this area. The goal of the book is to present the topic from different perspectives — mathematical, informational, philosophical, methodological, etc.

Information And Computation

Author : Gordana Dodig Crnkovic
ISBN : 9789814295475
Genre : Computers
File Size : 82. 43 MB
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This volume provides a cutting-edge view of the world's leading authorities in fields where information and computation play a central role.

Some New Directions In Science On Computers

Author : Gyan Bhanot
ISBN : 9789814497206
Genre : Computers
File Size : 45. 93 MB
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Computers are used in today's technological world as a powerful tool to simulate many complex phenomena in various fields. This book is an introduction to some of these exciting developments. All the articles are written by experts in their respective fields. Each article teaches by example and the book contains case studies in fields as diverse as physics, biology, fluid dynamics, astrophysics, device modeling and weather simulation. This book should be of interest to a new researcher as an introduction to an exciting arena of computer applications. It should also benefit expert scientists, providing methods that may apply to their own problems or open up new research possibilities with unlimited promise. Contents:Fluids:CFD Analysis and Design Optimization Using Parallel Computers (L Martinelli et al.)Numerical Simulations of Growth Kinetics and Spinodal Decomposition in Fluids (T Lookman)Modern Shock Capturing Methods for Conservation Laws (Shi Jin)Materials:Simulating Materials Failure Using Parallel Molecular Dynamics (F Abraham)Semiconductor Device Physics and the Modeling of Small Semiconductor Devices (S E Laux & M V Fischetti)Statistical Mechanics:Cellular Automata and Self Organized Criticality (M J Creutz)Chemistry:Polymer Simulation Using Cellular Automata: 2-D Melts, Gel-Electrophoresis and Polymer Collapse (Y Bar-Yam)Biology:Prediction of DNA Structural Variability, A New Computational Method for Finding DNA Regulatory Regions (C Benham)Analysis of Population Phenomena in Neuronal Networks with Electrophysiology and Computer Simulations (R Traub & J G Jeffreys)A Simulation of the Immune System (P E Seiden & F Celada)Astrophysics:Applications of N-Body Methods to Studies of Large Scale Structure Formation in the Universe (R Splinter & S Bhausar)Geophysics:Global Ocean Simulations with an Isopycnic Coordinate Model (R Bleck et al.) Readership: Researchers using computers for scientific applications. keywords:

Accretion Disks In Compact Stellar Systems

Author : J Craig Wheeler
ISBN : 9789814504591
Genre :
File Size : 50. 21 MB
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Accretion disks in compact stellar systems containing white dwarfs, neutron stars or black holes are the principal laboratory for understanding the role of accretion disks in a wide variety of environments from proto-stars to quasars. Recent work on disk instabilities and dynamics has given a new theoretical framework with which to study accretion disks. Modeling of time-dependent phenomena provides new insight into the causes and interpretation of photometric and spectroscopic variability and new constraints on the fundamental physical problem — the origin of viscosity in accretion disks. This book contains expert reviews on the nature of limit cycle thermal instabilities and a variety of closely related topics from the theory of angular momentum transport to eclipse mapping of the disk structure. The result is a comprehensive contemporary survey of the structure and evolution of accretion disks in compact binary systems. Contents:Introduction to Accretion Disk Research (J Wood)The Limit Cycle Instability in Dwarf Nova Accretion Disks (J K Cannizzo)Angular Momentum Transport in Low Mass Accretion Disks (E T Vishniac & P H Diamond)The Emission Lines from Accretion Disks in Cataclysmic Variable Stars (E L Robinson et al.)Eclipse Mapping of Accretion Disks: The First Decade (K Horne)Atmospheres of Accretion Disks and the Emerging Spectra (G Shaviv & R Wehrse)Disks and Magnetospheres (A R King & J P Lasota)Mass Loss and the Boundary Layer (J E Drew & W Kley)The Interaction between the Stream and the Accretion Disk (M Livio)Tidal Effects on Accretion Disks in Close Binary Systems (Y Osaki et al.)Accretion Disks in Bright X-Ray Binaries (H Inoue)X-Ray Illumination Models of Soft X-Ray Transients (J M Hameury et al.)Black Hole Accretion Disk Instabilities (S Mineshige & M Kusunose) Readership: Graduate students and researchers in astrophysics. keywords:Accretion Disks in Compact Stellar Systems;Accretion Disks;Cataclysmic Variables;Magnetospheres;Tides;X-Ray Novae;Black Holes;White Dwarfs;Neutron Stars;Eclipse Mapping;Mass Transfer “… a useful source of information on the recent developments of accretion disks as well as a reference book. I would recommend this book to scientists who wish to enlarge their knowledge on the present state of art of the field. Of course, it should be present in any astronomical library.” Classical & Quantum Gravity

Fifty Years Of Nuclear Bcs

Author : R. A. Broglia
ISBN : 9789814412490
Genre : Pairing correlations
File Size : 47. 30 MB
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This unique volume reviews more than fifty years of theoretical and experimental developments of the concept that properties of atomic nuclei up to a great extent are defined by the pair correlations of nuclear constituents - protons and neutrons. Such correlations in condensed matter are responsible for quantum phenomena on a macroscopic level - superfluidity and superconductivity. After introducing Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity of metals, it became clear that atomic nuclei have properties of superfluid drops, and practically all features of nuclei strongly depend on the pair correlations. Presenting a comprehensive overview of the progress of nuclear science, the contributions from leading physicists around the world, cover the whole spectrum of studies in nuclear physics and physics of other small systems. With the most updated information written in an accessible way, the volume will serve as an irreplaceable source of references covering many years of development and insight into several new problems at the frontiers of science. It will be useful not only for physicists working in nuclear and condensed matter physics, astrophysicists, chemists and historians of science, but will also help students understand the current status and perspectives for the future.

International Compendium Of Coastal Engineering

Author : Sato Shinji
ISBN : 9789814449441
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 67. 20 MB
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The aim of this book is to provide a comprehensive overview of Coastal Engineering from basic theory to engineering practice. The authors of this book are worldwide authorities in the field. Each chapter deals with an important topic in the field of coastal engineering. The topics are of recent deep concern all over the world motivated by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, 2005 Hurricane Katrina, 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami and other natural disasters.For proper coastal zone management, a broad range of knowledge is necessary. This book provides a basic understanding of the theories behind the diverse natural phenomena within the coastal areas, such as waves, tsunamis and sediment transport. The book also introduces various coastal conservation technologies such as coastal structures and beach nourishment. Finally, coastal zone management practices in the USA, Europe, and Japan are introduced.Each chapter is self-standing and readers can begin from any topic depending on their interest.

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