intellectual property community rights and human rights the biological and genetic resources of developing countries routledge research in intellectual property

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Intellectual Property Community Rights And Human Rights

Author : Marcelin Tonye Mahop
ISBN : 9781136980459
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 76. 83 MB
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This book considers the issue of biodiversity in developing countries in relation to intellectual-property rights, community rights and human rights. Drawing together a number of case studies of developing countries rich in biological and genetic resources including India, South Africa and Brazil, the book examines the access to PGRs and their utilizations in the contexts of scientific and commercial oriented activities pursued both in the source and user countries. Exploring how community rights are protected in national biodiversity-related regulations and some international legal instruments, Marcelin Tonye Mahop also discusses the relationship between community rights and human rights in the context of biodiversity. The book looks at the issue of bio-piracy, asking whether this phenomenon should only be seen as a North–South clash, whereby biodiversity rich countries of the Southern Hemisphere blame developed countries and their actors as its principal perpetrators. While recognizing that developing countries' actors play a role in this bio-piracy phenomenon, the book goes on to suggest alternative measures for the legal protection of community rights at the national level with the possibility of national and international enforceability. Essential reading for students and scholars of intellectual-property rights, biodiversity regulations and human rights, this book will also be of great value to researchers and members of professional organizations working in these subject areas. National and regional negotiators in the international processes dealing with the issues covered in the book will find it a useful tool that can help them to understand various facets of these processes.

The Oxford Handbook Of Intellectual Property Law

Author : Rochelle C. Dreyfuss
ISBN : 9780191076107
Genre : Law
File Size : 21. 76 MB
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We live in an age in which expressive, informational, and technological subject matter are becoming increasingly important. Intellectual property is the primary means by which the law seeks to regulate such subject matter. It aims to promote innovation and creativity, and in doing so to support solutions to global environmental and health problems, as well as freedom of expression and democracy. It also seeks to stimulate economic growth and competition, accounting for its centrality to EU Internal Market and international trade and development policies. Additionally, it is of enormous and increasing importance to business. As a result there is a substantial and ever-growing interest in intellectual property law across all spheres of industry and social policy, including an interest in its legal principles, its social and normative foundations, and its place and operation in the political economy. This handbook written by leading academics and practitioners from the field of intellectual property law, and suitable for both a specialist legal readership and an intelligent but non-specialist legal and non-legal readership, provides a comprehensive account of the following areas: - The foundations of IP law, including its emergence and development in different jurisdictions and regions; - The substantive rules and principles of IP; and - Important issues arising from the existence and operation of IP in the political economy.

Human Rights And Intellectual Property

Author : Laurence R. Helfer
ISBN : 9781139496919
Genre : Law
File Size : 62. 42 MB
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This book explores the interface between intellectual property and human rights law and policy. The relationship between these two fields has captured the attention of governments, policymakers, and activist communities in a diverse array of international and domestic political and judicial venues. These actors often raise human rights arguments as counterweights to the expansion of intellectual property in areas including freedom of expression, public health, education, privacy, agriculture, and the rights of indigenous peoples. At the same time, creators and owners of intellectual property are asserting a human rights justification for the expansion of legal protections. This book explores the legal, institutional, and political implications of these competing claims: by offering a framework for exploring the connections and divergences between these subjects; by identifying the pathways along which jurisprudence, policy, and political discourse are likely to evolve; and by serving as an educational resource for scholars, activists, and students.

Intellectual Property Branding In The Developing World

Author : Tshimanga Kongolo
ISBN : 9781000008739
Genre : Law
File Size : 20. 5 MB
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Intellectual Property Branding in the Developing World identifies success stories in the areas of intellectual property (IP) and branding for non-technological innovation in the developing world. The author examines the relationship between IP, branding and innovation to demonstrate that innovation, in general, and non-technological innovation, in particular, must go hand in hand with branding. Branding of non-technological innovations should be a good strategic tool to be used by countries in the developing world mainly in the areas where they have competitive advantages. This book will assist scholars and academics dealing with innovation, branding, and IP issues, providing context and guidance to policymakers from the developing world. It is also relevant to researchers and students in the fields of intellectual property law, commercial law, international law, management, and innovation.

Intellectual Property Rights And Competition In Standard Setting

Author : Valerio Torti
ISBN : 9781317376651
Genre : Law
File Size : 66. 18 MB
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Competition and intellectual property rights (IPRs) are both necessary for a market to work efficiently and to promote consumer welfare. Properly applied, intellectual property rules define a legal framework which allows undertakings to profit from their inventions. This in turn encourages competition among firms and enhances dynamic efficiency, to the benefit of consumer welfare. Standard setting represents one of the fields where the interaction between competition law and IPRs clearly comes to light. The collaborative goal of standard setting organizations (SSOs) is to adopt and promote standards that either do not conflict with anyone’s right or, if they do, are developed under condition that patents are licensed under defined terms. This book examines the tension between IPRs and competition in the standard setting field which can arise when innovators over-exploit the rights they have been granted and hold up an entire industry. The book compares EU and U.S. jurisdictions with a particular focus on the IT and telecommunication sectors. It scrutinizes those practices which could harm standard setting and its goals, looking at misleading conducts by SSOs’ members which may lead to breach the EU and U.S. antitrust provisions on abuse of market power. Recent developments in EU and U.S. standard setting are analysed highlighting the differences in enforcement approaches. The book considers how the optimal balance between IPRs and industry standards can be struck, suggesting a policy model which takes into account both innovators’ interests and SSOs’ goals.

Biodiversity And The Law

Author : Charles R. McManis
ISBN : 9781136571060
Genre : Nature
File Size : 58. 38 MB
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How do we promote global economic development, while simultaneously preserving local biological and cultural diversity? This authoritative volume, written by leading legal experts and biological and social scientists from around the world, aims to address this question in all of its complexity. The first part of the book focuses on biodiversity and examines what we are losing, why and what is to be done. The second part addresses biotechnology and looks at whether it is part of the solution or part of the problem, or perhaps both. The third section examines traditional knowledge, explains what it is and how, if at all, it should be protected. The fourth and final part looks at ethnobotany and bioprospecting and offers practical lessons from the vast and diverse experiences of the contributors.

Intellectual Property Biogenetic Resources And Traditional Knowledge

Author : Graham Dutfield
ISBN : 9781136536274
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 78. 89 MB
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Biogenetic resources - the critical biological and chemical materials that underpin so much of medicine, both modern and traditional, agriculture, and wider economic activity in so many fields - are at the centre of heated debate regarding their use, development, and ownership, and the issues of ethics and equity that impinge on all of these factors. This book is a comprehensive examination of the key issues, institutions and ideologies in this area, presenting definitions and explanations of the fundamentals of intellectual property rights (IPRs), biogenetic resources and traditional knowledge. It uses the insights from this to build a picture of how these factors interact in practice, bringing to the surface issues such as: the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, benefit sharing from the commercial use of biodiversity, biotechnological innovation and the transfer of technology, agriculture, food security, rural development, health and international justice. Part 1 describes the relevant international IPR laws, highlights the extent to which modern commerce depends on such resources, and traces the way in which modern IPR law has evolved to accommodate this dependence. Part 2 shows how stronger IPR protection in the area of life science innovation has given rise to controversies such as 'biopiracy', 'terminator' genes and genetic uniformity. Part 3 focuses on traditional knowledge, its nature, its importance, and the applicability of IPR-style protection. Part 4 covers the international negotiation and policy-making of the WTO, WIPO and CBD and the legislative initiatives of national governments of Asia, Africa and Latin America. Finally, Part 5 focuses on two developing country case studies - of India and Kenya - assessing whether they will be able to gain economic benefit from development of their natural resources within the current regulatory system and whether this will encourage the conservation and sustainable use of the resource base. With its multidisciplinary approach and breadth of coverage, this book will appeal both to those new to the subject and to those with professional and specialist interest, including students, academics, legal practitioners, government policy-makers and the private sector.

Ecopolitics X Proceedings

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015022889243
Genre : Australia
File Size : 33. 30 MB
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Trading In Knowledge

Author : Christophe Bellmann
ISBN : 9781136550973
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 36. 5 MB
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An unprecedented surge in the scope and level of intellectual property rights (IPR) protection has been engulfing the world. This globalizing trend has shifted the balance of interests between private innovators and society at large and tensions have flared around key public policy concerns. As developing nations' policy options to use IPRs in support of their broader development strategy are being rapidly narrowed down, many experts are questioning the one-size-fits-all approach to IPR protection and are backing a rebalancing of the global regime. Developing countries face huge challenges when designing and implementing IPR-policy on all levels. This book offers perspectives from a diverse range of developing country participants including civil society participants, farmers, grassroots organizations, researchers and government officials. Contributions from well-known developed country authorities round out the selections.

Indigenous Knowledge Inquiries

Author : Paul Sillitoe
ISBN : STANFORD:36105122270585
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 37. 86 MB
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This manual is for development programme managers and project leaders who wish to incorporate an indigenous knowledge element into their work. The guidelines acknowledge that the design and management of IK-informed projects involve making decisions about many closely interrelated issues. They take cost, time and scope of objectives as the principal design issues. The methodology also deals with issues of team functioning that critically inform project success. The guidelines make reference to project cycle management in the context of natural resources indigenous knowledge research, and present options for reducing conflicts and more effectively including the views of primary stakeholders. Novel topics are covered, such as computer aided analysis of qualitative data and the use of cross-cultural research staff. The methodology is grounded in anthropological and development research, and attempts to be critically aware of contemporary reflective practice. Whatever your interest in indigenous knowledge you will find this book a fascinating and insightful handbook.

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