interpreting wto agreements problems and perspectives

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Interpreting Wto Agreements

Author : Asif H. Qureshi
ISBN : 9781316240106
Genre : Law
File Size : 55. 92 MB
Format : PDF
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The case law of the World Trade Organization is extensive, now running into some three hundred decided cases and thousands of pages. The interpretative process involved in this jurisprudence constitutes a form of legislative activity, and is therefore of great significance not only to the parties to disputes, but to the membership of the WTO. Qureshi identifies some of the underlying problems of interpreting WTO agreements, and examines the conditions for the interpretation of these agreements. Since the first edition of this book, the case law has grown, and the interpretation evolved further. This second edition addresses these developments and engages in the contemporary discourse on the subject. Also included is a new section on issues of interpretation relating to preferential trade agreements and the WTO. This book is an essential tool for WTO trade specialists, as well as government and judicial officers concerned with interpreting these agreements.

Eu Dumping Determinations And Wto Law

Author : Henrik Andersen
ISBN : 9789041128270
Genre : Law
File Size : 76. 78 MB
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The application of the antidumping instrument by WTO members is often controversial because of the protectionist character of these measures where inefficient industries are protected from foreign competition. The legal framework within the WTO has loopholes that leave wide discretion to the investigating authorities to determine that a product is dumped, thereby emphasizing the protectionist nature of antidumping. The use of antidumping becomes even more controversial when WTO members use the antidumping tool beyond the legal scope of WTO law. The questions raised in this book concern the EU dumping determinations and their conformity with WTO law. This thought-provoking work examines whether European Union legislation on dumping, the practices adopted by the European Commission and the Council, as well as the decisions by the EC courts are in conformity with WTO law. The author's findings are particularly relevant given the frequent use of antidumping measures by EU authorities, especially as relates to Asian countries, and he carefully documents areas where the EU infringes WTO law.

European Yearbook Of International Economic Law 2014

Author : Christoph Herrmann
ISBN : 9783642409134
Genre : Law
File Size : 43. 2 MB
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In 2014, the global economic system celebrates two anniversaries: Seventy years ago, on 22 July 1944 at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Articles of Agreement of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (Worldbank) were adopted. Since then the global financial and monetary system underwent significant policy changes, but the institutional framework remained the same. More recently, twenty years ago, on 15 April 1994, the Final Act of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations was signed and its key component, the Agreement establishing the World Trade Organization, entered into force on 1 January 1995. Even though the beginning of the multilateral trading system dates back to the late 1940s, the founding of the WTO constitutes a significant institutional reform which marks the beginning of a new era. Anniversaries are usually moments of celebration. However, even a superficial observer will notice that neither the current international financial and monetary regime nor the international trade regime is in a stage which invites celebration. Instead, both are facing difficult and fundamental challenges to their very existence from the outside but also from within. So while there may be no time to celebrate, anniversaries are also often used for reflection about the past and the future. Hence, EYIEL 5 (2014) considers these two anniversaries ample moments to reflect on the legacy and the current status of the main two pillars of International Economic Law in its Part one. Part two of EYIEL 5 (2014) brings together contributions on the EU’s Deep Trade Agenda, on Current Approaches to the International Investment Regime in South America, on the Multilayered System of Regional Economic Integration in West Africa and on the Tripartite Free Trade Area, as well as on India and her Trade Agreements. Part three contains treatises of developments in the World Customs Organization, the World Intellectual Property Organization and in International Investment Law. After the book reviews in Part four, EYIEL 5 (2014) is complemented with an Annex containing the Case (on exchange-rate manipulation and crisis-caused guarantees to financial institutions) and the Best Submissions of the 11th EMC2 ELSA WTO Moot Court Competition (of the Harvard team for the complainant and the Leuven team for the respondent). The case not only addresses issues of current interest but also links the subjects of our two special focusses nicely together.

Multilevel Constitutionalism For Multilevel Governance Of Public Goods

Author : Ernst Ulrich Petersmann
ISBN : 9781509909063
Genre : Law
File Size : 21. 75 MB
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This is the first legal monograph analysing multilevel governance of global 'aggregate public goods' (PGs) from the perspective of democractic, republican and cosmopolitan constitutionalism by using historical, legal, political and economic methods. It explains the need for a 'new philosophy of international law' in order to protect human rights and PGs more effectively and more legitimately. 'Constitutional approaches' are justified by the universal recognition of human rights and by the need to protect 'human rights', 'rule of law', 'democracy' and other 'principles of justice' that are used in national, regional and UN legal systems as indeterminate legal concepts. The study describes and criticizes the legal methodology problems of 'disconnected' governance in UN, GATT and WTO institutions as well as in certain areas of the external relations of the EU (like transatlantic free trade agreements). Based on 40 years of practical experiences of the author in German, European, UN, GATT and WTO governance institutions and of simultaneous academic teaching, this study develops five propositions for constituting, limiting, regulating and justifying multilevel governance for the benefit of citizens and their constitutional rights as 'constituent powers', 'democratic principals' and main 'republican actors', who must hold multilevel governance institutions and their limited 'constituted powers' legally, democratically and judicially more accountable.

Interpretation In International Law

Author : Andrea Bianchi
ISBN : 9780191038709
Genre : Law
File Size : 47. 72 MB
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International lawyers have long recognised the importance of interpretation to their academic discipline and professional practice. As new insights on interpretation abound in other fields, international law and international lawyers have largely remained wedded to a rule-based approach, focusing almost exclusively on the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. Such an approach neglects interpretation as a distinct and broader field of theoretical inquiry. Interpretation in International Law brings international legal scholars together to engage in sustained reflection on the theme of interpretation. The book is creatively structured around the metaphor of the game, which captures and illuminates the constituent elements of an act of interpretation. The object of the game of interpretation is to persuade the audience that one's interpretation of the law is correct. The rules of play are known and complied with by the players, even though much is left to their skills and strategies. There is also a meta-discourse about the game of interpretation - 'playing the game of game-playing' - which involves consideration of the nature of the game, its underlying stakes, and who gets to decide by what rules one should play. Through a series of diverse contributions, Interpretation in International Law reveals interpretation as an inescapable feature of all areas of international law. It will be of interest and utility to all international lawyers whose work touches upon theoretical or practical aspects of interpretation.

Interpreting Trips

Author : Hiroko Yamane
ISBN : 9781847316332
Genre : Law
File Size : 32. 21 MB
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Protection of intellectual property rights (IPRs) has become a global issue. The Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS) Agreement outlines the minimum standards for IPR protection for WTO members and offers a global regime for IPR protection. However, the benefits of TRIPS are more questionable in poorer countries where national infrastructure for research and development (R&D) and social protection are inadequate, whereas the cost of innovation is high. Today, after more than a decade of intense debate over global IPR protection, the problems remain acute, although there is also evidence of progress and cooperation. This book examines various views of the role of IPRs as incentives for innovation against the backdrop of development and the transfer of technology between globalised, knowledge-based, high technology economies. The book retraces the origins, content and interpretations of the TRIPS Agreement, including its interpretations by WTO dispute settlement organs. It also analyses sources of controversy over IPRs, examining pharmaceutical industry strategies of emerging countries with different IPR policies. The continuing international debate over IPRs is examined in depth, as are TRIPS rules and the controversy about implementing the 'flexibilities' of the Agreement in the light of national policy objectives. The author concludes that for governments in developing countries, as well as for their business and scientific communities, a great deal depends on domestic policy objectives and their implementation. IPR protection should be supporting domestic policies for innovation and investment. This, in turn requires a re-casting of the debate about TRIPS, to place cooperation in global and efficient R&D at the heart of concerns over IPR protection.

Competition Regulation And Policy At The World Trade Organisation

Author : Fiona Marshall
ISBN : STANFORD:36105134522692
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 52. 43 MB
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Wto Retaliation

Author : Michelle Limenta
ISBN : 9781509900022
Genre : Law
File Size : 80. 48 MB
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The central point of this book concerns three main issues: the problems of WTO retaliation, the question of the effectiveness of retaliation, and the purposes of retaliation. WTO retaliation is often deemed ineffective due to its inherited shortcomings. This book highlights the significance in identifying the purposes of retaliation prior to evaluating its effectiveness. Put differently, it refers to the purpose-based approach of effectiveness. It is a common understanding that the purpose of WTO retaliation is to induce compliance. This book, nevertheless, argues in favour of coexistence of the multiple purposes of retaliation, including reaching a mutually agreeable solution. These views are based on the extensive research conducted on the purposes of WTO retaliation, namely through interpreting Article 22 of the DSU; examining the remedies rules within the frameworks of public international law, and law and economics; and assessing the academic writings/debates as well as the statements of arbitrators. Finally, by evaluating a number of disputes involving WTO retaliation, this book demonstrates the reasonableness and soundness of WTO retaliation in light of its multiple purposes.

Wto Agreement On Subsidies And Countervailing Measures

Author : Wolfgang Müller
ISBN : 9781108279512
Genre : Law
File Size : 40. 73 MB
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Panels and the WTO Appellate Body have rendered a large number of complex and lengthy rulings on the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures. The reasoning behind these rulings is often intimately linked to the underlying facts of a particular case and the methods of litigation adopted by the parties. Without guidance, it is difficult to find and research a specific subsidy issue quickly. This book provides an essential article-by-article commentary on the Agreement and sets out the law as it emerges from this body of rulings, providing the legal basis for further analysis of subsidy disciplines within the realms of economics and political science. It also includes a useful summary of the negotiating history and the links to other WTO Agreements such as GATT 1994. This important reference work will appeal to international trade lawyers, government officials, researchers, students of international trade law, business associations and NGOs.

The History And Future Of The World Trade Organization

Author : Craig VanGrasstek
ISBN : UCSD:31822040886871
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 88. 67 MB
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This comprehensive account of the establishment of the WTO focuses on those who shaped its creation as well as those who have influenced its evolution. It also examines trade negotiations, the WTO's dispute settlement role, the process of joining, and what lies ahead for the organization.

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