iranian intellectuals 1997 2007

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Iranian Intellectuals

Author : Lloyd Ridgeon
ISBN : 9781317969341
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 33. 40 MB
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Previously published as a special issue of British Journal of Middle East Studies, this volume focuses on leading figures within Iran between 1997-2007 and their visions and works that are related to Iranian society. A cross section of opinion is investigated, including the clerical (‘Ali Khameneh’i, Muhammad Khatami and Mohsen Kadivar), the dissident (Mohsen Makhmalbaf), and the poetic (Qaysar Aminpour) and cinematic. The past decade has been a traumatic one in Iran, and the essays in this volume testify to the vibrancy of the responses from Iranian thinkers. It may be a surprise to some observers that in some senses, ‘Ali Khameneh’i may be considered a ‘liberal’ whereas Muhammad Khatami’s own credentials as an advocate of rapprochement with the West needs to be qualified. Responses to Western culture continue to remain centre-stage, and this is also nowhere more apparent than in the complex relationship between the directors of Iranian films (perhaps Iran’s most celebrated export these days) and their audiences, both Iranian and Western. Despite some viewing Iran as a pariah state, it remains firmly connected to the West and to modern technology, typified in the practice of blogging that is enjoyed by so many Iranians, which has provided a new space for expression and thinking.

The Iranian Constitutional Revolution And The Clerical Leadership Of Khurasani

Author : Mateo Mohammad Farzaneh
ISBN : 9780815653110
Genre : History
File Size : 32. 84 MB
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The Iranian Constitutional Revolution was the twentieth century’s first such political movement in the Middle East. It represented a landmark in Iranian history because of the unlikely support it received from Shi‘ite clerics who historically viewed Western concepts with suspicion, some claiming constitutionalism to be anti-Islamic. Leading the support was Muhammad Kazim Khurasani, the renowned Shi‘ite jurist who conceived of a supporting role for the clergy in a modern Iranian political system. Drawing on extensive analysis of religious texts, fatwas, and articles written by Khurasani an other pro- and anti-constitutionalists, Farzaneh provides a comprehensive and illuminating interpretation of Khurasani’s religious pragmatism. Despite some opposition from his peers, Khurasani used a form of jurisprudential reasoning when creating shari‘a that was based on human intellect to justify his support of not only the Iranian parliament but also the political powers of clerics. He had a reputation across the Shi‘ite community as a masterful religious scholar, a skillful teacher, and a committed humanitarian who heeded the people’s socioeconomic and political grievances and took action to address them. Khurasani’s push for progressive reforms helped to inaugurate a new era of clerical involvement in constitutionalism in the Middle East.

Shi I Islam In Iranian Cinema

Author : Nacim Pak-Shiraz
ISBN : 9781848855106
Genre : Performing Arts
File Size : 55. 48 MB
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Shi'i Islam in Iranian Cinema puts the films of established masters like Abbas Kiarostami and Bahram Beyzaie and relative newcomers such as Majid Majidi, within the context of the dynamic and vibrant debates regarding the vital concepts which underpin the culture, religion and state of Iran. Pak-Shiraz analyses the ways in which religion and the sacred is depicted and alluded to in films, such as Kiarostami's The Taste of Cherry, Kamal Tabrizi's The Lizard or Majidi's The Colour of Paradise. Exploring their philosophical meanings, and tracing their roots in mysticism and Sufism, Pak-Shiraz combines both Western thought and scholarship concerning the role of religion in film, and debates amongst Iranian academics, clerics, and authorities. She thus examines the varied reactions to the ways in which religion and culture are discussed not only cinematically, but also politically, socially and philosophically. --

Morals And Mysticism In Persian Sufism

Author : Lloyd Ridgeon
ISBN : 9781136970580
Genre : Religion
File Size : 31. 53 MB
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Sufism is often understood to be the mystical dimension of Islam, and many works have focused on the nature of "mystical experiences" and the relationship between man and God. Yet Sufism was a human response to a wide range of contexts and circumstances; the fact that Sufis lived in society and interacted with the community necessitating guidance on how to behave. This book examines the development of Persian Sufism, showing it to be a practical philosophy of the everyday rather than just a metaphysical phenomena. The author explores the ethic of futuwwat (or jawanmardi), an Iranian code of honour that emphasised loyalty, humility, generosity and bravery. Although inevitably some Sufis spiritualised this code of honour and applied it to their own relationship with God, the ethic continued to permeate Sufi behaviour on a more mundane level, typified by the strong links between Sufis and certain trades. Drawing on field research in Iran, as well as detailed analysis of both Arabic and Persian texts and new materials that have been published in Iran in recent years, this is the first book in English to provide a history of Persian Sufi-futuwwat, As such, this book is an important contribution to the study of Persian Sufism, and to the fields of Islam, history and religion.

Unburied Memories The Politics Of Bodies Of Sacred Defense Martyrs In Iran

Author : Pedram Khosronejad
ISBN : 9781135711672
Genre : Social Science
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Today, almost a generation has passed since the Iran–Iraq war and the memory of it is set to diminish with each passing generation. The following questions emerge. Can we say that the gradual disappearance of war’s memory means that, increasingly, Iranians will see the Iran–Iraq war solely as an historical event? How can we defend or reject this idea? Today, with which elements and values should we look at the Iran–Iraq war memorials and ceremonies? To what extent will war museums and materials culture be influenced by these new values? In the period during and immediately after the Iran–Iraq war (1980-88), national bereavement and commemoration of martyrs was neither apparent in common state policy nor a social need. Even at the turn of the 21st century, anyone walking through Iranian cities, many of which had been the main scene of the bloody massacre and direct targets of the Iraqi Republican Guard, will have found traces of the terrible, almost unimaginable, human losses. However, today’s Iranians can see modern war memorials and monuments in many parts of the urban and rural landscape. Yet, at the same time, the changing landscape has separated Iranians from such remnants of the violence. It can be argued that many people, in their wish to look forward to a more hopeful future, do not wish to be reminded of this period in Iranian history. This book was originally published as a special issue of Visual Anthropology.

Meccanomics

Author : Vali Nasr
ISBN : 9781780740577
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 66. 89 MB
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Renowned Middle-East expert Vali Nasr combines historical narrative with contemporary on-the-ground research to introduce a Muslim World we’ve never seen. Meccanomics takes us behind the news, so dominated by the struggle against extremists and the Taliban, to reveal a new society, one that is being reshaped by an upwardly mobile middle class of entrepreneurs, investors, professionals, and insatiable consumers. His insights into the true situations in Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and the crucial bright spots of Dubai and Turkey provide a whole new way of thinking about the troubles and prospects in the region. Nasr’s groundbreaking analysis offers a powerful reassessment of a region where financial might – not fundamentalism – does the talking.

Islamic Law And Society In Iran

Author : Nobuaki Kondo
ISBN : 9781351783194
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 63. 22 MB
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The relationship between Islamic law and society is an important issue in Iran under the Islamic Republic. Although Islamic law was a pivotal element in the traditional Iranian society, no comprehensive research has been made until today. This is because modern reformers emphasized the lack of rule of law in nineteenth-century Iran. However, a legal system did exist, and Islamic law was a substantial part of it. This is the first book on the relationship between Islamic law and the Iranian society during the nineteenth century. The author explores the legal aspects of urban society in Iran and provides the social context in which political process occurred and examines how authorities applied law in society, how people utilized the law, and how the law regulated society. Based on rich archival sources including court records and private deeds from Qajar Tehran, this book explores how Islamic law functioned in Iranian society. The judicial system, sharia court, and religious endowments (vaqf) are fully discussed, and the role of ‘ulama as legal experts is highlighted throughout the book. It challenges nationalist and modernist views on nineteenth-century Iran and provides a unique model in terms of the relationship between Islamic law and society, which is rather different from the Ottoman case. Providing an understanding of this legal system in Iran and its role in society, this book offers a basis for assessing the motives and results of modern reforms as well as the modernist discourse. This book will be of interest to students of Middle Eastern and Iranian Studies.

Women And Politics In Iran

Author : Hamideh Sedghi
ISBN : 9781139463720
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 45. 58 MB
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Why were urban women veiled in the early 1900s, unveiled from 1936 to 1979, and reveiled after the 1979 revolution? This question forms the basis of Hamideh Sedghi's original and unprecedented contribution to politics and Middle Eastern studies. Using primary and secondary sources, Sedghi offers new knowledge on women's agency in relation to state power. In this rigorous analysis she places contention over women at the centre of the political struggle between secular and religious forces and demonstrates that control over women's identities, sexuality, and labor has been central to the consolidation of state power. Sedghi links politics and culture with economics to present an integrated analysis of the private and public lives of different classes of women and their modes of resistance to state power.

Iranian Music And Popular Entertainment

Author : GJ Breyley
ISBN : 9781317336792
Genre : History
File Size : 49. 94 MB
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The word motreb finds its roots in the Arabic verb taraba, meaning ‘to make happy.’ Originally denoting all musicians in Iran, motrebi came to be associated, pejoratively, with the cheerful vulgarity of the lowbrow entertainer. In Iranian Music and Popular Entertainment, GJ Breyley and Sasan Fatemi examine the historically overlooked motrebi milieu, with its marginalized characters, from luti to gardan koloft and mashti, as well as the tenacity of motreb who continued their careers against all odds. They then turn to losanjelesi, the most pervasive form of Iranian popular music that developed as motrebi declined, and related musical forms in Iran and its diasporic popular cultural centre, Los Angeles. For the first time in English, the book makes available musical transcriptions, analysis and lyrics that illustrate the complexities of this history. As it presents the findings of the authors’ years of ethnographic work with the history’s protagonists, from senior motreb to pop-rock stars, the book reveals parallels between the decline of motrebi and the rise of ‘modernity.’ In the twentieth century, the fate of Tehran’s motrebi music was shaped by the social and urban polarization that ensued from the modern market economy, and losanjelesi would be similarly affected by transnational relations, revolution, war and migration. Through its detailed and informed examination of Iranian popular music, this study reveals much about the values and anxieties of Iranian society, and is a valuable resource for students and scholars of Iranian society and history.

The New Iranian Cinema

Author : Richard Tapper
ISBN : 1860648045
Genre : Performing Arts
File Size : 23. 63 MB
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Iranian cinema is today widely recognized not merely as a distinctive national cinema, but as one of the most innovative in the world. This international stature both fascinates Western observers and appears paradoxical in line with perceptions of Iran as anti-modern. The largely Iranian contributors to this book look in depth at how Iranian cinema became a true ‘world cinema’. From a range of perspectives, they explore cinema’s development in post Revolution Iran and its place in Iranian culture.

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