irrationality key concepts in philosophy

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Irrationality

Author : Lisa Bortolotti
ISBN : 9780745687278
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 62. 18 MB
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We talk about irrationality when behaviour defies explanation or prediction, when decisions are driven by emotions or instinct rather than by reflection, when reasoning fails to conform to basic principles of logic and probability, and when beliefs lack coherence or empirical support. Depending on the context, agents exhibiting irrational behaviour may be described as foolish, ignorant, unwise or even insane. In this clear and engaging introduction to current debates on irrationality, Lisa Bortolotti presents the many facets of the concept and offers an original account of the importance of judgements of irrationality as value judgements. The book examines the standards against which we measure human behaviour, and reviews the often serious implications of judgements of irrationality for ethics and policy. Bortolotti argues that we should adopt a more critical stance towards accepted standards of rationality in the light of the often surprising outcomes of philosophical inquiry and cognitive science research into decision making. Irrationality is an accessible guide to the concept and will be essential reading for students and scholars interested in the limitations of human cognition and human agency.

Irrationality And The Philosophy Of Psychoanalysis

Author : Sebastian Gardner
ISBN : 9780521033879
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 32. 99 MB
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Sebastian Gardner argues that psychoanalytic theory provides the most satisfactory philosophical explanation of irrationality.

Key Concepts In The Philosophy Of Social Research

Author : Malcolm Williams
ISBN : 9781473987586
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 21. 92 MB
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“This is a splendid book, providing a readable and reliable guide to a very large range of topics and literature... the author brings together, as few of us can, the details of research methodology and practice with broader philosophical perspectives and approaches.” - William Outhwaite, Emeritus Professor, Newcastle University "We need researchers who are philosophically informed rather than philosophically obsessed or philosophically oppressed. With this book Malcolm Williams strikes the exact balance." - Ray Pawson, Emeritus Professor, University of Leeds This book is an ideal introduction for any student or social researcher hoping to better understand the philosophical issues that inform social research. Williams is the perfect guide providing short focused introductions to key concepts alongside a persuasive and engaging overview of how we interpret and conduct research. The book covers everything from core research methods, to ethical concerns and an exploration of the metaphysics of social life, with each entry providing: Clear definitions Engaging real world examples Up-do-date suggestions for further reading Informative cross-referencing Lists of key thinkers. Relevant and authoritative, this book is an indispensable introduction to the philosophy of social research.

Key Concepts In Philosophy

Author : Paddy McQueen
ISBN : 9781137093394
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 43. 15 MB
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An accessible account of philosophical concepts, theories and key thinkers with an emphasis on recent developments in the field. Containing over 300 entries, the terms are ordered alphabetically and cross referenced for ease of use. Suggestions for further reading follow the explanations, encouraging further reflection and independent learning.

The Bloomsbury Research Handbook Of Chinese Philosophy Methodologies

Author : Sor-hoon Tan
ISBN : 9781472580320
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 73. 76 MB
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The Bloomsbury Research Handbook of Chinese Philosophy Methodologies presents a new understanding of the changing methods used to study Chinese philosophy. By identifying the various different approaches and discussing the role, and significance of philosophical methods in the Chinese tradition, this collection identifies difficulties and exciting developments for scholars of Asian philosophy. Divided into four parts, the nature of Chinese philosophical thought is illuminated by discussing historical developments, current concerns and methodological challenges. Surveying recent methodological trends, this research companion explores and evaluates the methodologies that have been applied to Chinese philosophy. From these diverse angles, an international team of experts reflect on the considerations that enter their methodological choices and indicate new research directions. The Bloomsbury Research Handbook of Chinese Philosophy Methodologies is an important contribution to the education of the next generation of Chinese philosophers.

The Problem Of Evil

Author : Daniel Speak
ISBN : 9780745617954
Genre : Religion
File Size : 55. 32 MB
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The most forceful philosophical objections to belief in God arise from the existence of evil. Bad things happen in the world and it is not clear how this is compatible with the existence of an all-powerful and perfectly loving being. Unsurprisingly then, philosophers have formulated powerful arguments for atheism based on the existence of apparently unjustified suffering. These arguments give expression to what we call the problem of evil. This volume is an engaging introduction to the philosophical problem of evil. Daniel Speak provides a clear overview of the main lines of reasoning in this debate and argues for the defensibility of theistic belief in the face of evil. He fleshes out the distinction between theodicy and defense and guides the reader through the logical, evidential, and hiddenness versions of the problem. In an accessible and beautifully written account, Speak describes the central issues surrounding the problem of evil in a way that clarifies both the complex reasoning and specialised terminology of the topic. The Problem of Evil is an ideal introduction to contemporary debates over one of the most gripping perennial questions. Read either on its own or alongside the primary materials it deftly covers, students and scholars will find this volume a terrific resource for understanding the challenges to religious belief raised by evil.

Gender Key Concepts In Philosophy

Author : Tina Chanter
ISBN : 9780826471697
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 81. 85 MB
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Explores and analyses the main philosophical theories, ideas and arguments that inform, and are raised by questions of gender and sexuality.

Rationality And Irrationality In Economics

Author : Maurice Godelier
ISBN : 9781781680254
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 28. 76 MB
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The Philosophy Of Psychology

Author : William O'Donohue
ISBN : 0761953051
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 46. 9 MB
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This major text provides the first comprehensive anthology of the key topics arising in the philosophy of psychology. Bringing together internationally renowned authors, including Herb Simon, Karl Pribram, Joseph Rychlak, Ullin T Place and Adolf Gr[um]unbaum, this volume offers a stimulating and informative addition to contemporary debate. With the cognitive revolution of the 1960s, there has been a resurgence of interest in the study of the philosophical assumptions and implications of psychology. Several significant themes, such as the foundations of knowledge, behaviourism, rationality, emotion and cognitive science span both philosophy and psychology, and are covered here along with a wide range of issues in the fields

Reasons For Action

Author : B.C. Postow
ISBN : 9789401728508
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 88. 80 MB
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2 first-person point of view, I acknowledge these possible handicaps and try to overcome them. Other people may coherently judge that I am incapable of figuring out correctly what I rationally ought to do, or they may inform me of reasons of which I had heretofore been ignorant, or they may try to help me overcome intellectual hindrances. Like me, these people would be assuming that the goal is to identify what I really rationally ought to do. Nevertheless, we are concerned with reasons for the agent to act in a certain way, rather than with reasons, say, for someone to want it to be the case that the agent act. Thus to be a reason in our sense is to be a consideration which has an appropriate guiding role to play in the. agents deliberation. (An agent is guided by reasons if she determines what to do in light of the reasons. ) Suppose then that a nor mative theory says that it is supremely desirable, or that it rationally ought to be the case, that agents act in a way that maximizes the general utility, but that (since the general utility is never in fact maximized by those who pay attention to it) considerations of the general utility should play no role in the agents' deliberation. Such a theory would not be said to ascribe to agents a reason to maximize the general utility on our usage.

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