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Issues In Setting Standards

Author : Tom Christie
ISBN : 9781135791797
Genre : Education
File Size : 82. 25 MB
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First published in 1995. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Patent Challenges For Standard Setting In The Global Economy

Author : Committee on Intellectual Property Management in Standard-Setting Processes
ISBN : 030929312X
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 87. 13 MB
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Patent Challenges for Standard-Setting in the Global Economy: Lessons from Information and Communication Technology examines how leading national and multinational standard-setting organizations (SSOs) address patent disclosures, licensing terms, transfers of patent ownership, and other issues that arise in connection with developing technical standards for consumer and other microelectronic products, associated software and components, and communications networks including the Internet. Attempting to balance the interests of patent holders, other participants in standard-setting, standards implementers, and consumers, the report calls on SSOs to develop more explicit policies to avoid patent holdup and royalty-stacking, ensure that licensing commitments carry over to new owners of the patents incorporated in standards, and limit injunctions for infringement of patents with those licensing commitments. The report recommends government measures to increase the transparency of patent ownership and use of standards information to improve patent quality and to reduce conflicts of laws across countries.

Setting Performance Standards

Author : Gregory J. Cizek
ISBN : 9781135655228
Genre : Education
File Size : 73. 79 MB
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This book provides the most up-to-date and definite source of information currently available on setting performance standards. Chapters are grouped by common themes and provide diverse readers--educators, researchers, and policymakers-- ready access to the specific aspects of standard setting that interest them. Part I presents perspectives on the nature and role of standard setting, focusing primarily on theoretical concerns. Part II provides practical details on various methods of standard setting and addresses such problems as how to identify and train participants in the standard-setting process. Part III covers the lingering dilemmas in standard setting that perplex theorists and practitioners. By design, this book reflects the key aspects that dominate standard setting today and which are likely to do so in the coming years. Overall, it provides practitioners, scholars, and policymakers with the tools and perspectives that might fruitfully be applied to the challenges of standard setting today and to the unknown challenges that lie ahead.

To Err Is Human

Author : Committee on Quality of Health Care in America
ISBN : 9780309068376
Genre : Medical
File Size : 29. 76 MB
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Experts estimate that as many as 98,000 people die in any given year from medical errors that occur in hospitals. That's more than die from motor vehicle accidents, breast cancer, or AIDS--three causes that receive far more public attention. Indeed, more people die annually from medication errors than from workplace injuries. Add the financial cost to the human tragedy, and medical error easily rises to the top ranks of urgent, widespread public problems. To Err Is Human breaks the silence that has surrounded medical errors and their consequence--but not by pointing fingers at caring health care professionals who make honest mistakes. After all, to err is human. Instead, this book sets forth a national agenda--with state and local implications--for reducing medical errors and improving patient safety through the design of a safer health system. This volume reveals the often startling statistics of medical error and the disparity between the incidence of error and public perception of it, given many patients' expectations that the medical profession always performs perfectly. A careful examination is made of how the surrounding forces of legislation, regulation, and market activity influence the quality of care provided by health care organizations and then looks at their handling of medical mistakes. Using a detailed case study, the book reviews the current understanding of why these mistakes happen. A key theme is that legitimate liability concerns discourage reporting of errors--which begs the question, "How can we learn from our mistakes?" Balancing regulatory versus market-based initiatives and public versus private efforts, the Institute of Medicine presents wide-ranging recommendations for improving patient safety, in the areas of leadership, improved data collection and analysis, and development of effective systems at the level of direct patient care. To Err Is Human asserts that the problem is not bad people in health care--it is that good people are working in bad systems that need to be made safer. Comprehensive and straightforward, this book offers a clear prescription for raising the level of patient safety in American health care. It also explains how patients themselves can influence the quality of care that they receive once they check into the hospital. This book will be vitally important to federal, state, and local health policy makers and regulators, health professional licensing officials, hospital administrators, medical educators and students, health caregivers, health journalists, patient advocates--as well as patients themselves. First in a series of publications from the Quality of Health Care in America, a project initiated by the Institute of Medicine

The Performance Of Performance Standards

Author : James Joseph Heckman
ISBN : 9780880992923
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 46. 85 MB
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The authors of these chapters explore how performance standards and incentives affect the behavior of public managers and agency employees, their approaches to service delivery, and ultimately, the outcomes for participants.

Clinical Practice Guidelines We Can Trust

Author : Institute of Medicine
ISBN : 9780309216463
Genre : Medical
File Size : 74. 39 MB
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Advances in medical, biomedical and health services research have reduced the level of uncertainty in clinical practice. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) complement this progress by establishing standards of care backed by strong scientific evidence. CPGs are statements that include recommendations intended to optimize patient care. These statements are informed by a systematic review of evidence and an assessment of the benefits and costs of alternative care options. Clinical Practice Guidelines We Can Trust examines the current state of clinical practice guidelines and how they can be improved to enhance healthcare quality and patient outcomes. Clinical practice guidelines now are ubiquitous in our healthcare system. The Guidelines International Network (GIN) database currently lists more than 3,700 guidelines from 39 countries. Developing guidelines presents a number of challenges including lack of transparent methodological practices, difficulty reconciling conflicting guidelines, and conflicts of interest. Clinical Practice Guidelines We Can Trust explores questions surrounding the quality of CPG development processes and the establishment of standards. It proposes eight standards for developing trustworthy clinical practice guidelines emphasizing transparency; management of conflict of interest ; systematic review--guideline development intersection; establishing evidence foundations for and rating strength of guideline recommendations; articulation of recommendations; external review; and updating. Clinical Practice Guidelines We Can Trust shows how clinical practice guidelines can enhance clinician and patient decision-making by translating complex scientific research findings into recommendations for clinical practice that are relevant to the individual patient encounter, instead of implementing a one size fits all approach to patient care. This book contains information directly related to the work of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), as well as various Congressional staff and policymakers. It is a vital resource for medical specialty societies, disease advocacy groups, health professionals, private and international organizations that develop or use clinical practice guidelines, consumers, clinicians, and payers.

The Ten Commandments For Effective Standards

Author : Karen Bartleson
ISBN : 9781617300004
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 42. 7 MB
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Computer chip industry veteran Bartleson provides ideas for creating better standards, increasing respect for the standardization process, and ways for leveraging others' industry expertise to create more effective technical standards.

Ecotourism Certification

Author : Martha Honey
ISBN : 1559639512
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 37. 63 MB
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The idea of "ecotourism" has taken off in recent years, but a crucial detail is often neglected: how do we know that an enterprise truly meets the goals and standards of ecotourism? Certification—the rating of lodges, resorts, tour operators, and other sectors of the tourism industry by independent auditors who verify environmental and social impacts—has emerged as the most promising answer. Ecotourism and Certification offers a valuable overview of ecotourism certification and lays out the basic challenges and strategies for establishing certification programs.The book begins by establishing baseline information on the tourism industry, situating ecotourism within the larger tourism industry, and tracing the history of certification. The second chapter explores the concepts underlying certification followed by a chapter that examines certification as a tool in other industries such as forestry and coffee production. The remainder of the book highlights case studies of the most promising certification schemes around the world. Written by experts who have been closely involved with the projects described, case studies include:the NEAP Program in AustraliaCosta Rica's government-financed Sustainable Tourism Certification (CST) program and other programs in Central Americamore than 50 eco-labeling and certification programs for accommodations in Europeprograms to certify beaches and national parksefforts in South Africa and Kenya to establish certification programsEcotourism is a promising approach to protecting threatened environments and communities around the world and certification is a key to making it effective. This is the first book to take a global look at the emergence and application of certification, and it speaks largely through the voices of those directly involved with the industry and in the countries where is has been applied. It will be an important contribution for ecotourism and development professionals worldwide.

The Stonebridge Conference

Author : US Fire Administration
ISBN :
Genre :
File Size : 57. 79 MB
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Food Safety Issues In The Developing World

Author : Laurian Unnevehr
ISBN : 0821347705
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 26. 77 MB
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Food safety is receiving more attention worldwide with the rising incidence of foodborne disease, concern over new potential hazards, and growth in agricultural trade. Investments to improve food safety in developing countries can reduce the burden of disease and remove the barriers to fresh food product exports, providing another source of income for the rural sector. International disputes over sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures influence the ability of developing countries to compete in export markets. These countries need to evaluate their interest in the SPS agreement under the World Trade Organisation (WTO); participate more fully in international agencies responsible for harmonisation; develop the capacity to assess equivalence for process standards, which are increasingly used for fresh food products; and resist the imposition of inappropriate standards.

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