latent inhibition

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Latent Inhibition

Author : Robert Lubow
ISBN : 9781139488648
Genre : Medical
File Size : 24. 8 MB
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Latent inhibition is a phenomenon by which exposure to an irrelevant stimulus impedes the acquisition or expression of conditioned associations with that stimulus. Latent inhibition, an integral part of the learning process, is observed in many species. This comprehensive collection of studies of latent inhibition, from a variety of disciplines including behavioural/cognitive psychology, neuroscience and genetics, focuses on abnormal latent inhibition effects in schizophrenic patients and schizotypal normals. Amongst other things, the book addresses questions such as, is latent inhibition an acquisition or performance deficit? What is the relationship of latent inhibition to habituation, extinction, and learned irrelevance? Does reduced latent inhibition predict creativity? What are the neural substrates, pharmacology, and genetics of latent inhibition? What do latent inhibition research and theories tell us about schizophrenia? This book provides a single point of reference for neuroscience researchers, graduate students, and professionals, such as psychologists and psychiatrists.

Latent Inhibition And Conditioned Attention Theory

Author : R. E. Lubow
ISBN : 0521363071
Genre : Medical
File Size : 65. 73 MB
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Latent inhibition is an exquisitely simple, robust, and pervasive behavioural phenomenon - the reduced ability of an organism to learn new associations to previously inconsequential stimuli. It has been demonstrated in a variety of animals, including humans, across many different learning tasks.

Latent Inhibition And Its Neural Substrates

Author : Nestor Schmajuk
ISBN : 9781461508410
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 25. 87 MB
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Latent Inhibition and Its Neural Substrates describes a neural network model of attentional processes during associative learning, mainly latent inhibition, and shows how variables in the model can be mapped onto different brain regions and neurotransmitters. The result is a neurophysiological model capable of generating predictions and descriptions of numerous experimental results using latent inhibition, including the effects of brain lesions, drug administration, and the combination of both. The model also explains the absence of latent inhibition in acute schizophrenia and its reinstatement by the administration of psychotropic drugs.

Latent Inhibition Effects In Psychopaths

Author : David E. Warner
ISBN : WISC:89055507495
Genre :
File Size : 59. 84 MB
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The Effects Of Nmda Antagonists On Latent Inhibition Via Chronic Administration Of Mk 801

Author : Amanda S. Adams
ISBN : OCLC:876378556
Genre : Cognition
File Size : 66. 97 MB
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Evidence shows the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor for the neurotransmitter glutamate plays an important role in regulating learning and behavior. These receptors are critically involved in the establishment of long-term potentiation (LTP). LTP is a widely studied cellular mechanism of learning and memory that has been observed in the Hippocampus and other areas of the brain. Researchers have investigated the role of LTP and NMDA receptors in many behavioral learning and memory tasks. One study showed the NMDA antagonist MK-801 ((+)-5-methyl-10, 11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclo- hepten-5,10-iminemaleate) produced deficits in place learning and spatial strategies in the Morris water maze (Robinson, Crooks, Shinkman, & Gallagher, 1989). Another hippocampal-dependent task that is commonly studied is called latent inhibition. There are many discrepancies in past literature regarding the nature of MK-801's effects on latent inhibition. The purpose of this study was to examine how the NMDA antagonist MK-801 affects a within-subjects, appetitive latent inhibition task. Long-Evans rats received subcutaneous injections of either a low (0.05 mg/kg) or high (0.1 mg/kg) dose of MK-801, or saline. The subjects received 1 day of magazine training, 4 days of non-reinforced exposure to either a clicker or a white noise, and 4 days of conditioning in which the preexposed stimulus and a novel stimulus were paired with the delivery of a food pellet. Conditioning days were recorded and scored for 6 different behaviors occurring just before and during each conditioned stimulus (CS) presentation. Results indicated that rats displayed significantly more conditioning behavior to the clicker CS than the white noise CS independent of which stimulus was preexposed. Evidence suggested the clicker could possibly have unconditioned aversive properties. Nevertheless, rats showed more rapid acquisition to the novel clicker when preexposed to the white noise, which signified a latent inhibition effect. MK-801 neither disrupted nor enhanced the latent inhibition effect; therefore, NMDA receptors were not critical for latent inhibition.

Latent Inhibition With Human Adults

Author : Moshe Siegel
ISBN : OCLC:950998781
Genre : Inhibition
File Size : 61. 9 MB
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Latent Inhibition And Habituation During Sensory Preconditioning

Author : Pierre Mercier
ISBN : OCLC:61541779
Genre : Classical conditioning
File Size : 68. 91 MB
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"Eight experiments tested priming in short-term memory as a model for latent inhibition and habituation. The model postulates that the two phenomena result from reduced processing when a representation of the target stimulus is already active (primed) in short-term memory at the time of its presentation. Priming is assumed to depend on the integrity of an association formed between the contextual stimuli and the conditional stimulus (CS) during exposure. Using a procedure that should have overshadowed the context, Experiment 1 found that latent inhibition and habituation were nevertheless maintained when a second CS of either equal or shorter duration overlapped with the target during exposure. Experiment 2 found no support for the priming of a configural stimulus when simultaneous compounds were preexposed. Experiment 3 ruled out sensitization and/or pseudoconditioning as an alternative explanation of latent inhibition. Experiments 4, 5 and 6 showed that sensory preconditioning as well as habituation and latent inhibition were obtained with compound exposure, providing evidence that the added CS was indeed processed along with the target. In Experiment 7, sequential pairings produced as much latent inhibition as compounds but less sensory preconditioning. Experiment 8 showed that retardation of conditioned inhibition was not attenuated by compound exposure. These results are interpreted as consistent with a correlational approach to classical conditioning." --

Latent Inhibition Of Paired Associate Learning In Kindergarten Children

Author : Renana Lucas
ISBN : OCLC:950999603
Genre : Inhibition
File Size : 68. 63 MB
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Functional Neural Networks Underlying Latent Inhibition And The Effects Of The Metabolic Enhancer Methylene Blue

Author : Frank Puga
ISBN : OCLC:688604794
Genre :
File Size : 24. 12 MB
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The present research reports the first comprehensive map of brain networks underlying latent inhibition learning, the first application of structural equation modeling to cytochrome oxidase data, and the first effects of methylene blue, a known metabolic enhancer, on latent inhibition. In latent inhibition, repeated exposure to a stimulus results in a latent form of learning that inhibits subsequent associations with that stimulus. As neuronal energy demand to form learned associations changes, so does the induction of the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase. Therefore, cytochrome oxidase can be used as an endpoint metabolic marker of the effects of experience on regional brain metabolic capacity. Quantitative cytochrome oxidase histochemistry was used to map brain regions in mice trained on a tone-footshock fear conditioning paradigm with either tone preexposure (latent inhibition), conditioning only (acquisition), conditioning followed by tone alone (extinction), or no handling or conditioning (naïve). In normal latent inhibition, the ventral cochlear nucleus, medial geniculate, CA1 hippocampus, and perirhinal cortex showed modified metabolic capacity due to latent inhibition. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the causal influences in an anatomical network of these regions and others thought to mediate latent inhibition, including the accumbens and entorhinal cortex. An uncoupling of ascending influences between auditory regions was observed in latent inhibition. There was also a reduced influence on the accumbens from the perirhinal cortex in both latent inhibition and extinction. These results suggest a specific network with a neural mechanism of latent inhibition that involves sensory gating, as evidenced by modifications in metabolic capacity, effective connectivity between auditory regions, and reduced hippocampal influence on the accumbens. The effects of methylene blue on disrupted latent inhibition were also investigated. Reduced tone-alone presentations disrupted the latent inhibition effect and led to an increase in freezing behavior. Repeated low-dose administration of methylene blue decreased freezing levels and facilitated the disrupted latent inhibition effect. Methylene blue administration also resulted in changes in metabolic capacity in limbic and cortical regions. A unique functional neural network was found in methylene blue-restored latent inhibition that emphasized sensory gating of auditory information, attention processing, and cortical inhibition of behavior.

Latent Inhibition Following Systemic Dsp4

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:10130689
Genre : Blind
File Size : 72. 82 MB
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