lawrence in arabia war deceit imperial folly and the making of the modern middle east

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Lawrence In Arabia

Author : Scott Anderson
ISBN : 9781782392019
Genre : History
File Size : 42. 99 MB
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The Arab Revolt against the Turks in World War One was, in the words of T.E. Lawrence, 'a sideshow of a sideshow'. Amidst the slaughter in European trenches, the Western combatants paid scant attention to the Middle Eastern theatre. As a result, the conflict was shaped to a remarkable degree by a small handful of adventurers and low-level officers far removed from the corridors of power. At the centre of it all was Lawrence. In early 1914 he was an archaeologist excavating ruins in the sands of Syria; by 1917 he was battling both the enemy and his own government to bring about the vision he had for the Arab people. Operating in the Middle East at the same time, but to wildly different ends, were three other important players: a German attaché, an American oilman and a committed Zionist. The intertwined paths of these four young men - the schemes they put in place, the battles they fought, the betrayals they endured and committed - mirror the grandeur, intrigue and tragedy of the war in the desert.

Die Sieben S Ulen Der Weisheit

Author : Thomas E. Lawrence
ISBN : 3548609112
Genre :
File Size : 52. 12 MB
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Die Sieben S Ulen Der Weisheit

Author : Thomas E. Lawrence
ISBN : 3866470894
Genre :
File Size : 64. 80 MB
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Die Sieben S Ulen Der Weisheit

Author : Thomas E. Lawrence
ISBN : 3423014563
Genre : Arab countries
File Size : 35. 45 MB
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Deutschland In Gypten

Author : Cilli Kasper-Holtkotte
ISBN : 9783110523669
Genre : History
File Size : 69. 44 MB
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Das Ägypten des frühen 20. Jahrhunderts war nicht nur Drehscheibe für Ägyptenbegeisterte, sondern besaß auch eine deutsche Seite. Der ‚deutschen Kolonie‘ verliehen der Ägyptologe Ludwig Borchardt und seine Ehefrau Mimi Cohen über Jahrzehnte ihre Prägung. Ebenso wie die andern Deutschen jüdischer Herkunft wurden sie nach der Machtübergabe an die Nationalsozialisten von der ägyptendeutschen Gesellschaft, die mehrheitlich auf nationalsozialistische Linie umschwenkte, ausgegrenzt und der Verfolgung ausgesetzt. Zu Passivität sahen sich die Betroffenen nicht verurteilt. Nicht nur das Ehepaar Borchardt setzte umfassende Hilfsaktionen in Gang. Die internationale Ägyptologen- und Orientalistenschaft fühlte sich ebenso zu nachhaltiger Unterstützung verpflichtet, förderte bestehende Initiativen, ermöglichte Verfolgten Flucht und Rettung. Damit übernahm sie, jenseits von wissenschaftlichen Interessen, eine neue Rolle und bewies die Tragfähigkeit der sozialen Beziehungen.

Kometenjahre

Author : Daniel Schönpflug
ISBN : 9783104035611
Genre : Fiction
File Size : 21. 91 MB
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Die Geschichte eines einzigartigen historischen Moments, als alles möglich schien – »ein meisterhaftes Werk« (Philipp Blom) November 1918. Der Große Krieg hat die alte Welt in Schutt und Asche gelegt, und doch scheint das Schicksal der Menschheit so offen wie selten zuvor. Hell leuchten neue Möglichkeiten und Träume auf, das Ringen um die Zukunft beginnt. Die Kosakin Marina Yurlova kämpft in Sibirien gegen die Revolution, Käthe Kollwitz macht ihren Schmerz zu Kunst, Rudolf Höß marschiert mit dem Freikorps, Virginia Woolf revolutioniert den Roman, Walter Gropius will mit der Architektur die Gesellschaft verändern und die Publizistin Louise Weiss wirbt in Paris leidenschaftlich für ein vereintes Europa. Virtuos schildert Daniel Schönpflug diesen einmaligen Moment und die Jahre, die folgten, aus der Perspektive von Menschen, die sie erfahren und geprägt haben. Das glänzend geschriebene Panorama einer einzigartigen Zeit zwischen Enthusiasmus und Enttäuschung, zwischen Zukunftstrunkenheit und Zerstörung. »Daniel Schönpflug schreibt so, dass man ihm direkt in das erstaunliche Jahr 1918 folgen will. Mit großer Behutsamkeit, einem wunderbaren Auge für Details und großem stilistischen Können eröffnet er diese Zeit neu und erlaubt es seinen Lesern, sich selbst und das 20. Jahrhundert auf diesen Seiten wiederzuentdecken. Ein meisterhaftes Werk.« Philipp Blom, Historiker und Autor des Bestsellers »Der taumelnde Kontinent: Europa 1900–1914« »In die verschiedensten Lebensläufe hat diese turbulente Zeit ihren Prägestempel eingedrückt. Schönpflug führt dem Leser die einzelnen Schicksale so eindringlich vor Augen, als wäre es gerade erst geschehen.« Sibylle Lewitscharoff

The Vanquished

Author : Robert Gerwarth
ISBN : 9780141976365
Genre : History
File Size : 67. 25 MB
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'This war is not the end but the beginning of violence. It is the forge in which the world will be hammered into new borders and new communities. New molds want to be filled with blood, and power will be wielded with a hard fist.' Ernst Jünger (1918) For the Western allies 11 November 1918 has always been a solemn date - the end of fighting which had destroyed a generation, and also a vindication of a terrible sacrifice with the total collapse of their principal enemies: the German Empire, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. But for much of the rest of Europe this was a day with no meaning, as a continuing, nightmarish series of conflicts engulfed country after country. In this highly original, gripping book Robert Gerwarth asks us to think again about the true legacy of the First World War. In large part it was not the fighting on the Western front which proved so ruinous to Europe's future, but the devastating aftermath, as countries on both sides of the original conflict were wrecked by revolution, pogroms, mass expulsions and further major military clashes. If the War itself had in most places been a struggle purely between state-backed soldiers, these new conflicts were mainly about civilians and paramilitaries, and millions of people died across central, eastern, and south-eastern Europe before the USSR and a series of rickety and exhausted small new states came into being. Everywhere there were vengeful people, their lives racked by a murderous sense of injustice, and looking for the opportunity to take retribution against enemies real and imaginary. Only a decade later, the rise of the Third Reich and other totalitarian states provided them with the opportunity they had been looking for.

The Great War And The Middle East

Author : Rob Johnson
ISBN : 9780191506314
Genre : History
File Size : 62. 29 MB
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The First World War in the Middle East swept away five hundred years of Ottoman domination. It ushered in new ideologies and radicalised old ones - from Arab nationalism and revolutionary socialism to impassioned forms of atavistic Islamism. It created heroic icons, like the enigmatic Lawrence of Arabia or the modernizing Atatürk, and destroyed others. And it completely re-drew the map of the region, forging a host of new nation states, including Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia - all of them (with the exception of Turkey) under the 'protection' of the victor powers, Britain and France. For many, the self-serving intervention of these powers in the region between 1914 and 1919 is the major reason for the conflicts that have raged there on and off ever since. Yet many of the most commonly accepted assertions about the First World War in the Middle East are more often stated than they are truly tested. Rob Johnson, military historian and former soldier, now seeks to put this right by examining in detail the strategic and operational course of the war in the Middle East. Johnson argues that, far from being a sideshow to the war in Europe, the Middle Eastern conflict was in fact the centre of gravity in a war for imperial domination and prestige. Moreover, contrary to another persistent myth of the First World War in the Middle East, local leaders and their forces were not simply the puppets of the Great Powers in any straightforward sense. The way in which these local forces embraced, resisted, succumbed to, disrupted, or on occasion overturned the plans of the imperialist powers for their own interests in fact played an important role in shaping the immediate aftermath of the conflict - and in laying the foundations for the troubled Middle East that we know today.

The New Global Order

Author : Naveen Tomar
ISBN : 9781543900804
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 82. 99 MB
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We are living in times of unprecedented globalisation. Instead of making the world multipolar, history is being repeated as corporates blur the sovereign boundaries and indulge in the cartelization of resources. The world has always been at war over resources behind the façade of trade, politics, religion and ideology. Though the global order has evolved, the key has always been geography for “he who controls the geography, controls the resources and has the power to dictate both war and peace”. History is testament that whenever new borders are drawn, the seeds for future conflict are sown. Hence while globalisation has brought a high degree of connectivity between polarised countries, communities etc.; the revenge of geography has ensured kingdoms being ground to dust, empires dismantled, democracies overthrown and communist movements created etc.; evolving the global order to where we are today. This theory of territorial reminiscence and its impact on countries, communities and ideologies is at the core of The New Global Order authored by Naveen Tomar, Navroop Singh and Himja Parekh, which attempts a global mapping from the 12th century Ottoman Empire (the key to chaos in Middle East and the world today); 14th century Eurasia through the European and Russian Orders; to China (as the challenger to the United States) and India’s rise in the 20th and 21st century respectively against an order led by Great Britain and currently the United States. As geopolitics is the sum total of state actions that affect the entire world, the book also draws parallels between it and international security. The book is divided into 6 parts - The Ascendance of Chaos (Middle East), War on Terror (USA), Eurasia, The Rise of The Chinese Dragon, The Indian Subcontinent and the last discussing the tools shaping The New Global Order. The key in shaping The New Global Order lies in creating two contrasting poles and bringing them into conflict. The thirst for power and ego will do the rest. The book explains how these poles were created and analyses the current global order, the contrasts in the emerging Beijing Consensus vs. the Washington Consensus and then discusses the tools of transition. They are Narco-Terror, Petrodollar, Climate Change, Water Wars including Virtual Water, The Surveillance State, The Military-Industrial Complex and Communism. Narco-terror cripples countries, the Petrodollar maintains the US Dollar as the global reserve currency, Climate Change and Water Wars help in carrying out political and economic warfare while The Surveillance State enables PsyOps, propaganda and cyber warfare. The Military-Industrial Complex shapes foreign policy by creating chaos; and the secrets of technology transfer between warring nations to ensure its relevance as a powerbroker are also elaborated. Lastly, the book discusses Communism, the most important tool of the future beyond a form of governance and ideology that will gradually erase the geographical boundaries and lead towards the creation of a Godless Society. The result will be The New Global Order or The Global Corporate State that has already begun via the mega trade deals/economic unions. The book further explores the trends in this transition by region and also highlights Next Generation Warfare, Islamic Communism, Transnationality of Communist International and the rise of Christian Terror in an emerging bipolar world with new players. It concludes with discussing the evolution of The New Global Order through the three founding pillars of Global Geopolitical Order, Global Geoeconomic Order and Cartelization of Resources. Martin Luther King said, “We are not makers of history, we are made by history”. With the current churning in geopolitics that is shaking the Peace of Westphalia, The New Global Order provides an in-depth view of what lies ahead and how nations can prepare themselves for a world that will be highly globalised yet exclusive.

The Middle East Oil And The U S National Security Policy

Author : Donald M. Snow
ISBN : 9781442261983
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 20. 82 MB
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Three interrelated subject areas are at the heart of the current foreign and national security dilemma. One is the Middle East, which has been the epicenter of most U.S. policy activity for over a third of a century. The second is energy policy, particularly as it is affected by the development and exploitation of shale oil and gas reserves in the United States. This is linked to the Middle East because it has been American dependence on Middle East petroleum that has created the interest the U.S. has in this region. The third area is military manpower policy and two simultaneous wars in the new century have raised questions about the all-volunteer force policy in place since 1972. It is increasingly evident that foreign and defense policy are strained and in need of fresh conceptualization. The three areas identified are the most obvious examples of policy dysfunction. The key area is the Middle East region. As long as the United States remains heavily committed to this part of the world, especially with military force and essentially because of its energy needs, there will be strains on manpower resources that could force a reexamination of the all-volunteer concept. At the same time, the reduction of U.S. dependence on Middle Eastern oil loosens the bonds that seem to impel American activism in the region. The result could be true opportunities for a less confrontational, adversary-driven foreign and defense posture.

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