liberalism fascism or social democracy social classes and the political origins of regimes in interwar europe

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Liberalism Fascism Or Social Democracy

Author : Gregory M. Luebbert
ISBN : 9780198023074
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 26. 5 MB
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This work provides a sweeping historical analysis of the political development of Western Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Arguing that the evolution of most Western European nations into liberal democracies, social democracies, or fascist regimes was attributable to a discrete set of social class alliances, the author explores the origins and outcomes of the political development in the individual nations. In Britain, France, and Switzerland, countries with a unified middle class, liberal forces established political hegemony before World War I. By coopting considerable sections of the working class with reforms that weakened union movements, liberals essentially excluded the fragmented working class from the political process, remaining in power throughout the inter-war period. In countries with a strong, cohesive working class and a fractured middle class, Luebbert points out, a liberal solution was impossible. In Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Czechoslovakia, political coalitions of social democrats and the "family peasantry" emerged as a result of the First World War, leading to social democratic governments. In Italy, Spain, and Germany, on the other hand, the urban middle class united with a peasantry hostile to socialism to facilitate the rise of fascism.

Rethinking The Nature Of Fascism

Author : António Costa Pinto
ISBN : 9780230295001
Genre : History
File Size : 90. 34 MB
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Many of the foremost experts in the study of European fascism unite to provide a contemporary analysis of the theories and historiography of fascism. Essays discuss the most recent debates on the subject and how changes in the social sciences over the past forty years have impacted on the study of fascism from various perspectives.

Comparative Politics

Author : Jeffrey Kopstein
ISBN : 9781139991384
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 57. 57 MB
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Twelve in-depth case studies of the EU and countries across the globe, written by the leading country specialists and combining insights of cutting-edge institutional analysis and deep study of national histories, explore how the concepts of interests, identities and institutions shape the politics of nations and regions. The country studies trace the global and historical contexts of political development and examine the diverse pathways that countries have taken in their quest to adapt to the competitive pressures of twenty-first-century globalization. These country studies constitute the overarching framework of the text, addressing the larger question, 'why are countries ruled and governed so differently?' Free of heavy-handed jargon, Comparative Politics inspires thought-provoking debate among introductory students and specialists alike, and encourages students to engage in real comparative analysis. In this new edition, all twelve country studies have been rewritten, and the first two theory chapters have been updated to reflect the latest research in the field.

Authoritarianism And Democracy In Europe 1919 39

Author : D. Berg-Schlosser
ISBN : 9781403914231
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 71. 35 MB
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Authoritarianism and Democracy in Europe, 1919-39 offers a comprehensive analysis of the survival or breakdown of democracy in interwar Europe. The contributors explore factors such as the historical, social-structural and political-cultural backgrounds of the policies that European countries attempted to implement to counter the world economic crisis of 1929. The analysis serves as an important backdrop for the assessment of current democratic developments in former communist Europe and highlights some of the problems and risks involved in the transition process.

Economic Origins Of Dictatorship And Democracy

Author : Daron Acemoglu
ISBN : 0521855268
Genre : Business & Economics
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This book systematically explains why some countries are democracies while others are not.

Fascism Liberalism And Social Democracy In Central Europe

Author : Lene Bøgh Sørensen
ISBN : 8772887192
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 20. 38 MB
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The three main currents in twentieth century political thought and practice "fascism, liberalism, and social democracy", emerged not in isolation from one another, but rather as competing and conflicting ideologies connected with particular social strata in different parts of Central Europe. That historical legacy continues to exert influence on popular perceptions and the relationship of contemporary political parties in the post-communist world. This volume of essays seeks to place the forces of Neo-Liberalism, Social Democracy, and Neo-Fascism within their historical perspective and their appeal to contemporary constituencies. In addressing the left, center, and right political elements, an international group of authors presents detailed analyses of a myriad of political options, including the skinheads and Neo-Nazis of central Europe, Hungarian Social Democracy, the Civic Forum in the Czech Republic, the party system in Slovakia, the development of FPÖ in Austria, and the Radical right in the Czech Republic. Papers also document the fall and rise of Social Democracy in the Czech Republic, the undermining of Slovak democracy, and Austrian Social Democracy before and after 1945. Concluding articles reflect on the limitations of Liberalism in Hungary and the ideology and role of socialist parties in the post-socialist milieu of Eastern-Central Europe. This book will be invaluable in providing the historical environment with an understanding of a vibrant, sometimes turbulent political arena.

Dark Continent

Author : Mark Mazower
ISBN : 9780307555502
Genre : History
File Size : 23. 74 MB
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"A useful, important book that reminds us, at the right time, how hard [European unity] has been, and how much care must be taken to avoid the terrible old temptations." --Los Angeles Times Dark Continent provides an alternative history of the twentieth century, one in which the triumph of democracy was anything but a forgone conclusion and fascism and communism provided rival political solutions that battled and sometimes triumphed in an effort to determine the course the continent would take. Mark Mazower strips away myths that have comforted us since World War II, revealing Europe as an entity constantly engaged in a bloody project of self-invention. Here is a history not of inevitable victories and forward marches, but of narrow squeaks and unexpected twists, where townships boast a bronze of Mussolini on horseback one moment, only to melt it down and recast it as a pair of noble partisans the next. Unflinching, intelligent, Dark Continent provides a provocative vision of Europe's past, present, and future-and confirms Mark Mazower as a historian of valuable gifts. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Democracy Revolution And History

Author : Theda Skocpol
ISBN : UOM:39015066075352
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 59. 1 MB
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The work of Barrington Moore, Jr., is one of the landmarks of modern social science. A distinguished roster of contributors here discusses the influence of his best-known work, Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Their individual perspectives combine in delineating Moore's contributions to the transformation of comparative and historical social science over the past several decades. The essays in Democracy, Revolution, and History all address substantive and methodological problems, asking questions about the different historical paths toward democratic or nondemocratic political outcomes. Following Moore's example, they use well-researched comparative cases to make their arguments. In the process, they demonstrate how vital Moore's work remains to contemporary research in the social sciences. This volume points, as well, to new frontiers of scholarship, suggesting lines of work that build upon Moore's achievements.

History In Dispute Twentieth Century European Social And Political Movements Second Series

Author : Benjamin Frankel
ISBN : STANFORD:36105120000802
Genre : History
File Size : 39. 93 MB
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Addresses heavily debated questions by offering different critical perspectives on major historical events, drawn from all time periods and from all parts of the globe. This volume covers twentieth-century European social and political movements. Provides students with an enhanced understanding of events only summarized in history texts, helps stimulate critical thinking and provides ideas for papers and assignments.

The Third Wave

Author : Samuel P. Huntington
ISBN : 9780806186047
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 57. 34 MB
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Between 1974 and 1990 more than thirty countries in southern Europe, Latin America, East Asia, and Eastern Europe shifted from authoritarian to democratic systems of government. This global democratic revolution is probably the most important political trend in the late twentieth century. In The Third Wave, Samuel P. Huntington analyzes the causes and nature of these democratic transitions, evaluates the prospects for stability of the new democracies, and explores the possibility of more countries becoming democratic. The recent transitions, he argues, are the third major wave of democratization in the modem world. Each of the two previous waves was followed by a reverse wave in which some countries shifted back to authoritarian government. Using concrete examples, empirical evidence, and insightful analysis, Huntington provides neither a theory nor a history of the third wave, but an explanation of why and how it occurred. Factors responsible for the democratic trend include the legitimacy dilemmas of authoritarian regimes; economic and social development; the changed role of the Catholic Church; the impact of the United States, the European Community, and the Soviet Union; and the "snowballing" phenomenon: change in one country stimulating change in others. Five key elite groups within and outside the nondemocratic regime played roles in shaping the various ways democratization occurred. Compromise was key to all democratizations, and elections and nonviolent tactics also were central. New democracies must deal with the "torturer problem" and the "praetorian problem" and attempt to develop democratic values and processes. Disillusionment with democracy, Huntington argues, is necessary to consolidating democracy. He concludes the book with an analysis of the political, economic, and cultural factors that will decide whether or not the third wave continues. Several "Guidelines for Democratizers" offer specific, practical suggestions for initiating and carrying out reform. Huntington's emphasis on practical application makes this book a valuable tool for anyone engaged in the democratization process. At this volatile time in history, Huntington's assessment of the processes of democratization is indispensable to understanding the future of democracy in the world.

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