life course smoking behavior patterns and national context in ten countries

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Life Course Smoking Behavior

Author : Dean R. Lillard
ISBN : 9780199389100
Genre : Compulsive behavior
File Size : 72. 47 MB
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Despite efforts to curb tobacco use, global tobacco addiction remains as strong as ever. Smoking rates are declining very slowly in advanced countries, and they are increasing in the developing world. Yet, researchers still do not fully understand what drives smoking decisions. Life-Course Smoking Behavior presents smoking trajectories of different generations of women and men from ten of the world's most visible countries, with nation-specific representative samples spanning more than eighty years of recent history. To inspire hypotheses on the determinants of smoking behavior, the authors place these data in economic, political, social, and cultural contexts, which differ greatly both across countries at a particular time and over time in a given country. Though significant research has been conducted on smoking statistics and tobacco control policies, most descriptions of smoking behavior rely on cross-sectional "snapshot" data that do not track individuals' habits throughout their lifespan. Lillard and Christopoulou's work is a unique and necessary text in its comparative life-course approach, making it a long overdue complement to the existing literature.

U S Health In International Perspective

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309264143
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 51. 85 MB
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The United States is among the wealthiest nations in the world, but it is far from the healthiest. Although life expectancy and survival rates in the United States have improved dramatically over the past century, Americans live shorter lives and experience more injuries and illnesses than people in other high-income countries. The U.S. health disadvantage cannot be attributed solely to the adverse health status of racial or ethnic minorities or poor people: even highly advantaged Americans are in worse health than their counterparts in other, "peer" countries. In light of the new and growing evidence about the U.S. health disadvantage, the National Institutes of Health asked the National Research Council (NRC) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to convene a panel of experts to study the issue. The Panel on Understanding Cross-National Health Differences Among High-Income Countries examined whether the U.S. health disadvantage exists across the life span, considered potential explanations, and assessed the larger implications of the findings. U.S. Health in International Perspective presents detailed evidence on the issue, explores the possible explanations for the shorter and less healthy lives of Americans than those of people in comparable countries, and recommends actions by both government and nongovernment agencies and organizations to address the U.S. health disadvantage.

A Life Course Perspective On Health Trajectories And Transitions

Author : Claudine Burton-Jeangros
ISBN : 9783319204840
Genre : Medical
File Size : 61. 3 MB
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This open access book examines health trajectories and health transitions at different stages of the life course, including childhood, adulthood and later life. It provides findings that assess the role of biological and social transitions on health status over time. The essays examine a wide range of health issues, including the consequences of military service on body mass index, childhood obesity and cardiovascular health, socio-economic inequalities in preventive health care use, depression and anxiety during the child rearing period, health trajectories and transitions in people with cystic fibrosis and oral health over the life course. The book addresses theoretical, empirical and methodological issues as well as examines different national contexts, which help to identify factors of vulnerability and potential resources that support resilience available for specific groups and/or populations. Health reflects the ability of individuals to adapt to their social environment. This book analyzes health as a dynamic experience. It examines how different aspects of individual health unfold over time as a result of aging but also in relation to changing socioeconomic conditions. It also offers readers potential insights into public policies that affect the health status of a population.

International Differences In Mortality At Older Ages

Author : Panel on Understanding Divergent Trends in Longevity in High-Income Countries
ISBN : 9780309157339
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 33. 75 MB
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In 1950 men and women in the United States had a combined life expectancy of 68.9 years, the 12th highest life expectancy at birth in the world. Today, life expectancy is up to 79.2 years, yet the country is now 28th on the list, behind the United Kingdom, Korea, Canada, and France, among others. The United States does have higher rates of infant mortality and violent deaths than in other developed countries, but these factors do not fully account for the country's relatively poor ranking in life expectancy. International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages: Dimensions and Sources examines patterns in international differences in life expectancy above age 50 and assesses the evidence and arguments that have been advanced to explain the poor position of the United States relative to other countries. The papers in this deeply researched volume identify gaps in measurement, data, theory, and research design and pinpoint areas for future high-priority research in this area. In addition to examining the differences in mortality around the world, the papers in International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages look at health factors and life-style choices commonly believed to contribute to the observed international differences in life expectancy. They also identify strategic opportunities for health-related interventions. This book offers a wide variety of disciplinary and scholarly perspectives to the study of mortality, and it offers in-depth analyses that can serve health professionals, policy makers, statisticians, and researchers.

Population Bulletin Of The United Nations

Author :
ISBN : OSU:32435072345812
Genre : Population
File Size : 22. 89 MB
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Explaining Divergent Levels Of Longevity In High Income Countries

Author : Panel on Understanding Divergent Trends in Longevity in High-Income Countries
ISBN : 9780309186407
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 60. 50 MB
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During the last 25 years, life expectancy at age 50 in the United States has been rising, but at a slower pace than in many other high-income countries, such as Japan and Australia. This difference is particularly notable given that the United States spends more on health care than any other nation. Concerned about this divergence, the National Institute on Aging asked the National Research Council to examine evidence on its possible causes. According to Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High-Income Countries, the nation's history of heavy smoking is a major reason why lifespans in the United States fall short of those in many other high-income nations. Evidence suggests that current obesity levels play a substantial part as well. The book reports that lack of universal access to health care in the U.S. also has increased mortality and reduced life expectancy, though this is a less significant factor for those over age 65 because of Medicare access. For the main causes of death at older ages -- cancer and cardiovascular disease -- available indicators do not suggest that the U.S. health care system is failing to prevent deaths that would be averted elsewhere. In fact, cancer detection and survival appear to be better in the U.S. than in most other high-income nations, and survival rates following a heart attack also are favorable. Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High-Income Countries identifies many gaps in research. For instance, while lung cancer deaths are a reliable marker of the damage from smoking, no clear-cut marker exists for obesity, physical inactivity, social integration, or other risks considered in this book. Moreover, evaluation of these risk factors is based on observational studies, which -- unlike randomized controlled trials -- are subject to many biases.

Marriages And Families

Author : Karen Seccombe
ISBN : 053455881X
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 69. 34 MB
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In this fresh, more structural, alternative to other texts for the marriage and family course, Seccombe and Warner provide a comprehensive look at close relationships and the family in just 15 chapters. Examining close relationships and families by placing them in social context, the authors offer a unique emphasis on the structural and relational aspects of the family with a focus on family resilience. The text weaves together a macro view – social structural analysis of close relationships- with the macro – an individualist view.The authors demonstrate the interaction of theory and methodology in family studies in Chapter 2 and blend cutting-edge research and practical applications throughout. Among the highlights of this first edition are the exceptionally thorough exploration of the topics of singlehood and cohabitation in Chapter 7 and the unique six-chapter core (8-13) that focuses on all aspects of parenthood and the challenges and crises that families face today. The authors' emphasis on family resilience and how families can be strengthened is reflected in the "Constructing Strong Families" boxes that appear throughout the text. These features encourage students to apply groundbreaking research on what makes a family strong to their own families and in the concluding chapter, "Looking Ahead: Helping Families Flourish," which examines the factors that successful families –regardless of ethnicity, culture, or social class—consistently exhibit.

Who Global Report On Falls Prevention In Older Age

Author :
ISBN : 9789241563536
Genre : Medical
File Size : 73. 94 MB
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The WHO Falls Prevention for Active Ageing model provides an action plan for making progress in reducing the prevalence of falls in the older adult population. By building on the three pillars of falls prevention, the model proposes specific strategies for: 1. Building awareness of the importance of falls prevention and treatment; 2. Improving the assessment of individual, environmental, and societal factors that increase the likelihood of falls; and 3. For facilitating the design and implementation of culturally appropriate, evidence-based interventions that will significantly reduce the number of falls among older persons. The model provides strategies and solutions that will require the engagement of multiple sectors of society. It is dependent on and consistent with the vision articulated in the WHO Active Ageing Policy Framework. Although not all of the awareness, assessment, and intervention strategies identified in the model apply equally well in all regions of the world, there are significant evidence-based strategies that can be effectively implemented in all regions and cultures. The degree to which progress will be made depends on to the success in integrating falls prevention strategies into the overall health and social care agendas globally. In order to do this effectively, it is necessary to identify and implement culturally appropriate, evidence-based policies and procedures. This requires multi-sectoral, collaborations, strong commitment to public and professional education, interaction based on evidence drawn from a variety of traditional, complementary, and alternative sources. Although the understanding of the evidence-base is growing, there is much that is not yet understood. Thus, there is an urgent need for continued research in all areas of falls prevention and treatment in order to better understand the scope of the problem worldwide. In particular, more evidence of the cost-effectiveness of interconnections is needed to develop strategies that are most likely to be effective in specific setting and population sub-groups.

Cumulated Index Medicus

Author :
ISBN : UIUC:30112065975143
Genre : Medicine
File Size : 57. 36 MB
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Inequalities In Young People S Health

Author : Candace Currie
ISBN : IND:30000110603390
Genre : Health & Fitness
File Size : 26. 61 MB
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This international report is the fourth from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, a WHO collaborative cross-national study, and the most comprehensive. It presents the key findings on patterns of health among young people aged 11, 13 and 15 years in 41 countries and regions across the WHO European Region and North America in 2005/2006. Its theme is health inequalities: quantifying the gender, age, geographic and socioeconomic dimensions of health differentials. Its aim is to highlight where these inequalities exist, to inform and influence policy and practice and to help improve health for all young people. The report clearly shows that, while the health and well-being of many young people give cause for celebration, sizeable minorities are experiencing real and worrying problems related to overweight and obesity, self-esteem, life satisfaction, substance misuse and bullying. The report provides reliable data that health systems in Member States can use to support and encourage sectors such as education, social inclusion and housing, to achieve their primary goals and, in so doing, benefit young people's health. Policy-makers and professionals in the participating countries should listen closely to the voices of their young people and ensure that these drive their efforts to put in place the circumstances - social, economic, health and educational - within which young people can thrive and prosper.

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