linking expertise and naturalistic decision making expertise research and applications series

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Linking Expertise And Naturalistic Decision Making

Author : Eduardo Salas
ISBN : 9781135659912
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 73. 53 MB
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This book contains selected papers presented at the 1998 conference on Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM). The objectives of the conference were to: *make American researchers more aware of NDM research being conducted abroad, particularly in Europe; *connect NDM research with work in management and industry, to stretch beyond the military and paramilitary focus; and *formulate a more explicit connection between NDM and expertise. These objectives are reflected in the chapters of this volume.

Naturalistic Decision Making

Author : Caroline E. Zsambok
ISBN : 9781317779605
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 84. 29 MB
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If you aren't using the term naturalistic decision making, or NDM, you soon will be. Even as a very young field, NDM has already had far-reaching applications in areas as diverse as management, aviation, health care, nuclear power, military command and control, corporate teamwork, and manufacturing. Put simply, NDM is the way people use their experience to make decisions in the context of a job or task. Of particular interest to NDM researchers are the effects of high-stake consequences, shifting goals, incomplete information, time pressure, uncertainty, and other conditions that are present in most of today's work places and that add to the complexity of decision making. Applications of NDM research findings target decision aids and training that help people in their decision-making processes. This book reports the findings of top NDM researchers, as well as many of their current applications. In addition, the book offers a historical perspective on the emergence of this new paradigm, describes recent theoretical and methodological advancements, and points to future developments. It was written for people interested in decision making research and applications relative to a diverse array of work settings and products such as human-computer interfaces, decision support systems, individual and team training, product designs, and organizational development and planning.

Expertise Out Of Context

Author : Robert R. Hoffman
ISBN : 9781136679636
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 79. 45 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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Researchers have revealed that real expertise, while applied to well-defined tasks with highly circumscribed contexts, often stretches beyond its routine boundaries. For example, a medical doctor may be called upon to diagnose a rare disease or perform emergency surgery outside his or her area of specialization because other experts are not available. Moreover, in some cases, the context for expertise is in a constant state of flux, such that no one case is identical. Expertise Out of Context is a culmination of some of the most insightful studies conducted by researchers in the fields of cognitive systems engineering and naturalistic decision making in the effort to better understand expertise and its development. Born out of the Sixth International Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making, a conference that gathers researchers who study cognition, perception, and reasoning outside of the traditional laboratory, this book is organized in five parts, the first of which provides an overview of the topic and presents varied perspectives. Consequent sections cover how to make sense of things, tools for thinking out of context, how to cope with uncertainty in a changing workplace, and teams operating out of context. As researchers in naturalistic decision making have investigated such areas as the knowledge and decision-making skills of expert firefighters, critical care nurses, military commanders, and aircraft pilots, this volume is of importance to an expansive audience, including individuals in business, government, industry, and society at large.

Naturalistic Decision Making And Macrocognition

Author : Laura Militello
ISBN : 9781409485698
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 57. 80 MB
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This book presents the latest work in the area of naturalistic decision making (NDM) and its extension into the area of macrocognition. It contains 18 chapters relating research centered on the study of expertise in naturalistic settings, written by international experts in NDM and cognitive systems engineering. The objective of the book is to present the reader with exciting new developments in this field of research, which is characterized by its application-oriented focus. The work addresses only real-world problems and issues. For instance, how do multi-national teams collaborate effectively? How can surgeons best be supported by technology? How do detectives make sense of complex criminal cases? In all instances the studies have been carried out on experts within their respective domains. The traditional field of NDM is extended in this work by focusing on macrocognitive functions other than decision making, namely sense-making, coordination and planning. This has broadened the scope of the field. The book also contains a theoretical discussion of the macro-micro distinction. Naturalistic Decision Making and Macrocognition will be relevant to graduate students, researchers and professionals (including professionals and researchers in business, industry and government) who are interested in decision making, expertise, training methods and system design. The material may be used in two ways: theoretically, to advance understanding of the field of naturalistic decision making; and practically, to gain insight into how experts in various domains solve particular problems, understand and deal with issues and collaborate with others.

Informed By Knowledge

Author : Kathleen L. Mosier
ISBN : 9781136945106
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 30. 8 MB
Format : PDF
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The focus of this book is on how experts adapt to complexity, synthesize and interpret information in context, and transform or "fuse" disparate items of information into coherent knowledge. The chapters examine these processes across experts (e.g. global leaders, individuals in extreme environments, managers, police officers, pilots, commanders, doctors, inventors), across contexts (e.g. space and space analogs, corporate organizations, command and control, crisis and crowd management, air traffic control, the operating room, product development), and for both individual and team performance. Successful information integration is a key factor in the success of diverse endeavors, including team attempts to climb Mt. Everest, crowd control in the Middle East, and remote drilling operations. This volume is divided into four sections, each with a specific focus on an area of expert performance, resulting in a text that covers a wide range of useful information. These sections present well-researched discussions, such as: the management of complex situations in various fields and decision contexts; technological and training approaches to facilitate knowledge management by individual experts and expert teams; new or neglected perspectives in expert decision making; and the importance of ‘modeling’ expert performance through techniques and frameworks such as Cognitive Task Analysis, computational architectures based on the notion of causal belief mapping such as ‘Convince Me,’ or the data/frame model of sensemaking. The volume provides essential reading for researchers and practitioners of Naturalistic Decision Making and those who study Expertise; Organizational and Cognitive Psychologists; and researchers and students in Business and Engineering.

Accelerated Expertise

Author : Robert R. Hoffman
ISBN : 9781135083236
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 67. 2 MB
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Speed in acquiring the knowledge and skills to perform tasks is crucial. Yet, it still ordinarily takes many years to achieve high proficiency in countless jobs and professions, in government, business, industry, and throughout the private sector. There would be great advantages if regimens of training could be established that could accelerate the achievement of high levels of proficiency. This book discusses the construct of ‘accelerated learning.’ It includes a review of the research literature on learning acquisition and retention, focus on establishing what works, and why. This includes several demonstrations of accelerated learning, with specific ideas, plans and roadmaps for doing so. The impetus for the book was a tasking from the Defense Science and Technology Advisory Group, which is the top level Science and Technology policy-making panel in the Department of Defense. However, the book uses both military and non-military exemplar case studies. It is likely that methods for acceleration will leverage technologies and capabilities including virtual training, cross-training, training across strategic and tactical levels, and training for resilience and adaptivity. This volume provides a wealth of information and guidance for those interested in the concept or phenomenon of "accelerating learning"— in education, training, psychology, academia in general, government, military, or industry.

Informed By Knowledge

Author : Kathleen L. Mosier
ISBN : 9781136945106
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 90. 55 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 802
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The focus of this book is on how experts adapt to complexity, synthesize and interpret information in context, and transform or "fuse" disparate items of information into coherent knowledge. The chapters examine these processes across experts (e.g. global leaders, individuals in extreme environments, managers, police officers, pilots, commanders, doctors, inventors), across contexts (e.g. space and space analogs, corporate organizations, command and control, crisis and crowd management, air traffic control, the operating room, product development), and for both individual and team performance. Successful information integration is a key factor in the success of diverse endeavors, including team attempts to climb Mt. Everest, crowd control in the Middle East, and remote drilling operations. This volume is divided into four sections, each with a specific focus on an area of expert performance, resulting in a text that covers a wide range of useful information. These sections present well-researched discussions, such as: the management of complex situations in various fields and decision contexts; technological and training approaches to facilitate knowledge management by individual experts and expert teams; new or neglected perspectives in expert decision making; and the importance of ‘modeling’ expert performance through techniques and frameworks such as Cognitive Task Analysis, computational architectures based on the notion of causal belief mapping such as ‘Convince Me,’ or the data/frame model of sensemaking. The volume provides essential reading for researchers and practitioners of Naturalistic Decision Making and those who study Expertise; Organizational and Cognitive Psychologists; and researchers and students in Business and Engineering.

How Professionals Make Decisions

Author : Henry Montgomery
ISBN : 9780805844702
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 86. 73 MB
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This volume is the fruit of the 5th conference on Naturalistic Decision Making which focused on the importance of studying people who have some degree of expertise in the domain in which they make decisions. The substantive concerns pertain to how individuals and groups make decisions in professional and organizational settings, and to develop suitable methods for studying these questions rigorously. This volume appeals to practitioners in business and government, as well as academics and students who are interested in naturalistic decision making.

The Oxford Handbook Of Organizational Decision Making

Author : Gerard P. Hodgkinson
ISBN : 0199290466
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 30. 49 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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The Oxford Handbook of Decision-Making comprehensively surveys theory and research on organizational decision-making, broadly conceived. Emphasizing psychological perspectives, while encompassing the insights of economics, political science, and sociology, it provides coverage at theindividual, group, organizational, and inter-organizational levels of analysis. In-depth case studies illustrate the practical implications of the work surveyed.Each chapter is authored by one or more leading scholars, thus ensuring that this Handbook is an authoritative reference work for academics, researchers, advanced students, and reflective practitioners concerned with decision-making in the areas of Management, Psychology, and HRM.Contributors: Eric Abrahamson, Julia Balogun, Michael L Barnett, Philippe Baumard, Nicole Bourque, Laure Cabantous, Prithviraj Chattopadhyay, Kevin Daniels, Jerker Denrell, Vinit M Desai, Giovanni Dosi, Roger L M Dunbar, Stephen M Fiore, Mark A Fuller, Michael Shayne Gary, Elizabeth George,Jean-Pascal Gond, Paul Goodwin, Terri L Griffith, Mark P Healey, Gerard P Hodgkinson, Gerry Johnson, Michael E Johnson-Cramer, Alfred Kieser, Ann Langley, Eleanor T Lewis, Dan Lovallo, Rebecca Lyons, Peter M Madsen, A. John Maule, John M Mezias, Nigel Nicholson, Gregory B Northcraft, David Oliver,Annie Pye, Karlene H Roberts, Jacques Rojot, Michael A Rosen, Isabelle Royer, Eugene Sadler-Smith, Eduardo Salas, Kristyn A Scott, Zur Shapira, Carolyne Smart, Gerald F Smith, Emma Soane, Paul R Sparrow, William H Starbuck, Matt Statler, Kathleen M Sutcliffe, Michal Tamuz , Teri JaneUrsacki-Bryant, Ilan Vertinsky, Benedicte Vidaillet, Jane Webster, Karl E Weick, Benjamin Wellstein, George Wright, Kuo Frank Yu, and David Zweig.

Seeing What Others Don T

Author : Gary Klein
ISBN : 9781610392754
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 31. 4 MB
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Insights—like Darwin's understanding of the way evolution actually works, and Watson and Crick's breakthrough discoveries about the structure of DNA—can change the world. We also need insights into the everyday things that frustrate and confuse us so that we can more effectively solve problems and get things done. Yet we know very little about when, why, or how insights are formed—or what blocks them. In Seeing What Others Don't, renowned cognitive psychologist Gary Klein unravels the mystery. Klein is a keen observer of people in their natural settings—scientists, businesspeople, firefighters, police officers, soldiers, family members, friends, himself—and uses a marvelous variety of stories to illuminate his research into what insights are and how they happen. What, for example, enabled Harry Markopolos to put the finger on Bernie Madoff? How did Dr. Michael Gottlieb make the connections between different patients that allowed him to publish the first announcement of the AIDS epidemic? What did Admiral Yamamoto see (and what did the Americans miss) in a 1940 British attack on the Italian fleet that enabled him to develop the strategy of attack at Pearl Harbor? How did a “smokejumper” see that setting another fire would save his life, while those who ignored his insight perished? How did Martin Chalfie come up with a million-dollar idea (and a Nobel Prize) for a natural flashlight that enabled researchers to look inside living organisms to watch biological processes in action? Klein also dissects impediments to insight, such as when organizations claim to value employee creativity and to encourage breakthroughs but in reality block disruptive ideas and prioritize avoidance of mistakes. Or when information technology systems are “dumb by design” and block potential discoveries. Both scientifically sophisticated and fun to read, Seeing What Others Don't shows that insight is not just a “eureka!” moment but a whole new way of understanding.

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