macromolecular crystallization and crystal perfection international union of crystallography monographs on crystallography

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Macromolecular Crystallization And Crystal Perfection

Author : Naomi E Chayen
ISBN : 9780199213252
Genre : Science
File Size : 42. 82 MB
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Structural biology is key to our understanding of the mechanisms of biological processes. This book describes current methods and future frontiers in crystal growth and use of X-ray and Neutron crystallography, in the context of the very successful current automation of crystallization and generation of synchrotron X-ray and neutron beams.

The Whys Of A Scientific Life

Author : John R. Helliwell
ISBN : 9780429752797
Genre : Medical
File Size : 39. 3 MB
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The first in the Focus Series on Global Science Education, The Whys of a Scientific Life examines why scientists do what they do. Working from a diverse background in scientific research, including academic departments of physics and chemistry, as well as the scientific civil service, the author describes the choices scientists make. Fundamentally, a scientist asks questions based on curiosity. In addition, the environment is very important. By influencing their elected governments, society itself shapes the scientific research that is undertaken by scientists. This book follows on naturally from the author’s last book, Skills for a Scientific Life, which is a how-to guide for scientists and those that aspire to engage in science as a career. Key Features: User friendly and concise, this text dissects the whys of science and discovery The author has outstanding experience in mentoring science students and staff, and also in outreach activities for the public and students of all ages including schools The final chapter emphasises the joys of the scientist in research

Structure Determination By X Ray Crystallography

Author : Mark Ladd
ISBN : 9781461439547
Genre : Science
File Size : 68. 5 MB
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The advances in and applications of x-ray and neutron crystallography form the essence of this new edition of this classic textbook, while maintaining the overall plan of the book that has been well received in the academic community since the first edition in 1977. X-ray crystallography is a universal tool for studying molecular structure, and the complementary nature of neutron diffraction crystallography permits the location of atomic species in crystals which are not easily revealed by X-ray techniques alone, such as hydrogen atoms or other light atoms in the presence of heavier atoms. Thus, a chapter discussing the practice of neutron diffraction techniques, with examples, broadens the scope of the text in a highly desirable way. As with previous editions, the book contains problems to illustrate the work of each chapter, and detailed solutions are provided. Mathematical procedures related to the material of the main body of the book are not discussed in detail, but are quoted where needed with references to standard mathematical texts. To address the computational aspect of crystallography, the suite of computer programs from the fourth edition has been revised and expanded. The programs enable the reader to participate fully in many of the aspects of x-ray crystallography discussed in the book. In particular, the program system XRAY* is interactive, and enables the reader to follow through, at the monitor screen, the computational techniques involved in single-crystal structure determination, albeit in two dimensions, with the data sets provided. Exercises for students can be found in the book, and solutions are available to instructors.

Skills For A Scientific Life

Author : John R. Helliwell
ISBN : 9781315394411
Genre : Science
File Size : 72. 31 MB
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Being, or wanting to become, a scientist requires academic training in the science subjects. To succeed as a research scientist and educator requires specific as well as general skills. Skills for a Scientific Life provides insight into how to be successful. This career book is intended for potential entrants, early career and mid-career scientists for a wide range of science disciplines.

Perspectives In Crystallography

Author : John R. Helliwell
ISBN : 9781498732116
Genre : Medical
File Size : 34. 94 MB
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Crystallography is one of the most multidisciplinary sciences, with roots in fields as varied as mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, materials science, computation and earth and planetary science. The structural knowledge gained from crystallography has been instrumental in acquiring new levels of understanding in numerous scientific areas. Perspectives in Crystallography provides an overview of the current state of the field, reviews its historical origins and explains how crystallography contributes to the sustainability of life. This book resonates with the recent United Nations and UNESCO International Year of Crystallography, a celebration of its achievements and importance, undertaken with the International Union of Crystallography. The author of this book is the editor in chief of Crystallography Reviews, where some of the contents have been previously published. Here, subjects of interest to specialists and non-specialists have been brought together in a single source. The book opens with a description of the ways to explain crystallography to diverse general audiences. It also addresses various topics in crystallography, including: The evolution and importance of synchrotron radiation to crystallography The structural chemistry and biology of colouration in marine crustacea Predicting protonation states of proteins versus crystallographic experimentation The book then offers a projection of crystal structure analysis in the next 100 years and concludes by emphasizing the societal impacts of crystallography that allow for sustainability of life. Perspectives in Crystallography offers a threefold look into the past, present and long-term development and relevance of crystal structure analysis. It is concerned not only with the state of the field, but with its role in the perpetuation of life on earth. As such, it is a reference of vital interest to a broad range of analytical and practical sciences.

Handbook Of Crystal Growth

Author : Tatau Nishinaga
ISBN : 9780444593764
Genre : Science
File Size : 44. 18 MB
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Volume IA Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition (Fundamentals: Thermodynamics and Kinetics) Volume IA addresses the present status of crystal growth science, and provides scientific tools for the following volumes: Volume II (Bulk Crystal Growth) and III (Thin Film Growth and Epitaxy). Volume IA highlights thermodynamics and kinetics. After historical introduction of the crystal growth, phase equilibria, defect thermodynamics, stoichiometry, and shape of crystal and structure of melt are described. Then, the most fundamental and basic aspects of crystal growth are presented, along with the theories of nucleation and growth kinetics. In addition, the simulations of crystal growth by Monte Carlo, ab initio-based approach and colloidal assembly are thoroughly investigated. Volume IB Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition (Fundamentals: Transport and Stability) Volume IB discusses pattern formation, a typical problem in crystal growth. In addition, an introduction to morphological stability is given and the phase-field model is explained with comparison to experiments. The field of nanocrystal growth is rapidly expanding and here the growth from vapor is presented as an example. For the advancement of life science, the crystal growth of protein and other biological molecules is indispensable and biological crystallization in nature gives many hints for their crystal growth. Another subject discussed is pharmaceutical crystal growth. To understand the crystal growth, in situ observation is extremely powerful. The observation techniques are demonstrated. Volume IA Explores phase equilibria, defect thermodynamics of Si, stoichiometry of oxides and atomistic structure of melt and alloys Explains basic ideas to understand crystal growth, equilibrium shape of crystal, rough-smooth transition of step and surface, nucleation and growth mechanisms Focuses on simulation of crystal growth by classical Monte Carlo, ab-initio based quantum mechanical approach, kinetic Monte Carlo and phase field model. Controlled colloidal assembly is presented as an experimental model for crystal growth. Volume IIB Describes morphological stability theory and phase-field model and comparison to experiments of dendritic growth Presents nanocrystal growth in vapor as well as protein crystal growth and biological crystallization Interprets mass production of pharmaceutical crystals to be understood as ordinary crystal growth and explains crystallization of chiral molecules Demonstrates in situ observation of crystal growth in vapor, solution and melt on the ground and in space

Vom Sechseckigen Schnee

Author : Johannes Kepler
ISBN : UCAL:B3551190
Genre : Science
File Size : 86. 11 MB
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