making the grade the economic evolution of american school districts

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Making The Grade

Author : William A. Fischel
ISBN : 9780226251318
Genre : Education
File Size : 85. 50 MB
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A significant factor for many people deciding where to live is the quality of the local school district, with superior schools creating a price premium for housing. The result is a “race to the top,” as all school districts attempt to improve their performance in order to attract homebuyers. Given the importance of school districts to the daily lives of children and families, it is surprising that their evolution has not received much attention. In this provocative book, William Fischel argues that the historical development of school districts reflects Americans’ desire to make their communities attractive to outsiders. The result has been a standardized, interchangeable system of education not overly demanding for either students or teachers, one that involved parents and local voters in its governance and finance. Innovative in its focus on bottom-up processes generated by individual behaviors rather than top-down decisions by bureaucrats, Making the Grade provides a new perspective on education reform that emphasizes how public schools form the basis for the localized social capital in American towns and cities.

The Fight For Local Control

Author : Campbell F. Scribner
ISBN : 9781501704116
Genre : History
File Size : 53. 55 MB
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Throughout the twentieth century, local control of school districts was one of the most contentious issues in American politics. As state and federal regulation attempted to standardize public schools, conservatives defended local prerogative as a bulwark of democratic values. Yet their commitment to those values was shifting and selective. In The Fight for Local Control, Campbell F. Scribner demonstrates how, in the decades after World War II, suburban communities appropriated legacies of rural education to assert their political autonomy and in the process radically changed educational law. Scribner's account unfolds on the metropolitan fringe, where rapid suburbanization overlapped with the consolidation of thousands of small rural schools. Rural residents initially clashed with their new neighbors, but by the 1960s the groups had rallied to resist government oversight. What began as residual opposition to school consolidation would transform into campaigns against race-based busing, unionized teachers, tax equalization, and secular curriculum. In case after case, suburban conservatives carved out new rights for local autonomy, stifling equal educational opportunity. Yet Scribner also provides insight into why many conservatives have since abandoned localism for policies that stress school choice and federal accountability. In the 1970s, as new battles arose over unions, textbooks, and taxes, districts on the rural-suburban fringe became the first to assert individual choice in the form of school vouchers, religious exemptions, and a marketplace model of education. At the same time, they began to embrace tax limitation and standardized testing, policies that checked educational bureaucracy but bypassed local school boards. The effect, Scribner concludes, has been to reinforce inequalities between districts while weakening participatory government within them, keeping the worst aspects of local control in place while forfeiting its virtues.

Evidence And Innovation In Housing Law And Policy

Author : Lee Anne Fennell
ISBN : 9781316738481
Genre : Law
File Size : 41. 91 MB
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No area of law and policy is more central to our well-being than housing, yet research on the topic is too often produced in disciplinary or methodological silos that fail to connect to policy on the ground. This pathbreaking book, which features leading scholars from a range of academic fields, cuts across disciplines to forge new connections in the discourse. In accessible prose filled with cutting-edge ideas, these scholars address topics ranging from the recent financial crisis to discrimination and gentrification and show how housing law and policy impacts household wealth, financial markets, urban landscapes, and local communities. Together, they harness evidence and theory to capture the 'state of play' in housing, generating insights that will be relevant to academics and policymakers alike. This title is also available as Open Access.

Politics In The American States A Comparative Analysis

Author : Virginia Gray
ISBN : 9781608719983
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 49. 57 MB
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Fully updated--and with new coeditor Thad Kousser--the tenth edition brings together the high caliber research you expect from this trusted text, with comprehensive and comparative analysis of the fifty states. Students will appreciate the book's glossary, the fully up-todate tables and figures, and the maps showcasing comparative data. A companion website includes downloadable graphics and data.

Curriculum Development Library

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ISBN : PSU:000063911862
Genre : Curriculum planning
File Size : 20. 96 MB
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Race And Schooling In The South 1880 1950

Author : Robert A. Margo
ISBN : 0226505014
Genre : History
File Size : 70. 46 MB
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The interrelation among race, schooling, and labor market opportunities of American blacks can help us make sense of the relatively poor economic status of blacks in contemporary society. The role of these factors in slavery and the economic consequences for blacks has received much attention, but the post-slave experience of blacks in the American economy has been less studied. To deepen our understanding of that experience, Robert A. Margo mines a wealth of newly available census data and school district records. By analyzing evidence concerning occupational discrimination, educational expenditures, taxation, and teachers' salaries, he clarifies the costs for blacks of post-slave segregation. "A concise, lucid account of the bases of racial inequality in the South between Reconstruction and the Civil Rights era. . . . Deserves the careful attention of anyone concerned with historical and contemporary race stratification."—Kathryn M. Neckerman, Contemporary Sociology "Margo has produced an excellent study, which can serve as a model for aspiring cliometricians. To describe it as 'required reading' would fail to indicate just how important, indeed indispensable, the book will be to scholars interested in racial economic differences, past or present."—Robert Higgs, Journal of Economic Literature "Margo shows that history is important in understanding present domestic problems; his study has significant implications for understanding post-1950s black economic development."—Joe M. Richardson, Journal of American History

Starting Up

Author : Lisa Arrastia
ISBN : 9780807753071
Genre : Education
File Size : 37. 56 MB
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Starting Up is a collection of first-person accounts by some of the best-known founders of new schools in America. Providing the kind of knowledge that only experience can teach, it is an invaluable resource for anyone in the process of or thinking about opening a new school, as well as those interested in the politics of today's era of new school development. The authors share how they worked to make their educational aspirations a reality while wrestling with social and economic obstacles, such as the distressed state of the communities in which these schools operated and the constant competition for resources. Starting Up tells real stories that capture the rich sense of possibility that currently exists for urban education.

Understanding Agriculture

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ISBN : NAP:14258
Genre : Education
File Size : 76. 24 MB
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This report presents findings of a study to examine agricultural education at the secondary level and to make recommendations for program improvement. It focuses on the two major elements of agricultural education--agricultural literacy (education about agriculture) and vocational agriculture (education in agriculture). An executive summary sets forth the study's principal findings, conclusions, and recommendations. Chapter 2 discusses educational programs about agriculture for all students at the secondary school level with the goal of producing agriculturally literate citizens. Findings, conclusions, and recommendations are set forth in these areas: education about agriculture, teaching science through agriculture, teacher education and training, model programs, community involvement, and agricultural career exploration programs. Chapter 3 examines vocational agriculture education programs and explores recommendations for change. Specific focuses are program enrollment and availability, program content, supervised occupational experiences, Future Farmers of America, and teacher education. The appendixes review the evolution of agricultural education. (YLB)

The American School Board Journal

Author : Susanna Cocroft
ISBN : STANFORD:36105006550144
Genre : Education
File Size : 46. 74 MB
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Choosing Excellence In Public Schools

Author : David W. Hornbeck
ISBN : 9781607091561
Genre : Education
File Size : 36. 41 MB
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Choosing Excellence in Public Schools explains the origins of the low expectations we have of children, including, notably, children of color, those for whom English is a second language, poor children and children with disabilities. The book dispels the basis for low expectations. It makes clear the economic, demographic, civic, personal and moral imperative to educate all children to high standards and the consequences of not doing so. Hornbeck and Conner set forth a comprehensive, radical agenda based on proven practices and practical experience that will result in education success for virtually all children where faithfully implemented. This book breaks new ground. It establishes that the missing ingredient in school reform is the absence of values-driven, focused, well-financed, professionally staffed, technologically sophisticated grassroots expression of the public will insisting that the political, media, business, judicial and organized labor institutions that make the choices that result in our children's learning conditions make different, and effective choices. We get the education for our own children and grandchildren and those of others that we tolerate or demand.

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