mathematical surveys and monographs

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Expanding Thurston Maps

Author : Mario Bonk
ISBN : 9780821875544
Genre : Algebraic topology
File Size : 33. 61 MB
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This monograph is devoted to the study of the dynamics of expanding Thurston maps under iteration. A Thurston map is a branched covering map on a two-dimensional topological sphere such that each critical point of the map has a finite orbit under iteration. It is called expanding if, roughly speaking, preimages of a fine open cover of the underlying sphere under iterates of the map become finer and finer as the order of the iterate increases. Every expanding Thurston map gives rise to a fractal space, called its visual sphere. Many dynamical properties of the map are encoded in the geometry of this visual sphere. For example, an expanding Thurston map is topologically conjugate to a rational map if and only if its visual sphere is quasisymmetrically equivalent to the Riemann sphere. This relation between dynamics and fractal geometry is the main focus for the investigations in this work. The book is an introduction to the subject. The prerequisites for the reader are modest and include some basic knowledge of complex analysis and topology. The book has an extensive appendix, where background material is reviewed such as orbifolds and branched covering maps.


Author : Alan L. T. Paterson
ISBN : 9780821809853
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 67. 7 MB
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The subject of amenability has its roots in the work of Lebesgue at the turn of the century. In the 1940s, the subject began to shift from finitely additive measures to means. This shift is of fundamental importance, for it makes the substantial resources of functional analysis and abstract harmonic analysis available to the study of amenability. The ubiquity of amenability ideas and the depth of the mathematics involved points to the fundamental importance of the subject. This book presents a comprehensive and coherent account of amenability as it has been developed in the large and varied literature during this century. The book has a broad appeal, for it presents an account of the subject based on harmonic and functional analysis. In addition, the analytic techniques should be of considerable interest to analysts in all areas.In addition, the book contains applications of amenability to a number of areas: combinatorial group theory, semigroup theory, statistics, differential geometry, Lie groups, ergodic theory, cohomology, and operator algebras. The main objectives of the book are to provide an introduction to the subject as a whole and to go into many of its topics in some depth. The book begins with an informal, nontechnical account of amenability from its origins in the work of Lebesgue.The initial chapters establish the basic theory of amenability and provide a detailed treatment of invariant, finitely additive measures (i.e., invariant means) on locally compact groups. The author then discusses amenability for Lie groups, 'almost invariant' properties of certain subsets of an amenable group, amenability and ergodic theorems, polynomial growth, and invariant mean cardinalities. Also included are detailed discussions of the two most important achievements in amenability in the 1980s: the solutions to von Neumann's conjecture and the Banach-Ruziewicz Problem. The main prerequisites for this book are a sound understanding of undergraduate-level mathematics and a knowledge of abstract harmonic analysis and functional analysis. The book is suitable for use in graduate courses, and the lists of problems in each chapter may be useful as student exercises.

An Introduction To Infinite Ergodic Theory

Author : Jon Aaronson
ISBN : 9780821804940
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 58. 21 MB
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Infinite ergodic theory is the study of measure preserving transformations of infinite measure spaces. The book focuses on properties specific to infinite measure preserving transformations. The work begins with an introduction to basic nonsingular ergodic theory, including recurrence behavior, existence of invariant measures, ergodic theorems, and spectral theory. A wide range of possible ``ergodic behavior'' is catalogued in the third chapter mainly according to the yardsticks of intrinsic normalizing constants, laws of large numbers, and return sequences. The rest of the book consists of illustrations of these phenomena, including Markov maps, inner functions, and cocycles and skew products. One chapter presents a start on the classification theory.

Applied Picard Lefschetz Theory

Author : V. A. Vasilʹev
ISBN : 9780821829486
Genre : Mathematics
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Many important functions of mathematical physics are defined as integrals depending on parameters. The Picard-Lefschetz theory studies how analytic and qualitative properties of such integrals (regularity, algebraicity, ramification, singular points, etc.) depend on the monodromy of corresponding integration cycles. In this book, V. A. Vassiliev presents several versions of the Picard-Lefschetz theory, including the classical local monodromy theory of singularities and complete intersections, Pham's generalized Picard-Lefschetz formulas, stratified Picard-Lefschetz theory, and also twisted versions of all these theories with applications to integrals of multivalued forms. The author also shows how these versions of the Picard-Lefschetz theory are used in studying a variety of problems arising in many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics.In particular, he discusses the following classes of functions: volume functions arising in the Archimedes-Newton problem of integrable bodies; Newton-Coulomb potentials; fundamental solutions of hyperbolic partial differential equations; and, multidimensional hypergeometric functions generalizing the classical Gauss hypergeometric integral. The book is geared toward a broad audience of graduate students, research mathematicians and mathematical physicists interested in algebraic geometry, complex analysis, singularity theory, asymptotic methods, potential theory, and hyperbolic operators.

Self Similar Groups

Author : Volodymyr Nekrashevych
ISBN : 9780821838310
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 67. 8 MB
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Self-similar groups (groups generated by automata) appeared initially as examples of groups that are easy to define but that enjoy exotic properties like nontrivial torsion, intermediate growth, etc. The book studies the self-similarity phenomenon in group theory and shows its intimate relation with dynamical systems and more classical self-similar structures, such as fractals, Julia sets, and self-affine tilings. The relation is established through the notions of the iterated monodromy group and the limit space, which are the central topics of the book. A wide variety of examples and different applications of self-similar groups to dynamical systems and vice versa are discussed. It is shown in particular how Julia sets can be reconstructed from the respective iterated monodromy groups and that groups with exotic properties appear now not just as isolated examples but as naturally defined iterated monodromy groups of rational functions. The book is intended to be accessible to a wide mathematical readership, including graduate students interested in group theory and dynamical systems.

Operator Theory In Function Spaces

Author : Kehe Zhu
ISBN : 9780821839652
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 65. 11 MB
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This book covers Toeplitz operators, Hankel operators, and composition operators on both the Bergman space and the Hardy space. The setting is the unit disk and the main emphasis is on size estimates of these operators: boundedness, compactness, and membership in the Schatten classes. Most results concern the relationship between operator-theoretic properties of these operators and function-theoretic properties of the inducing symbols. Thus a good portion of the book is devoted to the study of analytic function spaces such as the Bloch space, Besov spaces, and BMOA, whose elements are to be used as symbols to induce the operators we study. The book is intended for both research mathematicians and graduate students in complex analysis and operator theory. The prerequisites are minimal; a graduate course in each of real analysis, complex analysis, and functional analysis should sufficiently prepare the reader for the book. Exercises and bibliographical notes are provided at the end of each chapter. These notes will point the reader to additional results and problems. Kehe Zhu is a professor of mathematics at the State University of New York at Albany. His previous books include Theory of Bergman Spaces (Springer, 2000, with H. Hedenmalm and B. Korenblum) and Spaces of Holomorphic Functions in the Unit Ball (Springer, 2005). His current research interests are holomorphic function spaces and operators acting on them.

Parabolic Geometries Background And General Theory

Author : Andreas Cap
ISBN : 9780821826812
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 71. 30 MB
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Parabolic geometries encompass a very diverse class of geometric structures, including such important examples as conformal, projective, and almost quaternionic structures, hypersurface type CR-structures and various types of generic distributions. The characteristic feature of parabolic geometries is an equivalent description by a Cartan geometry modeled on a generalized flag manifold (the quotient of a semisimple Lie group by a parabolic subgroup). Background on differential geometry, with a view towards Cartan connections, and on semisimple Lie algebras and their representations, which play a crucial role in the theory, is collected in two introductory chapters. The main part discusses the equivalence between Cartan connections and underlying structures, including a complete proof of Kostant's version of the Bott-Borel-Weil theorem, which is used as an important tool. For many examples, the complete description of the geometry and its basic invariants is worked out in detail. The constructions of correspondence spaces and twistor spaces and analogs of the Fefferman construction are presented both in general and in several examples. The last chapter studies Weyl structures, which provide classes of distinguished connections as well as an equivalent description of the Cartan connection in terms of data associated to the underlying geometry. Several applications are discussed throughout the text.

Representations Of Algebraic Groups

Author : Jens Carsten Jantzen
ISBN : 9780821843772
File Size : 20. 90 MB
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The present book, which is a revised edition of the author's book published in 1987 by Academic Press, is intended to give the reader an introduction to the theory of algebraic representations of reductive algebraic groups. To develop appropriate techniques, the first part of the book is an introduction to the general theory of representations of algebraic group schemes. Here the author describes, among others, such important basic notions as induction functor, cohomology, quotients, Frobenius kernels, and reduction mod $p$. The second part of the book is devoted to the representation theory of reductive algebraic groups. It includes such topics as the description of simple modules, vanishing theorems, the Borel-Bott-Weil theorem and Weyl's character formula, Schubert schemes and line bundles on them. For this revised edition the author added several chapters describing some later developments, among them Schur algebras, Lusztig's conjecture, and Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials, tilting modules, and representations of quantum groups.

Homeomorphisms In Analysis

Author : Casper Goffman
ISBN : 9780821806142
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 47. 31 MB
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This book features the interplay of two main branches of mathematics: topology and real analysis. The material of the book is largely contained in the research publications of the authors and their students from the past 50 years. Parts of analysis are touched upon in a unique way, for example, Lebesgue measurability, Baire classes of functions, differentiability, $C^n$ and $C^{\infty}$ functions, the Blumberg theorem, bounded variation in the sense of Cesari, and various theorems on Fourier series and generalized bounded variation of a function. Features: Contains new results and complete proofs of some known results for the first time. Demonstrates the wide applicability of certain basic notions and techniques in measure theory and set-theoretic topology. Gives unified treatments of large bodies of research found in the literature.

A Tour Of Subriemannian Geometries Their Geodesics And Applications

Author : Richard Montgomery
ISBN : 9780821841655
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 34. 6 MB
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Subriemannian geometries can be viewed as limits of Riemannian geometries. They arise naturally in many areas of pure (algebra, geometry, analysis) and applied (mechanics, control theory, mathematical physics) mathematics, as well as in applications (e.g., robotics). This book is devoted to the study of subriemannian geometries, their geodesics, and their applications. It starts with the simplest nontrivial example of a subriemannian geometry: the two-dimensional isoperimetric problem reformulated as a problem of finding subriemannian geodesics. Among topics discussed in other chapters of the first part of the book are an elementary exposition of Gromov's idea to use subriemannian geometry for proving a theorem in discrete group theory and Cartan's method of equivalence applied to the problem of understanding invariants of distributions. The second part of the book is devoted to applications of subriemannian geometry. In particular, the author describes in detail Berry's phase in quantum mechanics, the problem of a falling cat righting herself, that of a microorganism swimming, and a phase problem arising in the $N$-body problem. He shows that all these problems can be studied using the same underlying type of subriemannian geometry. The reader is assumed to have an introductory knowledge of differential geometry. This book that also has a chapter devoted to open problems can serve as a good introduction to this new, exciting area of mathematics.

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