mendelian randomization methods for using genetic variants in causal estimation chapman hall crc interdisciplinary statistics

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Mendelian Randomization

Author : Stephen Burgess
ISBN : 9781466573185
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 70. 37 MB
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Presents the Terminology and Methods of Mendelian Randomization for Epidemiological Studies Mendelian randomization uses genetic instrumental variables to make inferences about causal effects based on observational data. It, therefore, can be a reliable way of assessing the causal nature of risk factors, such as biomarkers, for a wide range of disease outcomes. Mendelian Randomization: Methods for Using Genetic Variants in Causal Estimation provides thorough coverage of the methods and practical elements of Mendelian randomization analysis. It brings together diverse aspects of Mendelian randomization spanning epidemiology, statistics, genetics, and econometrics. Although the book mainly focuses on epidemiology, much of the material can be applied to other areas of research. Through several examples, the first part of the book shows how to perform simple applied Mendelian randomization analyses and interpret their results. The second part addresses specific methodological issues, such as weak instruments, multiple instruments, power calculations, and meta-analysis, relevant to practical applications of Mendelian randomization. In this part, the authors draw on data from the C-reactive protein Coronary heart disease Genetics Collaboration (CCGC) to illustrate the analyses. They present the mathematics in an easy-to-understand way by using nontechnical language and reinforcing key points at the end of each chapter. The last part of the book examines the potential of Mendelian randomization in the future, exploring both methodological and applied developments. This book gives statisticians, epidemiologists, and geneticists the foundation to understand issues concerning the use of genetic variants as instrumental variables. It will get them up to speed in undertaking and interpreting Mendelian randomization analyses. Chapter summaries, paper summaries, web-based applications, and software code for implementing the statistical techniques are available on a supplementary website.

Compositional Data Analysis In Practice

Author : Michael Greenacre
ISBN : 9780429849015
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 25. 90 MB
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Compositional Data Analysis in Practice is a user-oriented practical guide to the analysis of data with the property of a constant sum, for example percentages adding up to 100%. Compositional data can give misleading results if regular statistical methods are applied, and are best analysed by first transforming them to logarithms of ratios. This book explains how this transformation affects the analysis, results and interpretation of this very special type of data. All aspects of compositional data analysis are considered: visualization, modelling, dimension-reduction, clustering and variable selection, with many examples in the fields of food science, archaeology, sociology and biochemistry, and a final chapter containing a complete case study using fatty acid compositions in ecology. The applicability of these methods extends to other fields such as linguistics, geochemistry, marketing, economics and finance. A unique didactic format, where each chapter has exactly eight pages of study material, many illustrative figures, and an end-of-chapter summary An approach aimed at students and applied researchers, gathering the mathematical aspects in a compact theoretical appendix Numerous examples from a variety of disciplines A computational appendix?that documents the easyCODA package for R developed by the author, making it possible for readers to reproduce the results A supporting website with data sets, R scripts and further study material

Bayesian Disease Mapping

Author : Andrew B. Lawson
ISBN : 9781351271745
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 50. 17 MB
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Since the publication of the second edition, many new Bayesian tools and methods have been developed for space-time data analysis, the predictive modeling of health outcomes, and other spatial biostatistical areas. Exploring these new developments, Bayesian Disease Mapping: Hierarchical Modeling in Spatial Epidemiology, Third Edition provides an up-to-date, cohesive account of the full range of Bayesian disease mapping methods and applications. In addition to the new material, the book also covers more conventional areas such as relative risk estimation, clustering, spatial survival analysis, and longitudinal analysis. After an introduction to Bayesian inference, computation, and model assessment, the text focuses on important themes, including disease map reconstruction, cluster detection, regression and ecological analysis, putative hazard modeling, analysis of multiple scales and multiple diseases, spatial survival and longitudinal studies, spatiotemporal methods, and map surveillance. It shows how Bayesian disease mapping can yield significant insights into georeferenced health data. The target audience for this text is public health specialists, epidemiologists, and biostatisticians who need to work with geo-referenced health data.

Power Analysis Of Trials With Multilevel Data

Author : Mirjam Moerbeek
ISBN : 9781498729901
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 57. 38 MB
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Power Analysis of Trials with Multilevel Data covers using power and sample size calculations to design trials that involve nested data structures. The book gives a thorough overview of power analysis that details terminology and notation, outlines key concepts of statistical power and power analysis, and explains why they are necessary in trial design. It guides you in performing power calculations with hierarchical data, which enables more effective trial design. The authors are leading experts in the field who recognize that power analysis has attracted attention from applied statisticians in social, behavioral, medical, and health science. Their book supplies formulae that allow statisticians and researchers in these fields to perform calculations that enable them to plan cost-efficient trials. The formulae can also be applied to other sciences. Using power analysis in trial design is increasingly important in a scientific community where experimentation is often expensive, competition for funding among researchers is intense, and agencies that finance research require proposals to give thorough justification for funding. This handbook shows how power analysis shapes trial designs that have high statistical power and low cost, using real-life examples. The book covers multiple types of trials, including cluster randomized trials, multisite trials, individually randomized group treatment trials, and longitudinal intervention studies. It also offers insight on choosing which trial is best suited to a given project. Power Analysis of Trials with Multilevel Data helps you craft an optimal research design and anticipate the necessary sample size of data to collect to give your research maximum effectiveness and efficiency.

Missing Data Analysis In Practice

Author : Trivellore Raghunathan
ISBN : 9781482211931
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 35. 20 MB
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Missing Data Analysis in Practice provides practical methods for analyzing missing data along with the heuristic reasoning for understanding the theoretical underpinnings. Drawing on his 25 years of experience researching, teaching, and consulting in quantitative areas, the author presents both frequentist and Bayesian perspectives. He describes easy-to-implement approaches, the underlying assumptions, and practical means for assessing these assumptions. Actual and simulated data sets illustrate important concepts, with the data sets and codes available online. The book underscores the development of missing data methods and their adaptation to practical problems. It mainly focuses on the traditional missing data problem. The author also shows how to use the missing data framework in many other statistical problems, such as measurement error, finite population inference, disclosure limitation, combing information from multiple data sources, and causal inference.

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