mental models in cognitive science essays in honour of phil johnson laird

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Mental Models In Cognitive Science

Author : Alan Garnham
ISBN : 9781134835669
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 29. 4 MB
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Phil Johnson-Laird's theory of mental models has proved to be an influential development in the cognitive sciences. This theory aims to provide a detailed account of both reasoning and inference on the one hand, and language on the other. It can therefore be regarded as a step toward the much-sought-after unified theory of cognition.; This book provides an overview of mental models research. Some of the contributors were collaborators or former graduate students of Johnson-Laird, and between them they cover the main strands of mental models theory. After an appreciation of Johnson-Laird, the book covers topics including language Processing, Reasoning, Inference, The Role Of Emotions, And The Impact Of mental illnesses on thought processes.

Thinking And Reasoning

Author : Alan Garnham
ISBN : 0631170030
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 80. 20 MB
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This textbook covers a broad range of research on the psychology of thinking and reasoning. In particular, the authors focus on the question of when thinking is best characterized as the following of abstract rules and when as the building and manipulation of mental models of concrete situations.

Psychology Of Learning And Motivation

Author :
ISBN : 0080863884
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 54. 66 MB
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The Psychology of Learning and Motivation publishes empirical and theoretical contributions in cognitive and experimental psychology, ranging from classical and instrumental conditioning to complex learning and problem solving. Each chapter provides a thoughtful integration of a body of work.

Naturalistic Decision Making And Macrocognition

Author : Laura Militello
ISBN : 9781317089582
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 52. 98 MB
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This book presents the latest work in the area of naturalistic decision making (NDM) and its extension into the area of macrocognition. It contains 18 chapters relating research centered on the study of expertise in naturalistic settings, written by international experts in NDM and cognitive systems engineering. The objective of the book is to present the reader with exciting new developments in this field of research, which is characterized by its application-oriented focus. The work addresses only real-world problems and issues. For instance, how do multi-national teams collaborate effectively? How can surgeons best be supported by technology? How do detectives make sense of complex criminal cases? In all instances the studies have been carried out on experts within their respective domains. The traditional field of NDM is extended in this work by focusing on macrocognitive functions other than decision making, namely sense-making, coordination and planning. This has broadened the scope of the field. The book also contains a theoretical discussion of the macro-micro distinction. Naturalistic Decision Making and Macrocognition will be relevant to graduate students, researchers and professionals (including professionals and researchers in business, industry and government) who are interested in decision making, expertise, training methods and system design. The material may be used in two ways: theoretically, to advance understanding of the field of naturalistic decision making; and practically, to gain insight into how experts in various domains solve particular problems, understand and deal with issues and collaborate with others.

Modeling And Identification Of Linear Parameter Varying Systems

Author : Roland Toth
ISBN : 9783642138119
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 48. 64 MB
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Through the past 20 years, the framework of Linear Parameter-Varying (LPV) systems has become a promising system theoretical approach to h- dle the controlof mildly nonlinear and especially position dependent systems which are common in mechatronic applications and in the process ind- try. The birth of this system class was initiated by the need of engineers to achieve better performance for nonlinear and time-varying dynamics, c- mon in many industrial applications, than what the classical framework of Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) control can provide. However, it was also a p- mary goal to preserve simplicity and “re-use” the powerful LTI results by extending them to the LPV case. The progress continued according to this philosophy and LPV control has become a well established ?eld with many promising applications. Unfortunately, modeling of LPV systems, especially based on measured data (which is called system identi?cation) has seen a limited development sincethebirthoftheframework. Currentlythisbottleneck oftheLPVfra- work is halting the transfer of the LPV theory into industrial use. Without good models that ful?ll the expectations of the users and without the und- standing how these models correspond to the dynamics of the application, it is di?cult to design high performance LPV control solutions. This book aims to bridge the gap between modeling and control by investigating the fundamental questions of LPV modeling and identi?cation. It explores the missing details of the LPV system theory that have hindered the formu- tion of a well established identi?cation framework.

Words And Rules

Author : Steven Pinker
ISBN : 9780465049714
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 52. 22 MB
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"If you are not already a Steven Pinker addict, this book will make you one." --Jared Diamond In Words and Rules, Steven Pinker explores profound mysteries of language by picking a deceptively simple phenomenon--regular and irregular verbs--and examining it from every angle. With humor and verve, he covers an astonishing array of topics in the sciences and humanities, from the history of languages to how to simulate languages on computers to major ideas in the history of Western philosophy. Through it all, Pinker presents a single, powerful idea: that language comprises a mental dictionary of memorized words and a mental grammar of creative rules. The idea extends beyond language and offers insight into the very nature of the human mind. This is a sparkling, eye-opening, and utterly original book by one of the world's leading cognitive scientists.

How We Reason

Author : Philip Nicholas Johnson-Laird
ISBN : 9780198569763
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 58. 40 MB
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Good reasoning can lead to success; bad reasoning can lead to catastrophe. Yet, it's not obvious how we reason, and why we make mistakes - so much of our mental life goes on outside our awareness. In recent years huge strides have been made into developing a scientific understanding of reasoning. This new book by one of the pioneers of the field, Philip Johnson-Laird, looks at the mental processes that underlie our reasoning. It provides the most accessible account yet of the science of reasoning. We can all reason from our childhood onwards - but how? 'How we reason' outlines a bold approach to understanding reasoning. According to this approach, we don't rely on the laws of logic or probability - we reason by thinking about what's possible, we reason by seeing what is common to the possibilities. As the book shows, this approach can answer many of the questions about how we reason, and what causes mistakes in our reasoning that can lead to disasters such as Chernobyl. Itshows why our irrational fears may become psychological illnesses, why terrorists develop 'crazy' ideologies, and how we can act in order to improve our reasoning. The book ends by looking at the role of reasoning in three extraordinary case histories: the Wright brothers' use of analogies in inventing their flyer, the cryptanalysts' deductions in breaking the German's Enigma code in World War II, and Dr. John Snow's inductive reasoning in discovering how cholera spread from one person to another. Accessible, stimulating, and controversial, How we Reason presents a bold new approach to understanding one of the most intriguing facets of being human.

Video Game Marketing

Author : Peter Zackariasson
ISBN : 9781317607465
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 22. 81 MB
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The video game industry has been one of the fastest-growing cultural phenomena of our times with market conditions that demand a specific skill set from its marketers. To a new generation of "indie gamers", being a game developer isn’t just about design and production, a successful video game demands entrepreneurial skills and astute business acumen. The creators need to know what their customers want, how to reach those customers and how to sell to them. Video Game Marketing: A student textbook is for development students or aspiring developers who want to know how to promote and sell the results of their efforts. This book is a much-needed guide to: • the essentials of marketing strategy; • video games as products or services; • marketing research for game development; • branding video games; • marketing through game: gamification, advergames. Replete with pedagogy to aid learning such as objectives and discussion questions for each chapter, this book is all that aspiring video game developers will need to unleash the potential of their games.

The Nature Of Explanation

Author : K. J. W. Craik
ISBN : 0521094453
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 29. 74 MB
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In his only complete work of any length, Kenneth Craik considers thought as a term for the conscious working of a highly complex machine.

The Rational Imagination

Author : Ruth M J. Byrne
ISBN : 0262261847
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 24. 47 MB
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The human imagination remains one of the last uncharted terrains of the mind. This accessible and original monograph explores a central aspect of the imagination, the creation of counterfactual alternatives to reality, and claims that imaginative thoughts are guided by the same principles that underlie rational thoughts. Research has shown that rational thought is more imaginative than cognitive scientists had supposed; in The Rational Imagination, Ruth Byrne argues that imaginative thought is more rational than scientists have imagined.People often create alternatives to reality and imagine how events might have turned out "if only" something had been different. Byrne explores the "fault lines" of reality, the aspects of reality that are more readily changed in imaginative thoughts. She finds that our tendencies to imagine alternatives to actions, controllable events, socially unacceptable actions, causal and enabling relations, and events that come last in a temporal sequence provide clues to the cognitive processes upon which the counterfactual imagination depends. The explanation of these processes, Byrne argues, rests on the idea that imaginative thought and rational thought have much in common.

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