metacommunities

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Metacommunities

Author : Marcel Holyoak
ISBN : 9780226350646
Genre : Nature
File Size : 39. 92 MB
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Until recently community ecology—a science devoted to understanding the patterns and processes of species distribution and abundance—focused mainly on specific and often limited scales of a single community. Since the 1970s, for example, metapopulation dynamics—studies of interacting groups of populations connected through movement—concentrated on the processes of population turnover, extinction, and establishment of new populations. Metacommunities takes the hallmarks of metapopulation theory to the next level by considering a group of communities, each of which may contain numerous populations, connected by species interactions within communities and the movement of individuals between communities. In examining communities open to dispersal, the book unites a broad range of ecological theories, presenting some of the first empirical investigations and revealing the value of the metacommunity approach. The collection of empirical, theoretical, and synthetic chapters in Metacommunities seeks to understand how communities work in fragmented landscapes. Encouraging community ecologists to rethink some of the leading theories of population and community dynamics, Metacommunities urges ecologists to expand the spatiotemporal scales of their research.

Metacommunity Ecology

Author : Mathew A. Leibold
ISBN : 9781400889068
Genre : Science
File Size : 73. 8 MB
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Metacommunity ecology links smaller-scale processes that have been the provenance of population and community ecology—such as birth-death processes, species interactions, selection, and stochasticity—with larger-scale issues such as dispersal and habitat heterogeneity. Until now, the field has focused on evaluating the relative importance of distinct processes, with niche-based environmental sorting on one side and neutral-based ecological drift and dispersal limitation on the other. This book moves beyond these artificial categorizations, showing how environmental sorting, dispersal, ecological drift, and other processes influence metacommunity structure simultaneously. Mathew Leibold and Jonathan Chase argue that the relative importance of these processes depends on the characteristics of the organisms, the strengths and types of their interactions, the degree of habitat heterogeneity, the rates of dispersal, and the scale at which the system is observed. Using this synthetic perspective, they explore metacommunity patterns in time and space, including patterns of coexistence, distribution, and diversity. Leibold and Chase demonstrate how these processes and patterns are altered by micro- and macroevolution, traits and phylogenetic relationships, and food web interactions. They then use this scale-explicit perspective to illustrate how metacommunity processes are essential for understanding macroecological and biogeographical patterns as well as ecosystem-level processes. Moving seamlessly across scales and subdisciplines, Metacommunity Ecology is an invaluable reference, one that offers a more integrated approach to ecological patterns and processes.

Ecology Genetics And Evolution Of Metapopulations

Author : Ilkka Hanski
ISBN : 9780123234483
Genre : Science
File Size : 78. 9 MB
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Spatial dynamics, landscape, population.

Metapopulation Ecology

Author : Ilkka Hanski
ISBN : 0198540655
Genre : Nature
File Size : 40. 2 MB
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Metapopulation is the ecological term for assemblages of plant and animal species within larger areas of space, with long-term survival of the species depending on a shifting balance between local extinctions and recolonizations in the patchwork of fragmented landscape. Metapopulation theory is of particular importance to conservation biologists attempting to understand the processes of regional extinction - and survival - of species. Metapopulation Ecology presents a comprehensive synthesis of current research in this rapidly expanding area of population biology from an author who is famous for his work on metapopulations. It encompasses the essential theory of metapopulations, describing the main approaches to modelling metapopulation dynamics in highly fragmented landscapes, with an emphasis on spatially realistic models that can be applied to real metapopulations.

Stratigraphic Paleobiology

Author : Mark E. Patzkowsky
ISBN : 9780226649399
Genre : Science
File Size : 22. 31 MB
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Whether the fossil record should be read at face value or whether it presents a distorted view of the history of life is an argument seemingly as old as many fossils themselves. In the late 1700s, Georges Cuvier argued for a literal interpretation, but in the early 1800s, Charles Lyell’s gradualist view of the earth’s history required a more nuanced interpretation of that same record. To this day, the tension between literal and interpretive readings lies at the heart of paleontological research, influencing the way scientists view extinction patterns and their causes, ecosystem persistence and turnover, and the pattern of morphologic change and mode of speciation. With Stratigraphic Paleobiology, Mark E. Patzkowsky and Steven M. Holland present a critical framework for assessing the fossil record, one based on a modern understanding of the principles of sediment accumulation. Patzkowsky and Holland argue that the distribution of fossil taxa in time and space is controlled not only by processes of ecology, evolution, and environmental change, but also by the stratigraphic processes that govern where and when sediment that might contain fossils is deposited and preserved. The authors explore the exciting possibilities of stratigraphic paleobiology, and along the way demonstrate its great potential to answer some of the most critical questions about the history of life: How and why do environmental niches change over time? What is the tempo and mode of evolutionary change and what processes drive this change? How has the diversity of life changed through time, and what processes control this change? And, finally, what is the tempo and mode of change in ecosystems over time?

Metacommunity Patterns Across Three Neotropical Catchments With Varying Environmental Harshness

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:1028150989
Genre :
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Most metacommunity studies indicate that dispersal processes play a minor role compared with species sorting in explaining metacommunity organisation, in particular, in stream systems. However, the role of dispersal could vary with environmental harshness, as a result of frequent resetting of community succession by disturbances and the selection of generalist species from regional species pools. The importance of dispersal may also be mitigated by species dispersal ability. In this study, we explored how species sorting and dispersal shaped invertebrate and fish metacommunities across streams in three tropical headwater catchments in Bolivia with contrasting environmental harshness, including flow regime, altitude and climate conditions. We addressed the hypothesis that the relative roles of dispersal and species sorting vary with environmental harshness: we predicted that the role of species sorting would predominate in benign conditions, whereas that of dispersal would predominate under moderate environmental harshness, and that neither dispersal nor species sorting would be relevant to explain metacommunities under high environmental harshness. We also hypothesised that the role of dispersal would decrease with increasing species dispersal ability. Although there was little or no spatial autocorrelation of environmental distances (i.e. environmental differences) across the headwater catchments, community similarity correlated more strongly with environmental than spatial distances among headwater sites that had low environmental harshness, but the opposite pattern was observed among sites with moderate environmental harshness. Under high environmental harshness, neither environmental harshness nor spatial distances between sites explained community similarity. Under moderate environmental harshness, the correlation between community similarity and spatial distances was the strongest for moderate dispersers of both invertebrates and fish. Yet, in contrast to fish, strongly dispersing invertebrate taxa were spatial structured, suggesting that they were not able to reach all sites as predicted. Our results suggest the role of dispersal might be underestimated, notably in systems prone to environmental harshness. Better proxies for dispersal, along with the use of spatial distances to account for resistance to animal movements in river systems and that account for flow magnitude and directionality, slope, riparian vegetation, wind and streambed roughness, may promote a more realistic integration of dispersal processes in basic and applied metacommunity research.

Issues In Ecological Research And Application 2011 Edition

Author :
ISBN : 9781464964084
Genre : Science
File Size : 77. 23 MB
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Issues in Ecological Research and Application: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Ecological Research and Application. The editors have built Issues in Ecological Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Ecological Research and Application in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Ecological Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Spatiotemporal Models Of Population And Community Dynamics

Author : T. Czaran
ISBN : 0412575507
Genre : Science
File Size : 88. 39 MB
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This book presents a comprehensive typology and a comprehensible description of spatiotemporal models used in population dynamics. The main types included are: reaction-diffusion systems, patch models, matapopulation approaches, host parasitoid models, cellular automata (interacting particle systems), tessellations and distance models. The models are introduced through examples and with informative verbal explanations to help understanding. Some of the cellular automation examples are models not yet published elsewhere. Possible extensions of certain model types are suggested.

Habitat Age Influences Metacommunity Assembly And Species Richness In Successional Pond Ecosystems

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ISBN : OCLC:1051820029
Genre :
File Size : 70. 12 MB
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Abstract: Metacommunity theory suggests that species diversity can depend upon the time since initiation of community assembly, or habitat age, as the relative influence of regional and local structuring processes changes over succession. There are, however, few studies that evaluate the role of habitat age in structuring species richness (diversity–age) over large, fine‐resolution age gradients of secondary succession in metacommunities. To test theoretical predictions of diversity–age relationships in metacommunities, zooplankton species richness and composition along a successional chronosequence in beaver ( Castor canadensis ) ponds were evaluated. The age of ponds was determined using dendrochronology and historical photography, and ranged from 23 to 69yr of age. A unimodal relationship between zooplankton species richness and habitat age was observed among the successional ecosystems. This hump‐shaped relationship with community assembly time is congruent with theoretical predictions of species richness in metacommunities and can be explained by the increasing importance of local, relative to regional, structuring processes over successional trajectories. Observed patterns of diversity and composition responded to age‐mediated effects on the local pond environment; older ponds were deeper, had lower colored dissolved organic carbon, and were permanent. Additionally, there were weak but significant dispersal effects on community composition across the region. The lack of consistent community composition by successional stage reflected variation from differences in pond nutrient availability and species dispersal. The results indicate that regional and local age‐dependent structuring mechanisms operate at each successional stage on different local colonist pools and environments yielding communities that reflect succession in their richness response. Consequently, secondary succession should be considered an influential driver of species diversity across temporal and spatial scales in metacommunities.

The Unified Neutral Theory Of Biodiversity And Biogeography Mpb 32

Author : Stephen P. Hubbell
ISBN : 1400837529
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 85 MB
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Despite its supreme importance and the threat of its global crash, biodiversity remains poorly understood both empirically and theoretically. This ambitious book presents a new, general neutral theory to explain the origin, maintenance, and loss of biodiversity in a biogeographic context. Until now biogeography (the study of the geographic distribution of species) and biodiversity (the study of species richness and relative species abundance) have had largely disjunct intellectual histories. In this book, Stephen Hubbell develops a formal mathematical theory that unifies these two fields. When a speciation process is incorporated into Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson's now classical theory of island biogeography, the generalized theory predicts the existence of a universal, dimensionless biodiversity number. In the theory, this fundamental biodiversity number, together with the migration or dispersal rate, completely determines the steady-state distribution of species richness and relative species abundance on local to large geographic spatial scales and short-term to evolutionary time scales. Although neutral, Hubbell's theory is nevertheless able to generate many nonobvious, testable, and remarkably accurate quantitative predictions about biodiversity and biogeography. In many ways Hubbell's theory is the ecological analog to the neutral theory of genetic drift in genetics. The unified neutral theory of biogeography and biodiversity should stimulate research in new theoretical and empirical directions by ecologists, evolutionary biologists, and biogeographers.

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