model based reasoning science technology values

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Model Based Reasoning

Author : L. Magnani
ISBN : 9781461506058
Genre : Science
File Size : 47. 50 MB
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There are several key ingredients common to the various forms of model-based reasoning considered in this book. The term ‘model’ comprises both internal and external representations. The models are intended as interpretations of target physical systems, processes, phenomena, or situations and are retrieved or constructed on the basis of potentially satisfying salient constraints of the target domain. The book’s contributors are researchers active in the area of creative reasoning in science and technology.

Model Based Reasoning In Science Technology And Medicine

Author : Lorenzo Magnani
ISBN : 3642091172
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 58. 36 MB
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The volume is based on papers presented at the international conference on Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Medicine held in China in 2006. The presentations explore how scientific thinking uses models and explanatory reasoning to produce creative changes in theories and concepts. The contributions to the book are written by researchers active in the area of creative reasoning in science and technology. They include the subject area’s most recent results and achievements.

Model Based Reasoning In Science And Technology

Author : Lorenzo Magnani
ISBN : 9783319389837
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 61. 32 MB
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This book discusses how scientific and other types of cognition make use of models, abduction, and explanatory reasoning in order to produce important or creative changes in theories and concepts. It includes revised contributions presented during the international conference on Model-Based Reasoning (MBR’015), held on June 25-27 in Sestri Levante, Italy. The book is divided into three main parts, the first of which focuses on models, reasoning and representation. It highlights key theoretical concepts from an applied perspective, addressing issues concerning information visualization, experimental methods and design. The second part goes a step further, examining abduction, problem solving and reasoning. The respective contributions analyze different types of reasoning, discussing various concepts of inference and creativity and their relationship with experimental data. In turn, the third part reports on a number of historical, epistemological and technological issues. By analyzing possible contradictions in modern research and describing representative case studies in experimental research, this part aims at fostering new discussions and stimulating new ideas. All in all, the book provides researchers and graduate students in the field of applied philosophy, epistemology, cognitive science and artificial intelligence alike with an authoritative snapshot of current theories and applications of model-based reasoning.

Logical And Computational Aspects Of Model Based Reasoning

Author : L. Magnani
ISBN : 9789401005500
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 45. 89 MB
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Information technology has been, in recent years, under increasing commercial pressure to provide devices and systems which help/ replace the human in his daily activity. This pressure requires the use of logic as the underlying foundational workhorse of the area. New logics were developed as the need arose and new foci and balance has evolved within logic itself. One aspect of these new trends in logic is the rising impor tance of model based reasoning. Logics have become more and more tailored to applications and their reasoning has become more and more application dependent. In fact, some years ago, I myself coined the phrase "direct deductive reasoning in application areas", advocating the methodology of model-based reasoning in the strongest possible terms. Certainly my discipline of Labelled Deductive Systems allows to bring "pieces" of the application areas as "labels" into the logic. I therefore heartily welcome this important book to Volume 25 of the Applied Logic Series and see it as an important contribution in our overall coverage of applied logic.

Modelling Based Teaching In Science Education

Author : John K. Gilbert
ISBN : 9783319290393
Genre : Science
File Size : 61. 56 MB
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This book argues that modelling should be a component of all school curricula that aspire to provide ‘authentic science education for all’. The literature on modelling is reviewed and a ‘model of modelling’ is proposed. The conditions for the successful implementation of the ‘model of modelling’ in classrooms are explored and illustrated from practical experience. The roles of argumentation, visualisation, and analogical reasoning, in successful modelling-based teaching are reviewed. The contribution of such teaching to both the learning of key scientific concepts and an understanding of the nature of science are established. Approaches to the design of curricula that facilitate the progressive grasp of the knowledge and skills entailed in modelling are outlined. Recognising that the approach will both represent a substantial change from the ‘content-transmission’ approach to science teaching and be in accordance with current best-practice in science education, the design of suitable approaches to teacher education are discussed. Finally, the challenges that modelling-based education pose to science education researchers, advanced students of science education and curriculum design, teacher educators, public examiners, and textbook designers, are all outlined.

Springer Handbook Of Model Based Science

Author : Lorenzo Magnani
ISBN : 9783319305264
Genre : Computers
File Size : 73. 72 MB
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This handbook offers the first comprehensive reference guide to the interdisciplinary field of model-based reasoning. It highlights the role of models as mediators between theory and experimentation, and as educational devices, as well as their relevance in testing hypotheses and explanatory functions. The Springer Handbook merges philosophical, cognitive and epistemological perspectives on models with the more practical needs related to the application of this tool across various disciplines and practices. The result is a unique, reliable source of information that guides readers toward an understanding of different aspects of model-based science, such as the theoretical and cognitive nature of models, as well as their practical and logical aspects. The inferential role of models in hypothetical reasoning, abduction and creativity once they are constructed, adopted, and manipulated for different scientific and technological purposes is also discussed. Written by a group of internationally renowned experts in philosophy, the history of science, general epistemology, mathematics, cognitive and computer science, physics and life sciences, as well as engineering, architecture, and economics, this Handbook uses numerous diagrams, schemes and other visual representations to promote a better understanding of the concepts. This also makes it highly accessible to an audience of scholars and students with different scientific backgrounds. All in all, the Springer Handbook of Model-Based Science represents the definitive application-oriented reference guide to the interdisciplinary field of model-based reasoning.

Psychology Of Science

Author : Robert W. Proctor
ISBN : 9780199753628
Genre : Medical
File Size : 71. 26 MB
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Symposium held at Purdue Univ. in June 4-5, 2010.

Making Truth

Author : Theodore L. Brown
ISBN : 0252028104
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 86. 77 MB
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InMaking Truth: Metaphor in ScienceTheodore L. Brown argues that most laypeople, and many scientists, do not have a clear understanding of how metaphor relates to scientific thinking. With stunning clarity, and bridging the worlds of scientists and nonscientists, Brown demonstrates the presence and the power of metaphorical thought. To illustrate the roles of metaphor in science, Brown presents a series of studies of scientific systems. These range from the atom, historically one of the most important ideas in science, through models in chemistry and biology, including current "hot" topics such as protein folding, chaperone proteins, and global warming. The case studies inMaking Truthillustrate the deeply metaphorical nature of scientific reasoning and communication. They provide the basis for far-reaching conclusions about science as an intellectual and social practice and about the nature of scientific truth.

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ISBN : UVA:X030288258
Genre : Civilization, Western
File Size : 32. 66 MB
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Computing And Philosophy In Asia

Author : Soraj Hongladarom
ISBN : STANFORD:36105123403490
Genre : Computers
File Size : 60. 86 MB
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This volume is a collection of selected papers presented at the Second Asia-Pacific Computing and Philsosophy Conference, which was held in Bangkok, Thailand in January 2005. The conference was organized by the Center for Ethics of Science and Technology, Chulalongkorn University on behalf of the International Association of Computing and Philosophy (www.ia-cap.org). Computing have had a long relationship with philosophy, starting from the problem of how symbols being manipulated in computing bear a relation to the outside world, to those of artificial intelligence, robotics, computer simulation, and so on. Moreover, as computer technologies have become thoroughly pervasive in today's environment, there are also issues concerning social and ethical impacts brought about by them. The papers in the volume represent a wide variety of concerns and various dimensions within which computing and philosophy are related. Furthermore, it also represents some of the first attempts to highlight cultural dimensions of computing and philosophy, which became prominent when the conference was held for the first time within the milieu of an Asian culture. (The First Asia-Pacific Computing and Philosophy was held in Canberra, Australia.) Hence, many of the papers in the volume address this added dimension. Apart form the usual problems of how computers and human lives are interconnected, the papers here also discuss how computers are related to human lives as lived in a specific culture. Thus the book breaks a new ground and should be of interest to a wide range of scholars and students who are interested, not only on computing and philosophy generally construed, but also on this exciting new dimension of how the cultures of Asia, the West, and others bear upon the traditional issues in computing and philosophy, and on how this dimension raises some new concerns and agenda. Among the topics discussed in this volume are: political online forums in Saudi Arabia, e-democracy and structural transformation of public sphere, the Buddhist informational person, a glance into the lives of computerized generation in Thailand, technology and journalism in the market, local approaches and global potential (?) of information ethics, computer-enhanced good life, computer teaching ethics, and many others.

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