molecular markers natural history and evolution

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Molecular Markers Natural History And Evolution

Author : J. C. Avise
ISBN : 9781461523819
Genre : Science
File Size : 65. 22 MB
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Molecular approaches have opened new windows on a host of ecological and evolutionary disciplines, ranging from population genetics and behavioral ecology to conservation biology and systematics. Molecular Markers, Natural History and Evolution summarizes the multi-faceted discoveries about organisms in nature that have stemmed from analyses of genetic markers provided by polymorphic proteins and DNAs. The first part of the book introduces rationales for the use of molecular markers, provides a history of molecular phylogenetics, and describes a wide variety of laboratory methods and interpretative tools in the field. The second and major portion of the book provides a cornucopia of biological applications for molecular markers, organized along a scale from micro-evolutionary topics (such as forensics, parentage, kinship, population structure, and intra-specific phylogeny) to macro-evolutionary themes (including species relationships and the deeper phylogenetic structure in the tree of life). Unlike most prior books in molecular evolution, the focus is on organismal natural history and evolution, with the macromolecules being the means rather than the ends of scientific inquiry. Written as an intellectual stimulus for the advanced undergraduate, graduate student, or the practicing biologist desiring a wellspring of research ideas at the interface of molecular and organismal biology, this book presents material in a manner that is both technically straightforward, yet rich with concepts and with empirical examples from the world of nature.

Molecular Markers Natural History And Evolution

Author : John C. Avise
ISBN : 0878930418
Genre : Medical
File Size : 70. 13 MB
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Genetic markers, conservation genetics, speciation, hybridization, PCR.

Conceptual Breakthroughs In Evolutionary Genetics

Author : John C. Avise
ISBN : 9780124202375
Genre : Science
File Size : 25. 75 MB
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Conceptual Breakthroughs in Evolutionary Genetics is a pithy, lively book occupying a special niche—the conceptual history of evolutionary genetics— not inhabited by any other available treatment. Written by a world-leading authority in evolutionary genetics, this work encapsulates and ranks 70 of the most significant paradigm shifts in evolutionary biology and genetics during the century-and-a-half since Darwin and Mendel. The science of evolutionary genetics is central to all of biology, but many students and other practitioners have little knowledge of its historical roots and conceptual developments. This book fills that knowledge gap in a thought-provoking and readable format. This fascinating chronological journey along the many conceptual pathways to our modern understanding of evolutionary and genetic principles is a wonderful springboard for discussions in undergraduate or graduate seminars in evolutionary biology and genetics. But more than that, anyone interested in the history and philosophy of science will find much of value between its covers. Provides a relative ranking of 70 seminal breakthroughs and paradigm shifts in the field of evolutionary biology and genetics Modular format permits ready access to each described subject Historical overview of a field whose concepts are central to all of biology and relevant to a broad audience of biologists, science historians, and philosophers of science Extensively cross-referenced with a guide to landmark papers and books for each topic

Progress In Botany

Author : Karl Esser
ISBN : 9783642558191
Genre : Science
File Size : 80. 56 MB
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With one volume each year, this series keeps scientists and advanced students informed of the latest developments and results in all areas of the plant sciences. The present volume includes reviews on genetics, cell biology, physiology, comparative morphology, systematics, ecology, and vegetation science.

Molecular Evolution And Phylogenetics

Author : Masatoshi Nei
ISBN : 0195350510
Genre : Science
File Size : 67. 83 MB
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During the last ten years, remarkable progress has occurred in the study of molecular evolution. Among the most important factors that are responsible for this progress are the development of new statistical methods and advances in computational technology. In particular, phylogenetic analysis of DNA or protein sequences has become a powerful tool for studying molecular evolution. Along with this developing technology, the application of the new statistical and computational methods has become more complicated and there is no comprehensive volume that treats these methods in depth. Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics fills this gap and present various statistical methods that are easily accessible to general biologists as well as biochemists, bioinformatists and graduate students. The text covers measurement of sequence divergence, construction of phylogenetic trees, statistical tests for detection of positive Darwinian selection, inference of ancestral amino acid sequences, construction of linearized trees, and analysis of allele frequency data. Emphasis is given to practical methods of data analysis, and methods can be learned by working through numerical examples using the computer program MEGA2 that is provided.

Ecosystem Management

Author : Gary Meffe
ISBN : 9781597267892
Genre : Nature
File Size : 59. 28 MB
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Today's natural resource managers must be able to navigate among the complicated interactions and conflicting interests of diverse stakeholders and decisionmakers. Technical and scientific knowledge, though necessary, are not sufficient. Science is merely one component in a multifaceted world of decision making. And while the demands of resource management have changed greatly, natural resource education and textbooks have not. Until now. Ecosystem Management represents a different kind of textbook for a different kind of course. It offers a new and exciting approach that engages students in active problem solving by using detailed landscape scenarios that reflect the complex issues and conflicting interests that face today's resource managers and scientists. Focusing on the application of the sciences of ecology and conservation biology to real-world concerns, it emphasizes the intricate ecological, socioeconomic, and institutional matrix in which natural resource management functions, and illustrates how to be more effective in that challenging arena. Each chapter is rich with exercises to help facilitate problem-based learning. The main text is supplemented by boxes and figures that provide examples, perspectives, definitions, summaries, and learning tools, along with a variety of essays written by practitioners with on-the-ground experience in applying the principles of ecosystem management. Accompanying the textbook is an instructor's manual that provides a detailed overview of the book and specific guidance on designing a course around it. Ecosystem Management grew out of a training course developed and presented by the authors for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at its National Training Center in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. In 20 offerings to more than 600 natural resource professionals, the authors learned a great deal about what is needed to function successfully as a professional resource manager. The book offers important insights and a unique perspective dervied from that invaluable experience.

Ecology And Evolution Of The Freshwater Mussels Unionoida

Author : G. Bauer
ISBN : 3540672680
Genre : Science
File Size : 24. 64 MB
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Unionoida (naiads) are characterized by larvae which have to pass through a parasitic stage on a host fish. Some of these host-parasite systems are unique, since the generation time of the parasite exceeds that of its host by a factor of ten. There is tremendous life history variation. With a life span of more than 200 years, some naiad species belong to the longest-lived invertebrates, some are highly host-specific, some are extremely fertile, some produce very peculiar larvae, and some occur at very high population densities. This volume describes and explains the characteristics and life histories of the naiads, the interactions with their hosts, and their evolution. It elucidates the manifold implications of their presence or absence in a lake or stream. Further, aspects of nature conservation are covered, as many naiad species are seriously threatened. Some have been used successfully as sensitive pollutant indicators in habitat monitoring and as "archives" for environmental changes.

Molecular Genetics In Fisheries

Author : Gary R. Carvalho
ISBN : 9789401112185
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 28. 37 MB
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The basic principle of all molecular genetic methods is to employ inherited, discrete and stable markers to identify genotypes that characterize individuals, populations or species. Such genetic data can provide information ori the levels and distribution of genetic variability in relation to mating patterns, life history, population size, migration and environment. Although molecular tools have long been employed to address various questions in fisheries biology and management, their contributions to the field are sometimes unclear, and often controversial. Much of the initial impetus for the deployment of molecular markers arose from the desire to assess fish stock structure based on various interpretations of the stock concept. Although such studies have met with varying success, they continue to provide an impetus for the development of increasingly sensitive population discriminators, yielding information that can be valuable for both sustainable exploitation and the conservation of fish populations. In the last major synthesis of the subject, Ryman and Utter (1987) summarized progress and applications, though this was prior to the wide-scale adoption of DNA methodology. New sources of genetic markers and protocols are now available, in particular those that exploit the widely distributed and highly variable repeat sequences of DNA, and the amplification technique of the polymerase chain reaction.

Describing Species

Author : Judith E. Winston
ISBN : 9780231506656
Genre : Science
File Size : 56. 33 MB
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New species are discovered every day—and cataloguing all of them has grown into a nearly insurmountable task worldwide. Now, this definitive reference manual acts as a style guide for writing and filing species descriptions. New collecting techniques and new technology have led to a dramatic increase in the number of species that are discovered. Explorations of unstudied regions and new habitats for almost any group of organisms can result in a large number of new species discoveries—and hence the need to be described. Yet there is no one source a student or researcher can readily consult to learn the basic practical aspects of taxonomic procedures. Species description can present a variety of difficulties: Problems arise when new species are not given names because their discoverers do not know how to write a formal species description or when these species are poorly described. Biologists may also have to deal with nomenclatural problems created by previous workers or resulting from new information generated by their own research. This practical resource for scientists and students contains instructions and examples showing how to describe newly discovered species in both the animal and plant kingdoms. With special chapters on publishing taxonomic papers and on ecology in species description, as well as sections covering subspecies, genus-level, and higher taxa descriptions, Describing Species enhances any writer's taxonomic projects, reports, checklists, floras, faunal surveys, revisions, monographs, or guides. The volume is based on current versions of the International Codes of Zoological and Botanical Nomenclature and recognizes that systematics is a global and multicultural exercise. Though Describing Species has been written for an English-speaking audience, it is useful anywhere Taxonomy is spoken and will be a valuable tool for professionals and students in zoology, botany, ecology, paleontology, and other fields of biology.

On Evolution

Author : John C. Avise
ISBN : 0801896037
Genre : Science
File Size : 64. 18 MB
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From how to define a species to the folly of faulty applications of cladistics to connections between conservation and evolutionary biology, On Evolution takes the reader on a personal journey into the mind of one of the world's leading evolutionists.

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