mom the transformation of motherhood in modern america

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Mom

Author : Rebecca Jo Plant
ISBN : 9780226670232
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 31. 54 MB
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In the early twentieth century, Americans often waxed lyrical about “Mother Love,” signaling a conception of motherhood as an all-encompassing identity, rooted in self-sacrifice and infused with social and political meaning. By the 1940s, the idealization of motherhood had waned, and the nation’s mothers found themselves blamed for a host of societal and psychological ills. In Mom, Rebecca Jo Plant traces this important shift by exploring the evolution of maternalist politics, changing perceptions of the mother-child bond, and the rise of new approaches to childbirth pain and suffering. Plant argues that the assault on sentimental motherhood came from numerous quarters. Male critics who railed against female moral authority, psychological experts who hoped to expand their influence, and women who strove to be more than wives and mothers—all for their own distinct reasons—sought to discredit the longstanding maternal ideal. By showing how motherhood ultimately came to be redefined as a more private and partial component of female identity, Plant illuminates a major reorientation in American civic, social, and familial life that still reverberates today.

Modern Motherhood

Author : Jodi Vandenberg-Daves
ISBN : 9780813573137
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 33. 67 MB
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How did mothers transform from parents of secondary importance in the colonies to having their multiple and complex roles connected to the well-being of the nation? In the first comprehensive history of motherhood in the United States, Jodi Vandenberg-Daves explores how tensions over the maternal role have been part and parcel of the development of American society. Modern Motherhood travels through redefinitions of motherhood over time, as mothers encountered a growing cadre of medical and psychological experts, increased their labor force participation, gained the right to vote, agitated for more resources to perform their maternal duties, and demonstrated their vast resourcefulness in providing for and nurturing their families. Navigating rigid gender role prescriptions and a crescendo of mother-blame by the middle of the twentieth century, mothers continued to innovate new ways to combine labor force participation and domestic responsibilities. By the 1960s, they were poised to challenge male expertise, in areas ranging from welfare and abortion rights to childbirth practices and the confinement of women to maternal roles. In the twenty-first century, Americans continue to struggle with maternal contradictions, as we pit an idealized role for mothers in children’s development against the social and economic realities of privatized caregiving, a paltry public policy structure, and mothers’ extensive employment outside the home. Building on decades of scholarship and spanning a wide range of topics, Vandenberg-Daves tells an inclusive tale of African American, Native American, Asian American, working class, rural, and other hitherto ignored families, exploring sources ranging from sermons, medical advice, diaries and letters to the speeches of impassioned maternal activists. Chapter topics include: inventing a new role for mothers; contradictions of moral motherhood; medicalizing the maternal body; science, expertise, and advice to mothers; uplifting and controlling mothers; modern reproduction; mothers’ resilience and adaptation; the middle-class wife and mother; mother power and mother angst; and mothers’ changing lives and continuous caregiving. While the discussion has been part of all eras of American history, the discussion of the meaning of modern motherhood is far from over.

Mothers Of Conservatism

Author : Michelle M. Nickerson
ISBN : 9780691121840
Genre : History
File Size : 49. 91 MB
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Mothers of Conservatism tells the story of 1950s Southern Californian housewives who shaped the grassroots right in the two decades following World War II. Michelle Nickerson describes how red-hunting homemakers mobilized activist networks, institutions, and political consciousness in local education battles, and she introduces a generation of women who developed political styles and practices around their domestic routines. From the conservative movement’s origins in the early fifties through the presidential election of 1964, Nickerson documents how women shaped conservatism from the bottom up, out of the fabric of their daily lives and into the agenda of the Republican Party. A unique history of the American conservative movement, Mothers of Conservatism shows how housewives got out of the house and discovered their political capital.

Ethical Standards And Practice In International Relations

Author : Topor, F. Sigmund
ISBN : 9781522526513
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 64. 14 MB
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In every culture, ethos is an important aspect of life as it informs opinions on nearly everything from law to religion. However, while the existence of ethos may be universal, the details often vary from culture to culture. Ethical Standards and Practice in International Relations is an essential research publication that explores the relationship between ethics and global and intercultural interactions. Featuring coverage on a broad range of topics, such as ethical behavior, business ethics, and transformational leadership, this publication is geared toward academicians, researchers, and students seeking current research on global ethics and the interaction of those ethics between countries and cultures.

Confronting Postmaternal Thinking

Author : Julie Stephens
ISBN : 9780231520560
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 42. 10 MB
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There is a deep cultural anxiety around public expressions of maternalism and the application of maternal values to society as a whole. Julie Stephens examines why postmaternal thinking has become so influential in recent decades and why there has been a growing unease with maternal forms of subjectivity and maternalist perspectives. In moving beyond policy definitions, which emphasize the priority given to women's claims as employees over their political claims as mothers, Stephens details an elaborate process of cultural forgetting that has accompanied this repudiation of the maternal. Reclaiming an alternative feminist position through an investigation of oral history, life narratives, Web blogs, and other rich and varied sources, Stephens confronts the core claims of postmaternal thought and challenges dominant representations of feminism as having forgotten motherhood. Deploying the interpretive framework of memory studies, she examines the political structures of forgetting surrounding the maternal and the weakening of nurture and care in the public domain. She views the promotion of an illusory, self-sufficient individualism as a form of social unmothering that is profoundly connected to this ethos. In rejecting both traditional maternalism and the new postmaternalism, Stephens challenges prevailing paradigms and makes way for an alternative feminist maternalism centering on a politics of care.

Lamaze

Author : Paula A. Michaels
ISBN : 9780199377497
Genre : Medical
File Size : 40. 67 MB
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The Lamaze method is virtually synonymous with natural childbirth in America. In the 1970s, taking Lamaze classes was a common rite of passage to parenthood. The conscious relaxation and patterned breathing techniques touted as a natural and empowering path to the alleviation of pain in childbirth resonated with the feminist and countercultural values of the era. In Lamaze, historian Paula A. Michaels tells the surprising story of the Lamaze method from its origins in the Soviet Union in the 1940s, to its popularization in France in the 1950s, and then to its heyday in the 1960s and 1970s in the US. Michaels shows how, for different reasons, in disparate national contexts, this technique for managing the pain of childbirth without resort to drugs found a following. The Soviet government embraced this method as a panacea to childbirth pain in the face of the material shortages that followed World War II. Heated and sometimes ideologically inflected debates surrounded the Lamaze method as it moved from East to West amid the Cold War. Physicians in France sympathetic to the communist cause helped to export it across the Iron Curtain, but politics alone fails to explain why French women embraced this approach. Arriving on American shores around 1960, the Lamaze method took on new meanings. Initially it offered a path to a safer and more satisfying birth experience, but overtly political considerations came to the fore once again as feminists appropriated it as a way to resist the patriarchal authority of male obstetricians. Drawing on a wealth of archival evidence, Michaels pieces together this complex and fascinating story at the crossroads of the history of politics, medicine, and women. The story of Lamaze illuminates the many contentious issues that swirl around birthing practices in America and Europe. Brimming with insight, Michaels' engaging history offers an instructive intervention in the debate about how to achieve humane, empowering, and safe maternity care for all women.

The Oxford Handbook Of Culture And Psychology

Author : Jaan Valsiner
ISBN : 9780199366224
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 45. 5 MB
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The goal of cultural psychology is to explain the ways in which human cultural constructions -- for example, rituals, stereotypes, and meanings -- organize and direct human acting, feeling, and thinking in different social contexts. A rapidly growing, international field of scholarship, cultural psychology is ready for an interdisciplinary, primary resource. Linking psychology, anthropology, sociology, archaeology, and history, The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology is the quintessential volume that unites the variable perspectives from these disciplines. Comprised of over fifty contributed chapters, this book provides a necessary, comprehensive overview of contemporary cultural psychology. Bridging psychological, sociological, and anthropological perspectives, one will find in this handbook: - A concise history of psychology that includes valuable resources for innovation in psychology in general and cultural psychology in particular - Interdisciplinary chapters including insights into cultural anthropology, cross-cultural psychology, culture and conceptions of the self, and semiotics and cultural connections - Close, conceptual links with contemporary biological sciences, especially developmental biology, and with other social sciences - A section detailing potential methodological innovations for cultural psychology By comparing cultures and the (often differing) human psychological functions occuring within them, The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology is the ideal resource for making sense of complex and varied human phenomena.

Motherhood In Mexican Cinema 1941 1991

Author : Isabel Arredondo
ISBN : 9780786468041
Genre : Performing Arts
File Size : 71. 21 MB
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How were femininity and motherhood understood in Mexican cinema from the 1940s to the early 1990s? Film analysis, interviews with filmmakers, academic articles, and film reviews from newspapers are used to answer the question and trace the changes the depiction of mothers goes through. Images of mothers in films by so-called third-wave filmmakers (Busi Cortes, Maria Novaro, Dana Rotberg, and Marisa Sistach) are contrasted with those of mothers in Mexican classical films (1935-1950) and in Mexican films from the 1970s and 1980s. The book produces some surprising results. The most important prohibition for mothers in classical cinema is not the imposition of strict sexual norms of the 1940s, but rather the portrayal of an autonomous identity. Also, in contrast to classical films, third-wave films show a woman's problems within a social dimension, making motherhood political-not in relation to militancy within the left, but in relation to women's issues. Third-wave films approach the problems of Latin American society as problems of individuals differentiated by gender, sexuality and ethnicity; in them mothers are citizens directly affected by laws, economic policies and cultural beliefs.

Maternalism Reconsidered

Author : Marian van der Klein
ISBN : 9780857454669
Genre : Family & Relationships
File Size : 44. 31 MB
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Beginning in the late 19th century, competing ideas about motherhoodhad a profound impact on the development and implementation of socialwelfare policies. This volume reassesses maternalism by providingcritical reflections on prior usages of the concept, and by expandingits meaning to encompass geographical areas, political regimes andcultural concerns that scholars have rarely addressed. From Argentinaand Mexico City to the Soviet Ukraine, the United States and Canada,these case studies offer fresh theoretical and historical perspectiveswithin a transnational and comparative framework. As a whole, thevolume demonstrates how maternalist ideologies have been employed bystate actors, reformers and poor clients, with myriad political andsocial ramifications.

Wert Der Familie

Author : Isabel Heinemann
ISBN : 9783110463699
Genre : History
File Size : 87. 54 MB
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Die Analyse von Normveränderungen auf dem Feld der Familienwerte eignet sich besonders gut, um zu einem breiteren Verständnis gesellschaftlichen Wandels zu gelangen. Dies liegt erstens daran, dass die Familie während des gesamten 20. Jahrhunderts als wichtigste Mikroeinheit der Gesellschaft nach dem Individuum und als zentrale Instanz der Wertevermittlung an die nächste Generation galt. Öffentliche Debatten um die Familie, ihre Strukturen und ihre Werte unterstreichen stets deren Bedeutung für die Gesellschaft. Zweitens entfaltete das Familienideal der weißen „Middle Class" im 20. Jahrhundert eine prägende Wirkung für alle US-Amerikaner/innen. Es diente als Projektionsfläche von Integrations- und Aufstiegshoffnungen, inspirierte aber auch Diversifizierungs- und Abgrenzungsstrategien. Quellen der Studie sind insbesondere die nationale Tages- und Wochenpresse, Grundsatzentscheide des Supreme-Court und ihre Begründungen, Statements von Präsidenten und ihrer Stäbe, Ratgeber-Literatur und zeitgenössische wissenschaftliche Publikationen sowie Veröffentlichungen religiöser Organisationen und sozialer Bewegungen. Als zentrale Untersuchungsachsen dienen die Kategorien „Race, Class, and Gender" sowie die Frage nach der Gültigkeit des sozialwissenschaftlichen Postulats eines „Wertewandels".

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