moral calculations game theory logic and human frailty lecture notes in computer sci ; 1402

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Moral Calculations

Author : Laszlo Mero
ISBN : 0387984194
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 58. 70 MB
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What does game theory tell us about rational behavior? Is there such a thing as rational behavior, and if so, is it of any use to us? In this fascinating book, renowned Hungarian economist Laszlo Mero shows how game theory provides insight into such aspects of human psychology as altruism, competition, and politics, as well as its relevance to disparate fields such as physics and evolutionary biology. This ideal guide shows us how mathematics can illuminate the human condition.

Logic Of Miracles

Author : Laszlo Mero
ISBN : 9780300238488
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 51. 45 MB
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We live in a much more turbulent world than we like to think, but the science we use to analyze economic, financial, and statistical events mostly disregards the world’s essentially chaotic nature. We need to get used to the idea that wildly improbable events are actually part of the natural order. The renowned Hungarian mathematician and psychologist László MérŠ‘ explains how the wild and mild worlds (which he names Wildovia and Mildovia) coexist, and that different laws apply to each. Even if we live in an ultimately wild universe, he argues, we’re better off pretending that it obeys Mildovian laws. Doing so may amount to a self†‘fulfilling prophecy and create an island of predictability in a very rough sea. Perched on the ragged border between economics and complexity theory, MérŠ‘ proposes to extend the reach of science to subjects previously considered outside its grasp: the unpredictable, unrepeatable, highly improbable events we commonly call “miracles.”

Ways Of Thinking

Author : L Mérö
ISBN : 9789814506847
Genre :
File Size : 77. 50 MB
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This book goes right into the the causes and reasons of the diversity of ways of thinking. It is about the tricks of how our thinking works and about the efforts and failures of artificial intelligence. It discusses what can and cannot be expected of `intelligent' computers, and provides an insight into the deeper layers of the mechanism of our thinking.-An enjoyable piece of reading, this thought-provoking book is also an exciting mental adventure for those with little or no computer competence at all. Contents:The Diversity of Thinking:Logical ThinkingCommon SensePuzzles and ScienceWays of Thinking in Different CulturesLevels of ThinkingThe Building Blocks of Thinking:Cognitive SchemataThe Magic Number SevenSome Tens of Thousands of SchemataSome Tens of Thousands of What?A Challenge for ProgrammersFrom Beginners to GrandmastersProfession — Language — Way of ThinkingArtificial Intelligence at Candidate Master LevelThe Strength of Diversity:The Limits of RationalityHigh-Level Cognitive SchemataMystical ThinkingThe Trick of EvolutionAlternating the Reference SystemsBibliographySourcesIndex Readership: Computer scientists, psychologists, mathematicians and general. Review: “This is a recommended reading for everybody who is interested in basic problems and relations of computer science and human cognition.” T Vámos (Hungarian Acad. Sci.) “This very readable and highly enjoyable book explores the arguments and issues underlying the debate about the efficacy of artificial intelligence. The book will be of great interest, not only to computer scientists, mathematicians, engineers, psychologists, philosophers, biologists, and other experts in the field, but also the person without any background in computer science ... I only hope that I have conveyed, a little of the flavour of his truly enjoyable and thought-provoking book.” Eugene Clark Journal of Law and Information Science (Australia) “… this book provides some very enjoyable and thought provoking reading …”Tommy Dreyfus Educational Studies in Mathematics

Freedom In Mathematics

Author : Pierre Cartier
ISBN : 9788132227885
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 82. 98 MB
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This book challenges the views put forward by Pierre Cartier, one of the anchors of the famous Bourbaki group, and Cédric Villani, one of the most brilliant mathematicians of his generation, who received the Fields Medal in 2010. Jean Dhombres, mathematician and science historian, and Gerhard Heinzmann, philosopher of science and also a specialist in mathematics engage in a fruitful dialogue with the two mathematicians, prompting readers to reflect on mathematical activity and its social consequences in history as well as in the modern world. Cédric Villani’s popular success proves once again that a common awareness has developed, albeit in a very confused way, of the major role of mathematics in the construction and efficiency of natural sciences, which are at the origin of our technologies. Despite this, the idea that mathematics cannot be shared remains firmly entrenched, a perceived failing that has even been branded a lack of culture by vocal forces in the media as well as cultural and political establishment. The authors explore three major directions in their dialogue: the highly complex relationship between mathematics and reality, the subject of many debates and opposing viewpoints; the freedom that the construction of mathematics has given humankind by enabling them to develop the natural sciences as well as mathematical research; and the responsibility with which the scientific community and governments should address the role of mathematics in research and education policies.

Human Accomplishment

Author : Charles Murray
ISBN : 9780061745676
Genre : History
File Size : 74. 15 MB
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A sweeping cultural survey reminiscent of Barzun's From Dawn to Decadence. "At irregular times and in scattered settings, human beings have achieved great things. Human Accomplishment is about those great things, falling in the domains known as the arts and sciences, and the people who did them.' So begins Charles Murray's unique account of human excellence, from the age of Homer to our own time. Employing techniques that historians have developed over the last century but that have rarely been applied to books written for the general public, Murray compiles inventories of the people who have been essential to the stories of literature, music, art, philosophy, and the sciences—a total of 4,002 men and women from around the world, ranked according to their eminence. The heart of Human Accomplishment is a series of enthralling descriptive chapters: on the giants in the arts and what sets them apart from the merely great; on the differences between great achievement in the arts and in the sciences; on the meta-inventions, 14 crucial leaps in human capacity to create great art and science; and on the patterns and trajectories of accomplishment across time and geography. Straightforwardly and undogmatically, Charles Murray takes on some controversial questions. Why has accomplishment been so concentrated in Europe? Among men? Since 1400? He presents evidence that the rate of great accomplishment has been declining in the last century, asks what it means, and offers a rich framework for thinking about the conditions under which the human spirit has expressed itself most gloriously. Eye-opening and humbling, Human Accomplishment is a fascinating work that describes what humans at their best can achieve, provides tools for exploring its wellsprings, and celebrates the continuing common quest of humans everywhere to discover truths, create beauty, and apprehend the good.

Game Theory Evolving

Author : Herbert Gintis
ISBN : 9781400830077
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 60. 26 MB
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Since its original publication in 2000, Game Theory Evolving has been considered the best textbook on evolutionary game theory. This completely revised and updated second edition of Game Theory Evolving contains new material and shows students how to apply game theory to model human behavior in ways that reflect the special nature of sociality and individuality. The textbook continues its in-depth look at cooperation in teams, agent-based simulations, experimental economics, the evolution and diffusion of preferences, and the connection between biology and economics. Recognizing that students learn by doing, the textbook introduces principles through practice. Herbert Gintis exposes students to the techniques and applications of game theory through a wealth of sophisticated and surprisingly fun-to-solve problems involving human and animal behavior. The second edition includes solutions to the problems presented and information related to agent-based modeling. In addition, the textbook incorporates instruction in using mathematical software to solve complex problems. Game Theory Evolving is perfect for graduate and upper-level undergraduate economics students, and is a terrific introduction for ambitious do-it-yourselfers throughout the behavioral sciences. Revised and updated edition relevant for courses across disciplines Perfect for graduate and upper-level undergraduate economics courses Solutions to problems presented throughout Incorporates instruction in using computational software for complex problem solving Includes in-depth discussions of agent-based modeling

Games Groups And The Global Good

Author : Simon A. Levin
ISBN : 3540854363
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 30. 50 MB
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How do groups form, how do institutions come into being, and when do moral norms and practices emerge? This volume explores how game-theoretic approaches can be extended to consider broader questions that cross scales of organization, from individuals to cooperatives to societies. Game theory' strategic formulation of central problems in the analysis of social interactions is used to develop multi-level theories that examine the interplay between individuals and the collectives they form. The concept of cooperation is examined at a higher level than that usually addressed by game theory, especially focusing on the formation of groups and the role of social norms in maintaining their integrity, with positive and negative implications. The authors suggest that conventional analyses need to be broadened to explain how heuristics, like concepts of fairness, arise and become formalized into the ethical principles embraced by a society.

Media Rich Instruction

Author : Rosemary Papa
ISBN : 9783319001524
Genre : Education
File Size : 59. 94 MB
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E-learning has brought an enormous change to instruction, in terms of both rules and tools. Contemporary education requires diverse and creative uses of media technology to keep students engaged and to keep up with rapid developments in the ways they learn and teachers teach. Media Rich Instruction addresses these requirements with up-to-date learning theory and practices that incorporate innovative platforms for information delivery into traditional areas such as learning skills and learner characteristics. Experts in media rich classroom experiences and online instruction delve into the latest findings on student cognitive processes and motivation to learn while offering multimedia classroom strategies geared to specific curriculum areas. Advances such as personal learning environments, gamification, and the Massive Open Online Course are analyzed in the context of their potential for collaborative and transformative learning. And each chapter features key questions and application activities to make coverage especially practical across grade levels and learner populations. Among the topics included: Building successful learning experiences online. Language and literacy, reading and writing. Mathematics teaching and learning with and through education technology. Learning science through experiment and practice. Social studies teaching for learner engagement. The arts and Technology. Connecting school to community. At a time when many are pondering the future of academic standards and student capacity to learn, Media Rich Instruction is a unique source of concrete knowledge and useful ideas for current and future researchers and practitioners in media rich instructional strategies and practices.

Nudge

Author : Richard H. Thaler
ISBN : 9781101655092
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 75. 54 MB
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From the winner of the 2017 Nobel Prize in Economics, Richard H. Thaler, and Cass R. Sunstein: a revelatory look at how we make decisions—for fans of Malcolm Gladwell’s Blink and Daniel Kahneman’s Thinking Fast and Slow New York Times bestseller Named a Best Book of the Year by The Economist and the Financial Times Every day we make choices—about what to buy or eat, about financial investments or our children’s health and education, even about the causes we champion or the planet itself. Unfortunately, we often choose poorly. Nudge is about how we make these choices and how we can make better ones. Using dozens of eye-opening examples and drawing on decades of behavioral science research, Nobel Prize winner Richard H. Thaler and Harvard Law School professor Cass R. Sunstein show that no choice is ever presented to us in a neutral way, and that we are all susceptible to biases that can lead us to make bad decisions. But by knowing how people think, we can use sensible “choice architecture” to nudge people toward the best decisions for ourselves, our families, and our society, without restricting our freedom of choice. More than 750,000 copies sold

Experiencing Nature

Author : P. Theerman
ISBN : 9789401158107
Genre : History
File Size : 60. 35 MB
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This volume, honoring the renowned historian of science, Allen G Debus, explores ideas of science - `experiences of nature' - from within a historiographical tradition that Debus has done much to define. As his work shows, the sciences do not develop exclusively as a result of a progressive and inexorable logic of discovery. A wide variety of extra-scientific factors, deriving from changing intellectual contexts and differing social millieus, play crucial roles in the overall development of scientific thought. These essays represent case studies in a broad range of scientific settings - from sixteenth-century astronomy and medicine, through nineteenth-century biology and mathematics, to the social sciences in the twentieth-century - that show the impact of both social settings and the cross-fertilization of ideas on the formation of science. Aimed at a general audience interested in the history of science, this book closes with Debus's personal perspective on the development of the field. Audience: This book will appeal especially to historians of science, of chemistry, and of medicine.

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