negotiating health intellectual property and access to medicines

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Negotiating Health

Author : Pedro Roffe
ISBN : 9781849772082
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 80. 64 MB
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In developing countries, access to affordable medicines for the treatment of diseases such as AIDS and malaria remains a matter of life or death. In Africa, for instance, more than one million children die each year from malaria alone, a figure which could soon be far higher with the extension of patent rules for pharmaceuticals. Previously, access to essential medicines was made possible by the supply of much cheaper generics, manufactured largely by India; from 2005, however, the availability of these drugs is threatened as new WTO rules take effect. Halting the spread of malaria and HIV/AIDS is one of the eight Millennium Goals adopted at the UN Millennium Summit, which makes this a timely and topical book. Informed analysis is provided by internationally renowned contributors who look at the post-2005 world and discuss how action may be taken to ensure that intellectual property regimes are interpreted and implemented in a manner supportive to the right to protect public health and, in particular, to promote access to medicines for all.

Intellectual Property Pharmaceuticals And Public Health

Author : Kenneth C. Shadlen
ISBN : 9780857938619
Genre : Medical
File Size : 89. 3 MB
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'This impressive collection offers fascinating new perspectives on the impact of pharmaceutical patents on access to medicines in developing countries. The volume's editors have put together an important book that sets out clearly the challenges to public health in a wide range of national contexts. The book will be a valuable text for all scholars and decision-makers interested in the global politics of intellectual property rights and public health.' – Duncan Matthews, Queen Mary, University of London, UK This up-to-date book examines pharmaceutical development, access to medicines, and the protection of public health in the context of two fundamental changes that the global political economy has undergone since the 1970s, the globalization of trade and production and the increased harmonization of national regulations on intellectual property rights. With authors from eleven different countries presenting case studies of national experiences in Africa, Asia and the Americas, the book analyzes national strategies to promote pharmaceutical innovation, while at the same time assuring widespread access to medicines through generic pharmaceutical production and generic pharmaceutical importation. The expert chapters focus on patents as well as an array of regulatory instruments, including pricing and drug registration policies. Presenting in-depth analysis and original empirical research, this book will strongly appeal to academics and students of intellectual property, international health, international political economy, international development and law.

Balancing Wealth And Health

Author : Rochelle Cooper Dreyfuss
ISBN : 9780199676743
Genre : Law
File Size : 89. 2 MB
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This book examines the tension between intellectual property law and access to medicine in a set of developing countries caught between their international trade obligations and their commitment to the health of their citizens. It presents case studies, conducted with a common methodology, in eleven Latin American countries.

Advancing The Human Right To Health

Author : José M. Zuniga
ISBN : 9780191637643
Genre : Medical
File Size : 70. 19 MB
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Advancing the Human Right to Health offers a prospective on the global response to one of the greatest moral, legal, and public health challenges of the 21st century - achieving the human right to health as enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and other legal instruments. Featuring writings by global thought-leaders in the world of health human rights, the book brings clarity to many of the complex clinical, ethical, economic, legal, and socio-cultural questions raised by injury, disease, and deeper determinants of health, such as poverty. Much more than a primer on the right to health, this book features an examination of profound inequalities in health, which have resulted in millions of people condemned to unnecessary suffering and hastened deaths. In so doing, it provides a thoughtful account of the right to health's parameters, strategies on ways in which to achieve it, and discussion of why it is so essential in a 21st century context. Country-specific case studies provide context for analysing the right to health and assessing whether, and to what extent, this right has influenced critical decision-making that makes a difference in people's lives. Thematic chapters also look at the specific challenges involved in translating the right to health into action. Advancing the Human Right to Health highlights the urgency to build upon the progress made in securing the right to health for all, offering a timely reminder that all stakeholders must redouble their efforts to advance the human right to health.

Promoting Access To Medical Technologies And Innovation

Author : World Trade Organization
ISBN : 9287038392
Genre : Law
File Size : 34. 25 MB
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"Public health is a global challenge, and therefore international co-operation has a high priority. The World Health Organization (WHO) is the global authority for health. But a range of other issues are involved in achieving health objectives, requiring WHO to join forces with counterparts. Two of these are the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and World Trade Organization (WTO). This book is the first ever joint study by the three, part of their collaboration on health, intellectual property, and trade. The book's focus is on advancing medical and health technologies ("innovation") and ensuring they reach the people who need them ("accessibility"). A huge amount of analytical and factual material is available on access to medicines and other medical technologies, and on innovation. Here, it is brought together in one concise volume. The book is designed to support governments and others -- particularly in developing countries -- who face an increasing demand to act, when governments want to increase access to effective treatments while containing costs. The underlying theme is: policies on these issues have to be viewed together in order to make real progress."--Publisher's description.

The Global Politics Of Pharmaceutical Monopoly Power

Author : Ellen F. M. 't Hoen
ISBN : 9079700061
Genre : Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
File Size : 81. 20 MB
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In The Global Politics of Pharmaceutical Monopoly Power, researcher and global advocate Ellen 't Hoen explains how new global rules for pharmaceutical patenting impact access to medicines in the developing world. The book gives an account of the current debates on intellectual property, access to medicines, and medical innovation, and provides historical context that explains how the current system emerged. This book supports major policy changes in the management of pharmaceutical patents and the way medical innovation is financed in order to protect public health and, in particular, promote access to essential medicines for all. The Open Society Institute provided support to translate this report into Russian.

Intellectual Property At The Crossroads Of Trade

Author : J. Rosen
ISBN : 9781781953396
Genre : Law
File Size : 34. 29 MB
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Intellectual Property Law at the Crossroads of Trade focuses on the elements of intellectual property that impact on trade and competition. The book comprises thoughtful contributions on varying commercial aspects of IP, from parallel imports of pharmaceuticals to exhaustion of rights, and from trade in goods of cultural heritage to regulation of goods in transit. There is detailed discussion of licensing, including cross-border elements, online licensing, and the potential for harmonisation in Europe. This precedes a multi-layered analysis of the Anti-counterfeiting Trade Agreement. This stimulating collection of work will have strong appeal to academics and researchers interested in some of the most pressing issues in intellectual property law, as well as all those with an interest in the intersection of trade and IP.

Interpreting Trips

Author : Hiroko Yamane
ISBN : 9781847316332
Genre : Law
File Size : 89. 1 MB
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Protection of intellectual property rights (IPRs) has become a global issue. The Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS) Agreement outlines the minimum standards for IPR protection for WTO members and offers a global regime for IPR protection. However, the benefits of TRIPS are more questionable in poorer countries where national infrastructure for research and development (R&D) and social protection are inadequate, whereas the cost of innovation is high. Today, after more than a decade of intense debate over global IPR protection, the problems remain acute, although there is also evidence of progress and cooperation. This book examines various views of the role of IPRs as incentives for innovation against the backdrop of development and the transfer of technology between globalised, knowledge-based, high technology economies. The book retraces the origins, content and interpretations of the TRIPS Agreement, including its interpretations by WTO dispute settlement organs. It also analyses sources of controversy over IPRs, examining pharmaceutical industry strategies of emerging countries with different IPR policies. The continuing international debate over IPRs is examined in depth, as are TRIPS rules and the controversy about implementing the 'flexibilities' of the Agreement in the light of national policy objectives. The author concludes that for governments in developing countries, as well as for their business and scientific communities, a great deal depends on domestic policy objectives and their implementation. IPR protection should be supporting domestic policies for innovation and investment. This, in turn requires a re-casting of the debate about TRIPS, to place cooperation in global and efficient R&D at the heart of concerns over IPR protection.

Global Intellectual Property Rights

Author : P. Drahos
ISBN : 9780230522923
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 32. 47 MB
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Intellectual property rights such as patents can reduce access to knowledge in genetics, health, agriculture, education and information technology, particularly for people in developing countries. Global Intellectual Property Rights shows how the new global rules of intellectual property have been the product of the strategic behaviour of multinationals, rather than democratic dialogue. The final section of the book suggests strategies aimed at developing more flexible standard for poor countries, and for keeping knowledge in the intellectual commons.

Intellectual Property Human Rights And Development

Author : Duncan Matthews
ISBN : 9780857931245
Genre : Law
File Size : 63. 25 MB
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'Each chapter analyses both policy areas, access to medicines and agriculture/genetic resources. These three exceptionally rich, fieldwork-based case studies constitute the meat – and the principal contribution – of this book. . . The book marks a major contribution for the empirical material alone.' – Ken Shadlen, Journal of Development Studies 'Duncan Matthews has produced a first-rate, in-depth analysis of the role of NGOs in international and national intellectual property policy. Based on extensive primary research, this book provides a smart, thoughtful perspective on the role of key developing country NGOs, NGOs' relationships with national policymakers, and with multilateral institutions. Everyone interested in the interface of intellectual property policy and human rights, development, access to medicines, farmers' rights, and biodiversity should read this compelling account. I highly recommend this excellent contribution to our understanding.' – Susan K. Sell, George Washington University, US 'One of the features of international negotiations has been the increasing participation of non-governmental organizations. In this important book, Duncan Matthews shows the nature and extent of NGO influence in the negotiations over intellectual property. Written with great clarity and drawing on interview data and case studies, the book will be valuable to both scholars and practitioners working in international negotiation.' – Peter Drahos, Australian National University 'This book reveals how non-governmental organizations helped developing countries to better understand and mitigate the impact of the new standards of intellectual property protection that those countries were forced to adopt in the context of trade negotiations. Based on comprehensive and rigorous research, the author offers an outstanding piece that will not only be important for academics, policy-makers and students working in the area of intellectual property, but also for those more broadly interested in the implementation of human rights, coalition-building scenarios and framing strategies.' – Carlos Correa, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina 'This is a valuable corrective to a debate that is too often premised on the perspective of rich and developed countries. Focussing on the network of NGOs that supports developing countries, Duncan Matthews fills a major gap in the analysis of international disputes about intellectual property. His analysis rightly demolishes the position that developing countries have remained helpless in the face of developments in the global governance of IPRs, and helps explain how the global politics of IPRs is shifting.' – Christopher May, Lancaster University, UK This insightful and important new book explores the role played by non-governmental-organizations (NGOs) in articulating concerns at the TRIPS Council, the WIPO, the WHO, the CBD-COP and the FAO that intellectual property rights can have negative consequences for developing countries. Duncan Matthews describes how coalitions of international NGOs have influenced the way that the relationship between intellectual property rights and development is understood, often framing the message as a human rights issue to emphasize these concerns and ensure that access to medicines, food security and the rights of indigenous peoples over their traditional knowledge are protected. Based on extensive research undertaken in Geneva and in developing countries, the book also reveals how NGOs and broader social movements in Brazil, India and South Africa have played a crucial role in addressing the negative impacts of intellectual property rights by using human rights law as a practical tool before national courts and when seeking to influence national legislation and government policy. Intellectual Property, Human Rights and Development will appeal to academics, practitioners, activists, international negotiators and postgraduate students in intellectual property law, human rights law, the international political economy of intellectual property rights and development studies.

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