nucleation

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Nucleation

Author : Dimo Kashchiev
ISBN : 0080537839
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 50. 7 MB
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This book represents a detailed and systematic account of the basic principles, developments and applications of the theory of nucleation. The formation of new phases begins with the process of nucleation and is, therefore, a widely spread phenomenon in both nature and technology. Condensation and evaporation, crystal growth, electrodeposition, melt crystallization, growth of thin films for microelectronics, volcano eruption and formation of particulate matter in space are only a few of the processes in which nucleation plays a prominent role. The book has four parts, which are devoted to the thermodynamics of nucleation, the kinetics of nucleation, the effect of various factors on nucleation and the application of the theory to other processes, which involve nucleation. The first two parts describe in detail the two basic approaches in nucleation theory - the thermodynamic and the kinetic ones. They contain derivations of the basic and most important formulae of the theory and discuss their limitations and possibilities for improvement. The third part deals with some of the factors that can affect nucleation and is a natural continuation of the first two chapters. The last part is devoted to the application of the theory to processes of practical importance such as melt crystallization and polymorphic transformation, crystal growth and growth of thin solid films, size distribution of droplets and crystallites in condensation and crystallization. The book is not just an account of the status quo in nucleation theory - throughout the book there are a number of new results as well as extensions and generalisations of existing ones.

Nucleation Theory

Author : Vitaly Kalikmanov
ISBN : 9789048136438
Genre : Science
File Size : 84. 75 MB
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One of the most striking phenomena in condensed matter physics is the occurrence of abrupt transitions in the structure of a substance at certain temperatures or pressures. These are first order phase transitions, and examples such as the freezing of water are familiar in everyday life. The conditions at which the transformation takes place can sometimes vary. For example, the freezing point of water is not always 0°C, but the liquid can be supercooled considerably if it is pure enough and treated carefully. The reason for this phenomenon is nucleation. This monograph covers all major available routes of theoretical research of nucleation phenomena (phenomenological models, semi-phenomenological theories, density functional theories, microscopic and semi-microscopic approaches), with emphasis on the formation of liquid droplets from a metastable vapor. Also, it illustrates the application of these various approaches to experimentally relevant problems. In spite of the familiarity of the involved phenomena, it is still impossible to calculate nucleation accurately, as the properties and the kinetics of the daughter phase are insufficiently well known. Existing theories based upon classical nucleation theory have on the whole explained the trends in behavior correctly. However they often fail spectacularly to account for new data, in particular in the case of binary or, more generally, multi-component nucleation. The current challenge of this book is to go beyond such classical models and provide a more satisfactory theory by using density functional theory and microscopic computer simulations in order to describe the properties of small clusters. Also, semi-phenomenological models are proposed, which attempt to relate the properties of small clusters to known properties of the bulk phases. This monograph is an introduction as well as a compendium to researchers in soft condensed matter physics and chemical physics, graduate and post-graduate students in physics and chemistry starting on research in the area of nucleation, and to experimentalists wishing to gain a better understanding of the efforts being made to account for their data.

Nucleation Theory And Applications

Author : Jürn W. P. Schmelzer
ISBN : 9783527604760
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 55. 67 MB
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An overview of recent developments in the field of first-order phase transitions, which may be considered a continuation of the previous work 'Aggregation Phenomena in Complex Systems', covering work done and discussed since then. Each chapter features a different aspect of the field written by international specialists, and covers such topics as nucleation and crystallization kinetic of silicate glasses, nucleation in concentration gradients, the determination of coefficients of emission of nucleation theory, diamonds from vitreous carbon.

Classical Nucleation Theory In Multicomponent Systems

Author : Hanna Vehkamäki
ISBN : 9783540312185
Genre : Science
File Size : 52. 49 MB
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Nucleation is the initial step of every first-order phase transition, and most phase transitions encountered both in everyday life and industrial processes are of the first-order. Using an elegant classical theory based on thermodynamics and kinetics, this book provides a fully detailed picture of multi-component nucleation. As many of the issues concerning multi-component nucleation theory have been solved during the last 10-15 years, it also thoroughly integrates both fundamental theory with recent advances presented in the literature. Classical Nucleation Theory in Multicomponent Systems serves as a textbook for advanced thermodynamics courses, as well as an important reference for researchers in the field. The main topics covered are: the basic relevant thermodynamics and statistical physics; modelling a molecular cluster as a spherical liquid droplet; predicting the size and composition of the nucleating critical clusters; kinetic models for cluster growth and decay; calculating nucleation rates; and a full derivation and application of nucleation theorems that can be used to extract microscopic cluster properties from nucleation rate measurements. The assumptions and approximations needed to build the classical theory are described in detail, and the reasons why the theory fails in certain cases are explained. Relevant problems are presented at the end of each chapter.

The Validity Of Classical Nucleation Theory And Its Application To Dislocation Nucleation

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:rx036ms4124
Genre :
File Size : 35. 97 MB
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Nucleation has been the subject of intense research because it plays an important role in the dynamics of most first-order phase transitions. The standard theory to describe the nucleation phenomena is the classical nucleation theory (CNT) because it correctly captures the qualitative features of the nucleation process. However potential problems with CNT have been suggested by previous studies. We systematically test the individual components of CNT by computer simulations of the Ising model and find that it accurately predicts the nucleation rate if the correct droplet free energy computed by umbrella sampling is provided as input. This validates the fundamental assumption of CNT that the system can be coarse grained into a one dimensional Markov chain with the largest droplet size as the reaction coordinate. Employing similar simulation techniques, we study the dislocation nucleation which is essential to our understanding of plastic deformation, ductility, and mechanical strength of crystalline materials. We show that dislocation nucleation rates can be accurately predicted over a wide range of conditions using CNT with the activation free energy determined by umbrella sampling. Our data reveal very large activation entropies, which contribute a multiplicative factor of many orders of magnitude to the nucleation rate. The activation entropy at constant strain is caused by thermal expansion, with negligible contribution from the vibrational entropy. The activation entropy at constant stress is significantly larger than that at constant strain, as a result of thermal softening. The large activation entropies are caused by anharmonic effects, showing the limitations of the harmonic approximation widely used for rate estimation in solids. Similar behaviors are expected to occur in other nucleation processes in solids.

Nucleation Growth And Impurity Effects In Crystallization Process Engineering

Author : American Institute of Chemical Engineers
ISBN : UOM:39076006494285
Genre : Science
File Size : 84. 51 MB
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New Perspectives On Mineral Nucleation And Growth

Author : Alexander van Driessche
ISBN : 9783319456690
Genre : Science
File Size : 83. 72 MB
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In the last decade, numerous studies have demonstrated the existence of alternative pathways to nucleation and crystallisation that oppose the classical view. Such proposed scenarios include multistage reactions proceeding via various precursor species and/or intermediate phases. The aim of this book is to review and discuss these recent advances in our understanding of the early stages of mineralisation through a series of contributions that address both experimental and theoretical studies about the formation and nature of initial precursor species (e.g., prenucleation clusters, dense liquid phases, amorphous nanoparticles, etc.) as well as their transformations leading to the stable mineral phase. Several chapters are devoted to cutting-edge analytical techniques used for investigating the above processes in situ, in real time and at conditions relevant to both natural and industrial processes. At the end of the book, the editors summarize the key questions that still need to be addressed in order to establish a complete picture of the nucleation and growth processes involved during the formation of minerals

Investigating The Nucleation Growth And Energy Levels Of Organic Semiconductors For High Performance Plastic Electronics

Author : Ajay Virkar
ISBN : 1441997040
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 65. 48 MB
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This thesis details the significant progress made in improving the performance of organic transistors and the network conductivity of carbon nanotubes. The first section investigates organic semiconductor nucleation and growth on the most common dielectric surface used to fabricate organic thin film transistors. The nucleation and growth of the semiconductor was determined to be a critical factor affecting the device performance. Excellent dielectric modification layers, which promote desirable semiconductor growth leading to high conductivity were identified, and a technologically relevant deposition technique was developed to fabricate high quality dielectric modification layers over large areas. This may represent an important step towards the realization of large area organic circuity. In the final section, lessons learned from studying organic semiconductor nucleation and growth were utilized to improve the conductivity of carbon nanotube networks. Selective nucleation of materials at the junctions between nanotubes in the network significantly decreased the network's sheet resistance. The resulting networks may be promising candidates for transparent electrodes with a variety of optoelectronic applications.

Measurement Of Crystal Growth And Nucleation Rates

Author : John Garside
ISBN : 0852954492
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 45. 71 MB
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Produced by the Working Party on Crystallization of the European Federation of Chemical Engineering, this book outlines the most important methods of measuring crystal growth and nucleation rates. It seeks to unify methods and equipment, contributing to the standardization of these kinetic measurements. The text uses worked examples and details the appropriate treatment of data and the need for close specification of experimental conditions.

Nucleation And Atmospheric Aerosols

Author : Colin D. O'Dowd
ISBN : 9781402064753
Genre : Science
File Size : 23. 25 MB
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Atmospheric particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere: they form the seeds for cloud droplets and they form haze layers, blocking out incoming radiation and contributing to a partial cooling of our climate. They also contribute to poor air quality and health impacts. A large fraction of aerosols are formed from nucleation processes – that is a phase transition from vapour to liquid or solid particles. Examples are the formation of stable clusters about 1 nm in size from molecular collisions and these in turn can grow into larger (100 nm or more) haze particles via condensation to the formation of ice crystals in mixed phase or cold clouds. This book brings together the leading experts from the nucleation and atmospheric aerosols research communities to present the current state-of-the-art knowledge in these related fields. Topics covered are: Nucleation Experiment & Theory, Binary, Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Nucleation, Ion & Cluster Properties During Nucleation, Aerosol Characterisation & Properties, Aerosol Formation, Dynamics and Growth, Marine Aerosol Production, Aerosol-Cloud Interactions, Chemical Composition & Cloud Drop Activation, Remote Sensing of aerosol & clouds and Air Quality-Climate Interactions

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