nucleation

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Nucleation

Author : Dimo Kashchiev
ISBN : 0080537839
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 34. 21 MB
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This book represents a detailed and systematic account of the basic principles, developments and applications of the theory of nucleation. The formation of new phases begins with the process of nucleation and is, therefore, a widely spread phenomenon in both nature and technology. Condensation and evaporation, crystal growth, electrodeposition, melt crystallization, growth of thin films for microelectronics, volcano eruption and formation of particulate matter in space are only a few of the processes in which nucleation plays a prominent role. The book has four parts, which are devoted to the thermodynamics of nucleation, the kinetics of nucleation, the effect of various factors on nucleation and the application of the theory to other processes, which involve nucleation. The first two parts describe in detail the two basic approaches in nucleation theory - the thermodynamic and the kinetic ones. They contain derivations of the basic and most important formulae of the theory and discuss their limitations and possibilities for improvement. The third part deals with some of the factors that can affect nucleation and is a natural continuation of the first two chapters. The last part is devoted to the application of the theory to processes of practical importance such as melt crystallization and polymorphic transformation, crystal growth and growth of thin solid films, size distribution of droplets and crystallites in condensation and crystallization. The book is not just an account of the status quo in nucleation theory - throughout the book there are a number of new results as well as extensions and generalisations of existing ones.

Kinetic Theory Of Nucleation

Author : Eli Ruckenstein
ISBN : 9781138032170
Genre : Science
File Size : 57. 98 MB
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Explore a Kinetic Approach to the Description of Nucleation – An Alternative to the Classical Nucleation Theory Kinetic Theory of Nucleation presents an alternative to the classical theory of nucleation in gases and liquids—the kinetic nucleation theory of Ruckenstein–Narsimhan–Nowakowski (RNNT). RNNT uses the kinetic theory of fluids to calculate the rate of evaporation of molecules from clusters, and unlike the classical nucleation theory (CNT), does not require macroscopic thermodynamics or the detailed balance principle. The book compares the rates of evaporation of molecules from—and condensation on—the surface of a nucleus of a new phase, and explains how this alternate approach can provide much higher nucleation rates than the CNT. It applies RNNT to various case studies that include the liquid-to-solid and vapor-to-liquid phase transitions, binary nucleation, heterogeneous nucleation, nucleation on soluble particles and protein folding. It also describes the system, introduces the basic equations of the kinetic theory, and defines a new model for the nucleation mechanism of protein folding. Adaptable to coursework as well as self-study, this insightful book: Uses a kinetic approach to calculate the rate of growth and decay of a cluster Includes description of vapor-to-liquid and liquid-to-solid nucleation Outlines the application of density-functional theory (DFT) methods to nucleation Proposes the combination of the new kinetic theory of nucleation with the DFT methods Illustrates the new theory with numerical calculations Describes the model for the nucleation mechanism of protein folding, and more A comprehensive guide dedicated to the kinetic theory of nucleation and cluster growth, Kinetic Theory of Nucleation emphasizes the basic concepts of the kinetic nucleation theory, incorporates findings developed from years of research and experience, and is written by highly-regarded experts.

The Validity Of Classical Nucleation Theory And Its Application To Dislocation Nucleation

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:rx036ms4124
Genre :
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Nucleation has been the subject of intense research because it plays an important role in the dynamics of most first-order phase transitions. The standard theory to describe the nucleation phenomena is the classical nucleation theory (CNT) because it correctly captures the qualitative features of the nucleation process. However potential problems with CNT have been suggested by previous studies. We systematically test the individual components of CNT by computer simulations of the Ising model and find that it accurately predicts the nucleation rate if the correct droplet free energy computed by umbrella sampling is provided as input. This validates the fundamental assumption of CNT that the system can be coarse grained into a one dimensional Markov chain with the largest droplet size as the reaction coordinate. Employing similar simulation techniques, we study the dislocation nucleation which is essential to our understanding of plastic deformation, ductility, and mechanical strength of crystalline materials. We show that dislocation nucleation rates can be accurately predicted over a wide range of conditions using CNT with the activation free energy determined by umbrella sampling. Our data reveal very large activation entropies, which contribute a multiplicative factor of many orders of magnitude to the nucleation rate. The activation entropy at constant strain is caused by thermal expansion, with negligible contribution from the vibrational entropy. The activation entropy at constant stress is significantly larger than that at constant strain, as a result of thermal softening. The large activation entropies are caused by anharmonic effects, showing the limitations of the harmonic approximation widely used for rate estimation in solids. Similar behaviors are expected to occur in other nucleation processes in solids.

Nucleation And Crystallization In Glasses

Author : J. H. Simmons
ISBN : UOM:39015010638743
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 68. 61 MB
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Crystal Growth For Beginners Fundamentals Of Nucleation Crystal Growth And Epitaxy Third Edition

Author : Markov Ivan Vesselinov
ISBN : 9789813143869
Genre : Science
File Size : 79. 68 MB
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The processes of new phase formation and growth are of fundamental importance in numerous rapidly developing scientific fields such as modern materials science, micro- and optoelectronics, and environmental science. Crystal Growth for Beginners combines the depth of information in monographs, with the thorough analysis of review papers, and presents the resulting content at a level understandable by beginners in science. The book covers, in practice, all fundamental questions and aspects of nucleation, crystal growth, and epitaxy. This book is a non-eclectic presentation of this interdisciplinary topic in materials science. The third edition brings existing chapters up to date, and includes new chapters on the growth of nanowires by the vapor–liquid–solid mechanism, as well as illustrated short biographical texts about the scientists who introduced the basic ideas and concepts into the fields of nucleation, crystal growth and epitaxy. All formulae and equations are illustrated by examples that are of technological importance. The book presents not only the fundamentals but also the state of the art in the subject. Crystal Growth for Beginners is a valuable reference for both graduate students and researchers in materials science. The reader is required to possess some basic knowledge of mathematics, physics and thermodynamics.

Nucleation Theory And Applications

Author : Jürn W. P. Schmelzer
ISBN : 9783527604760
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 46. 90 MB
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An overview of recent developments in the field of first-order phase transitions, which may be considered a continuation of the previous work 'Aggregation Phenomena in Complex Systems', covering work done and discussed since then. Each chapter features a different aspect of the field written by international specialists, and covers such topics as nucleation and crystallization kinetic of silicate glasses, nucleation in concentration gradients, the determination of coefficients of emission of nucleation theory, diamonds from vitreous carbon.

Condensation And Evaporation Nucleation And Growth Kinetics

Author : John Price Hirth
ISBN : UCAL:B4021720
Genre : Change of state (Physics)
File Size : 55. 91 MB
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Homogeneous Nucleation Theory

Author : Farid Abraham
ISBN : 9780323158046
Genre : Science
File Size : 63. 52 MB
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Homogeneous Nucleation Theory: The Pretransition Theory of Vapor Condensation discusses the influence of classical thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and multistate kinetics on the homogeneous nucleation theory. This book is organized into 10 chapters and begins with a simple model calculation that yields an important insight into the major physical features governing supersaturated vapor condensation. The following chapters explore the development of the theory of equilibrium thermodynamics pertinent to the study of a nucleation phenomena and a postulatory formulation of statistical mechanics and its relation to the calculation of the thermodynamic potentials. The discussion then shifts to a statistical thermodynamics description of an imperfect gas assuming the droplet model of Band-Bijl-Frenkel and to the development of the multistate kinetics of cluster formation. The book also explores the development of the classical Einstein theory for crystalline solids and generalizes this theory for its applications to planar surfaces of microcrystalline clusters. It also presents a comparison of the exact free energies for the microcrystallites with the predictions of the droplet model using the capillarity approximation. Three distinct approaches for calculating the thermodynamic properties of physical clusters are covered in the concluding chapters.

Nucleation And Crystallization In Liquids And Glasses

Author : Michael C. Weinberg
ISBN : 0944904572
Genre : Science
File Size : 67. 49 MB
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Nucleation And Growth Processes In Materials

Author : Antonios Gonis
ISBN : UOM:39015050281354
Genre : Science
File Size : 30. 59 MB
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One of the goals of materials science is to design alloys with pre-specified desirable technological properties. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to have a thorough understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying materials behavior. In particular, one must understand the effects on alloy properties caused by intentional changes in concentration and how the combinations of temperature, time and uncontrollable foreign impurities affect microstructure. In addition to the equilibrium phase information contained in phase diagrams, nonequilibrium dynamic processes and metastable phases are known to be crucial in determining materials properties. This volume brings together researchers working on various aspects of nonequilibrium processes in materials to discuss current research issues and to provide guidelines for future work. Particular attention was paid to understanding particle nucleation and growth, both experimentally and theoretically, solid-state reactions, nanosystems, liquid-solid transformations, and solidification and amorphization. On the theoretical side, fundamental principles governing nucleation and growth, and related phenomena such as coarsening and Ostwald ripening, are discussed. Progress is also reported on the phase field method and on Monte Carlo simulations.

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