numerical reasoning in judgments and decision making about health

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Numerical Reasoning In Judgments And Decision Making About Health

Author : Britta L. Anderson
ISBN : 9781107040946
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 23. 34 MB
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Provides information about how the numeric ability of individuals can impact the decisions they make about healthcare.

The Cambridge Handbook Of Expertise And Expert Performance

Author : K. Anders Ericsson
ISBN : 9781108625708
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 51. 56 MB
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In this updated and expanded edition of The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance, some of the world's foremost experts on expertise share their scientific knowledge of expertise and expert performance and show how experts may differ from non-experts in terms of development, training, reasoning, knowledge, and social support. The book reviews innovative methods for measuring experts' knowledge and performance in relevant tasks. Sixteen major domains of expertise are covered, including sports, music, medicine, business, writing, and drawing, with leading researchers summarizing their knowledge about the structure and acquisition of expert skills and knowledge, and discussing future prospects. General issues that cut across most domains are reviewed in chapters on various aspects of expertise, such as general and practical intelligence, differences in brain activity, self-regulated learning, deliberate practice, aging, knowledge management, and creativity.

The Rationality Quotient

Author : Keith E. Stanovich
ISBN : 9780262034845
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 80. 49 MB
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Preface -- Acknowledgements -- Theoretical underpinnings -- Definitions of rationality in philosophy, cognitive science, and lay discourse -- Rationality, intelligence, and the functional architecture of the mind -- Overcoming miserly processing : detection, override, and mindware -- A framework for the comprehensive assessment of rational thinking (CART) -- The components of rational thought assessed by the CART -- Probabilistic and statistical reasoning -- Scientific reasoning -- Avoidance of miserly information processing : direct tests -- Avoidance of miserly information processing : indirect effects -- Probabilistic numeracy, financial literacy, sensitivity to expected value, and risk knowledge -- Contaminated mindware -- The dispositions and attitudes of rationality -- Comprehensive rational thinking assessment : data and conclusions -- Associations among the subtests : a short-form CART -- Associations among the subtests : the full-form CART -- The CART : context, caveats, and questions -- The social and practical implications of a rational thinking test -- Appendix: Structure and sample items for the subtests and scales of the comprehensive assessment of rational thinking -- References -- Index

The Oxford Handbook Of The Science Of Science Communication

Author : Kathleen Hall Jamieson
ISBN : 9780190497637
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 86. 26 MB
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The proposal to vaccinate adolescent girls against the human papilloma virus ignited political controversy, as did the advent of fracking and a host of other emerging technologies. These disputes attest to the persistent gap between expert and public perceptions. Complicating the communication of sound science and the debates that surround the societal applications of that science is a changing media environment in which misinformation can elicit belief without corrective context and likeminded individuals are prone to seek ideologically comforting information within their own self-constructed media enclaves. Drawing on the expertise of leading science communication scholars from six countries, The Oxford Handbook of the Science of Science Communication not only charts the media landscape - from news and entertainment to blogs and films - but also examines the powers and perils of human biases - from the disposition to seek confirming evidence to the inclination to overweight endpoints in a trend line. In the process, it draws together the best available social science on ways to communicate science while also minimizing the pernicious effects of human bias. The Handbook adds case studies exploring instances in which communication undercut or facilitated the access to scientific evidence. The range of topics addressed is wide, from genetically engineered organisms and nanotechnology to vaccination controversies and climate change. Also unique to this book is a focus on the complexities of involving the public in decision making about the uses of science, the regulations that should govern its application, and the ethical boundaries within which science should operate. The Handbook is an invaluable resource for researchers in the communication fields, particularly in science and health communication, as well as to scholars involved in research on scientific topics susceptible to distortion in partisan debate.

Clinical Judgement And Decision Making For Nursing Students

Author : Mooi Standing
ISBN : 1844457540
Genre : Medical
File Size : 36. 1 MB
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Clinical decision making is now recognised as an indispensable facet of professional nursing care. It is essential that students develop sound decision making skills in order to deal with the challenges they will encounter as registered nurses. This book enables pre-registration nursing students to understand, develop and apply these skills in order to practise safely and effectively. The structure of the book helps the student progress in effective decision making right from the first to final year of their programme. The book links theory to previous students’ experiences and clinical scenarios to show how to use these skills in practice. Mooi Standing is an Independent Academic Consultant (UK and International) & Accredited NMC Reviewer. She leads on curriculum development, quality review and enhancement of theoretical and practice-based learning in nursing and allied health programmes for Universities across UK and Internationally. She also manages the development of collaborative international partnerships on educational programmes between UK higher education institutions and Asia.

Medical Decision Making

Author : Alan Schwartz
ISBN : 1107320062
Genre : Medical
File Size : 66. 67 MB
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Decision making is a key activity, perhaps the most important activity, in the practice of healthcare. Although physicians acquire a great deal of knowledge and specialised skills during their training and through their practice, it is in the exercise of clinical judgement and its application to individual patients that the outstanding physician is distinguished. This has become even more relevant as patients become increasingly welcomed as partners in a shared decision making process. This book translates the research and theory from the science of decision making into clinically useful tools and principles that can be applied by clinicians in the field. It considers issues of patient goals, uncertainty, judgement, choice, development of new information, and family and social concerns in healthcare. It helps to demystify decision theory by emphasizing concepts and clinical cases over mathematics and computation.

Transparent Communication Of Health Risks

Author : Rocio Garcia-Retamero
ISBN : 9781461443582
Genre : Medical
File Size : 73. 59 MB
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Recent research in health decision making has shown that many patients, even those with a college education, have difficulties grasping a host of numerical concepts, including percentages and probabilities. Yet, basic numeracy and graph literacy are essential for understanding information relevant to making decisions about health, such as the incidence and prevalence of different diseases, risk reductions from medical screenings and treatments, and risk increases from side effects of treatments and unhealthy behaviors. Patients who have problems understanding such numerical concepts are often prone to errors in risk perception and medical choices. Importantly, informed medical decision making, heavily reinforced these days by the legal requirement for informed consent, depends critically on communication of quantitative medical information. Meeting the challenge of effectively communicating medical information to patients with different levels of numeracy and graph literacy has become more important than ever. Transparent Communication of Health Risks describes a series of cross-cultural studies investigating how people in countries with different medical and educational systems understand numerical and graphical information, what they know about existing medical treatments and screenings, which presentation formats help them better understand the relevant information, and how they use the data to make medical decisions. Focusing on the careful measurement of necessary knowledge and skills, the book also includes validated numeracy and graph literacy scales in English, Spanish, and German. Some of the topics covered in the book are: numeracy and graph literacy for health; measuring risk comprehension in educated samples; communicating information about medical treatment and screening; reducing the effect of framed messages about health; the effect of individual differences on shared decision making; and transparent health information in the media. Transparent Communication of Health Risks emphasizes the importance and value of working toward the development of tailored risk communication interventions and clarifies the tasks ahead for health psychologists, public health professionals, pharmaceutical and medical education companies, medical physicists, and nurses.

Essential Decision Making And Clinical Judgement For Nurses E Book

Author : Carl Thompson
ISBN : 9780702042522
Genre : Medical
File Size : 82. 63 MB
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This book provides the skills and knowledge to use information effectively when exercising professional judgement and clinical decisions. By integrating theory with practical examples, it provides an overview of the key issues facing nurses in decision making today. Review of up-to-date research into clinical professional judgement and decision making Focus on evidence and skills and knowledge relevant to nursing practice Combines current theory with analysis of applications in practice Learning exercises and self-assessment components in each chapter Comprehensive coverage of subject

Principles Of Health Care Ethics

Author : Raanan Gillon
ISBN : UOM:49015002244029
Genre : Medical
File Size : 23. 81 MB
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Analyzes the moral problems confronting health care practitioners from a wide variety of perspectives, especially those connected by four major ethical principles--respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice.

Annual Report

Author : University of Wisconsin--Madison. College of Engineering
ISBN : PSU:000010110508
Genre : Engineering
File Size : 74. 1 MB
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