ocean ambient noise measurement and theory the underwater acoustics series

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Ocean Ambient Noise

Author : William M. Carey
ISBN : 1441978321
Genre : Science
File Size : 53. 35 MB
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This monograph develops the theory of noise mechanisms and measurements, and describes general noise characteristics and computational methods. The vast ambient noise literature is concisely summarized using theory combined with key representative results. The air sea boundary interaction zone is described in terms of nondimensional variables requisite for future experiments. Noise field coherency, rare directional measurements, and unique basin scale computations and methods are presented. The use of satellite measurements in these basin scale models is demonstrated. A series of appendices provides in-depth mathematical treatments which will be of interest to graduate students and active researchers.

Sea Surface Sound

Author : B.R. Kerman
ISBN : 9789400930179
Genre : Science
File Size : 32. 7 MB
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In its relentless pursuit of further knowledge, science tends to compartmentalize. Over the years the pursuit of What might be called geophysical acoustics of the sea-surface has languished. This has occured even through there are well-developed and active research programs in underwater acoustics, ocean hydrodynamics, cloud and precipitation physics, and ice mechanics - to name a few - as well as a history of engineering expertise built on these scientific fields. It remained to create a convergence, a dialogue across disciplines, of mutual benefit. The central theme of the Lerici workshop, perhaps overly simplified, was 'What are the mechanisms causing ambient noise at the upper surface of the ocean?' What could hydrodynamicists contribute to a better understanding of breaking wave dynamics, bubble production, ocean wave dynamics, or near-surface turbulence for the benefit of the underwater acoustics community? What further insights could fluid dynamicists gain by including acoustic measurements in their repertoire of instrumentation? While every attendee will have his or her percep tions of details, it was universally agreed that a valuable step had been taken to bring together two mature disciplines and that significant co-operative studies would undoubtedly follow. The scope of the workshop was enlarged beyond its original intent to also include the question of ice-noise generation. The success of this decision can be seen in high quality of the presentations. the contribution of its disciples in the other workshop discussions and the heightened awareness and interest of we other novices.

Natural Physical Sources Of Underwater Sound

Author : B.R. Kerman
ISBN : 9789401116268
Genre : Science
File Size : 31. 93 MB
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To place this book in perspective it is useful for the reader to be aware of the recent history of the topic of underwater sound generation at the ocean surface by natural mechanisms. A meeting in Lerici, Italy in 1987 was convened within the NATO Advanced Research Workshop series, to bring together underwater acousticians and ocean hydrodynamicists to examine various mechanisms which generate sound naturally at the ocean surface. A record of that meeting was published in the NATO scientific publication series in 1988 under the title 'Sea Surface Sound'. That meeting was successful in inspiring and co ordinating both participants and non-attending colleagues to examine some key issues which were raised during the course of presentations and discussions. The understanding among those present was that another meeting should be convened 3 years hence to report and review progress in the subject. Accordingly the second conference was convened in Cambridge in 1990, whose proceedings are presented here. This volume represents a very gratifying increase in only a 3 year interval in our understanding of a number of physical processes which generate sound at the peripheries of oceans. In fact it represents both the acceleration of singular effort as well as the development of interdisciplinary sophistication and co-operation. The enthusiasm, goodwill, and intense scientific curiosity which characterized the Lerici meeting carried through to Cambridge. The collegial atmosphere established by the participants was perfectly timed to foster another major advance in studies of ocean surface sound.

Ocean Acoustics

Author : Ivan Tolstoy
ISBN : PSU:000033169804
Genre : Science
File Size : 67. 34 MB
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Applied Underwater Acoustics

Author : Thomas Neighbors
ISBN : 9780128112472
Genre : Science
File Size : 60. 87 MB
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Applied Underwater Acoustics meets the needs of scientists and engineers working in underwater acoustics and graduate students solving problems in, and preparing theses on, topics in underwater acoustics. The book is structured to provide the basis for rapidly assimilating the essential underwater acoustic knowledge base for practical application to daily research and analysis. Each chapter of the book is self-supporting and focuses on a single topic and its relation to underwater acoustics. The chapters start with a brief description of the topic’s physical background, necessary definitions, and a short description of the applications, along with a roadmap to the chapter. The subtopics covered within individual subchapters include most frequently used equations that describe the topic. Equations are not derived, rather, assumptions behind equations and limitations on the applications of each equation are emphasized. Figures, tables, and illustrations related to the sub-topic are presented in an easy-to-use manner, and examples on the use of the equations, including appropriate figures and tables are also included. Provides a complete and up-to-date treatment of all major subjects of underwater acoustics Presents chapters written by recognized experts in their individual field Covers the fundamental knowledge scientists and engineers need to solve problems in underwater acoustics Illuminates, in shorter sub-chapters, the modern applications of underwater acoustics that are described in worked examples Demands no prior knowledge of underwater acoustics, and the physical principles and mathematics are designed to be readily understood by scientists, engineers, and graduate students of underwater acoustics Includes a comprehensive list of literature references for each chapter

Ambient Noise In The Sea

Author : Robert J. Urick
ISBN : PSU:000017787574
Genre : Science
File Size : 29. 24 MB
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Ambient noise may be loosely said to be unwanted sound emanating from the sea itself. Its constituents typically come from a variety of somewhat diffusely combined sources: pressure changes and hydrostatic effects of tides and waves, oceanic turbulence, seismic disturbances, distant ship traffic, wind, rainfall, collapse of bubbles created by wave action, thermal agitation, marine animals and biological activity, breaking ice, and man-made noise such as distant oil rigs. Depending on locations in the ocean space, the times of day, season and year, and the happenstance of events and nature, the aforecited sources may or may not be contribute to the totality of ambient noise at any given time and place; and it may or may not exist as broad or narrow bands of energy in different regions of the frequency spectrum. More exactly defined, ambient noise is that part of the total noise background observed by an omnidirectional hydrophone in the sea which is: (1) not due to the hydrophone system's self-noise such as the noise of current flow around the measurement hydrophone and all forms of electrical noise; ambient noise is independent of the means used to observe it; and (2) not due to other identifiable localized sources of noise. Ambient noise is what is "left over" after all identifiable noise sources are accounted for. Ambient noise is an especially important consideration in detecting and identifying targets - be the targets submarines, underwater vehicles, floating mines, or fish-- in relatively quiet ocean environments and situations. In the case of active sonar, ambient noise typically becomes the dominant background against which the sonar receiver is trying to detect, and possibly identify, targets in the ocean space (not addressing search of the ocean floor) when it is greater than self noise and after the relatively loud reverberation noise created by the active sonar pings has died down in the sonar cycle. In the case of passive sonar, after taking into account self noise and possible extraneous noise from identifiable sources, ambient noise is the background against which the sonar receiver seeks to detect and identify targets. This book, AMBIENT NOISE IN THE SEA by Robert Urick, summarizes the main features of the ambient noise and gives the reader an easy to read, understandable entry in to its unclassified literature. This book is a must for engineers in the fields of active and passive sonars, underwater sensor and weapons systems, and underwater signal processing.

Applied Underwater Acoustics

Author : Thomas Neighbors
ISBN : 9780128112472
Genre : Science
File Size : 34. 2 MB
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Applied Underwater Acoustics meets the needs of scientists and engineers working in underwater acoustics and graduate students solving problems in, and preparing theses on, topics in underwater acoustics. The book is structured to provide the basis for rapidly assimilating the essential underwater acoustic knowledge base for practical application to daily research and analysis. Each chapter of the book is self-supporting and focuses on a single topic and its relation to underwater acoustics. The chapters start with a brief description of the topic’s physical background, necessary definitions, and a short description of the applications, along with a roadmap to the chapter. The subtopics covered within individual subchapters include most frequently used equations that describe the topic. Equations are not derived, rather, assumptions behind equations and limitations on the applications of each equation are emphasized. Figures, tables, and illustrations related to the sub-topic are presented in an easy-to-use manner, and examples on the use of the equations, including appropriate figures and tables are also included. Provides a complete and up-to-date treatment of all major subjects of underwater acoustics Presents chapters written by recognized experts in their individual field Covers the fundamental knowledge scientists and engineers need to solve problems in underwater acoustics Illuminates, in shorter sub-chapters, the modern applications of underwater acoustics that are described in worked examples Demands no prior knowledge of underwater acoustics, and the physical principles and mathematics are designed to be readily understood by scientists, engineers, and graduate students of underwater acoustics Includes a comprehensive list of literature references for each chapter

Underwater Acoustic Data Processing

Author : Y. T. Chan
ISBN : 9789400922891
Genre : Science
File Size : 52. 42 MB
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This book contains the papers that were accepted for presentation at the 1988 NATO Advanced Study Institute on Underwater Acoustic Data Processing, held at the Royal Military College of Canada from 18 to 29 July, 1988. Approximately 110 participants from various NATO countries were in attendance during this two week period. Their research interests range from underwater acoustics to signal processing and computer science; some are renowned scientists and some are recent Ph.D. graduates. The purpose of the ASI was to provide an authoritative summing up of the various research activities related to sonar technology. The exposition on each subject began with one or two tutorials prepared by invited lecturers, followed by research papers which provided indications of the state of development in that specific area. I have broadly classified the papers into three sections under the titles of I. Propagation and Noise, II. Signal Processing and III. Post Processing. The reader will find in Section I papers on low frequency acoustic sources and effects of the medium on underwater acoustic propagation. Problems such as coherence loss due to boundary interaction, wavefront distortion and multipath transmission were addressed. Besides the medium, corrupting noise sources also have a strong influence on the performance of a sonar system and several researchers described methods of modeling these sources.

Ocean Noise And Marine Mammals

Author : Committee on Potential Impacts of Ambient Noise in the Ocean on Marine Mammals
ISBN : 9780309085366
Genre : Science
File Size : 80. 18 MB
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For the 119 species of marine mammals, as well as for some other aquatic animals, sound is the primary means of learning about the environment and of communicating, navigating, and foraging. The possibility that human-generated noise could harm marine mammals or significantly interfere with their normal activities is an issue of increasing concern. Noise and its potential impacts have been regulated since the passage of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972. Public awareness of the issue escalated in 1990s when researchers began using high-intensity sound to measure ocean climate changes. More recently, the stranding of beaked whales in proximity to Navy sonar use has again put the issue in the spotlight. Ocean Noise and Marine Mammals reviews sources of noise in the ocean environment, what is known of the responses of marine mammals to acoustic disturbance, and what models exist for describing ocean noise and marine mammal responses. Recommendations are made for future data gathering efforts, studies of marine mammal behavior and physiology, and modeling efforts necessary to determine what the long- and short-term impacts of ocean noise on marine mammals.

Underwater Acoustic Modeling And Simulation Fourth Edition

Author : Paul C. Etter
ISBN : 9781466564947
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 66. 54 MB
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Underwater Acoustic Modeling and Simulation, Fourth Edition continues to provide the most authoritative overview of currently available propagation, noise, reverberation, and sonar-performance models. This fourth edition of a bestseller discusses the fundamental processes involved in simulating the performance of underwater acoustic systems and emphasizes the importance of applying the proper modeling resources to simulate the behavior of sound in virtual ocean environments. New to the Fourth Edition Extensive new material that addresses recent advances in inverse techniques and marine-mammal protection Problem sets in each chapter Updated and expanded inventories of available models Designed for readers with an understanding of underwater acoustics but who are unfamiliar with the various aspects of modeling, the book includes sufficient mathematical derivations to demonstrate model formulations and provides guidelines for selecting and using the models. Examples of each type of model illustrate model formulations, model assumptions, and algorithm efficiency. Simulation case studies are also included to demonstrate practical applications. Providing a thorough source of information on modeling resources, this book examines the translation of our physical understanding of sound in the sea into mathematical models that simulate acoustic propagation, noise, and reverberation in the ocean. The text shows how these models are used to predict and diagnose the performance of complex sonar systems operating in the undersea environment.

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