of poles and zeros fundamentals of digital seismology modern approaches in geophysics

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Of Poles And Zeros

Author : F. Scherbaum
ISBN : 9789401095723
Genre : Science
File Size : 61. 49 MB
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Digital signal processing has become an integral part of observational seismology. Seismic waveforms and the parameters commonly extracted from them are strongly influenced by the effects of numerous filters, both within the earth and within the recording system. With the advent of numerous software tools for the processing of digital seismograms, seismologists have unprecedented power in extracting information from seismic records. These tools are often based on sophisticated theoretical aspects of digital signal processing which, to be used properly, need to be understood. This book is aimed at observational seismologists and students in geophysics trying to obtain a basic understanding of those aspects of digital signal processing that are relevant to the interpretation of seismograms. It covers the basic theory of linear systems, the design and analysis of simple digital filters, the effect of sampling and A/D conversion, the calculation of `true ground motion', and the effects of seismic recording systems on parameters extracted from digital seismograms. It contains numerous examples and exercises together with their solutions.

Instrumentation In Earthquake Seismology

Author : Jens Havskov
ISBN : 9783319213149
Genre : Science
File Size : 89. 38 MB
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This work provides an up-to-date overview of modern instruments used in earthquake seismology as well as a description of theoretical and practical aspects of seismic instrumentation. The main topics are: • Choosing and installing equipment for seismic stations • Designing and setting up seismic networks and arrays • Maintaining and calibrating seismic instruments It also provides detailed descriptions of the following: • Seismic sensors • Digitizers • Seismic recorders • Communication systems • Software used for seismic station and networks In this second edition, new seismic equipment is presented and more comprehensive sections on topics like MEMS accelerometers, sigma-delta AD converters, dynamic range discussion and virtual networks have been included. This book is primarily intended for seismologists, engineers and technicians working with seismological instruments. It combines practical “know-how” with sufficient theory to explain the basic principles, making it also suitable for teaching students the most important aspects of seismic instrumentation. The book also gives a current overview of the majority of instruments and instrument manufacturers on the market, making it easy to compare the capability of instruments from different sources. SEISAN software was used for several examples in the book. This widely extended seismic analysis software is freely available from the University of Bergen website. The content of this book draws on the authors’ (a seismologist and a physicist) combined experience of working in this field for more than 35 years.

Fundamentals Of Geophysics

Author : William Lowrie
ISBN : 9781139465953
Genre : Science
File Size : 33. 35 MB
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This second edition of Fundamentals of Geophysics has been completely revised and updated, and is the ideal geophysics textbook for undergraduate students of geoscience with an introductory level of knowledge in physics and mathematics. It gives a comprehensive treatment of the fundamental principles of each major branch of geophysics, and presents geophysics within the wider context of plate tectonics, geodynamics and planetary science. Basic principles are explained with the aid of numerous figures and step-by-step mathematical treatments, and important geophysical results are illustrated with examples from the scientific literature. Text-boxes are used for auxiliary explanations and to handle topics of interest for more advanced students. This new edition also includes review questions at the end of each chapter to help assess the reader's understanding of the topics covered and quantitative exercises for more thorough evaluation. Solutions to the exercises and electronic copies of the figures are available at www.cambridge.org/9780521859028.

Computational Seismology

Author : Heiner Igel
ISBN : 9780198717409
Genre :
File Size : 41. 76 MB
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This book is an introductory text to a range of numerical methods used today to simulate time-dependent processes in Earth science, physics, engineering, and many other fields. The physical problem of elastic wave propagation in 1D serves as a model system with which the various numerical methods are introduced and compared. The theoretical background is presented with substantial graphical material supporting the concepts. The results can be reproduced with the supplementary electronic material provided as python codes embedded in Jupyter notebooks. The book starts with a primer on the physics of elastic wave propagation, and a chapter on the fundamentals of parallel programming, computational grids, mesh generation, and hardware models. The core of the book is the presentation of numerical solutions of the wave equation with six different methods: 1) the finite-difference method; 2) the pseudospectral method (Fourier and Chebyshev); 3) the linear finite-element method; 4) the spectral-element method; 5) the finite-volume method; and 6) the discontinuous Galerkin method. Each chapter contains comprehension questions, theoretical, and programming exercises. The book closes with a discussion of domains of application and criteria for the choice of a specific numerical method, and the presentation of current challenges. Readers are welcome to visit the author's website www.geophysik.lmu.de/Members/igel for more information on his research, projects, publications, and other activities.

Fundamentals Of Geophysical Data Processing

Author : Jon F. Claerbout
ISBN : UCAL:B4254669
Genre : Science
File Size : 63. 92 MB
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Practical Seismic Data Analysis

Author : Hua-Wei Zhou
ISBN : 9781107728851
Genre : Science
File Size : 26. 82 MB
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This modern introduction to seismic data processing in both exploration and global geophysics demonstrates practical applications through real data and tutorial examples. The underlying physics and mathematics of the various seismic analysis methods are presented, giving students an appreciation of their limitations and potential for creating models of the sub-surface. Designed for a one-semester course, this textbook discusses key techniques within the context of the world's ever increasing need for petroleum and mineral resources - equipping upper undergraduate and graduate students with the tools they need for a career in industry. Examples presented throughout the text allow students to compare different methods and can be demonstrated using the instructor's software of choice. Exercises at the end of sections enable students to check their understanding and put the theory into practice and are complemented by solutions for instructors and additional case study examples online to complete the learning package.

Geophysical Applications Of Artificial Neural Networks And Fuzzy Logic

Author : W. Sandham
ISBN : 9789401702713
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 50. 56 MB
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The past fifteen years has witnessed an explosive growth in the fundamental research and applications of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and fuzzy logic (FL). The main impetus behind this growth has been the ability of such methods to offer solutions not amenable to conventional techniques, particularly in application domains involving pattern recognition, prediction and control. Although the origins of ANNs and FL may be traced back to the 1940s and 1960s, respectively, the most rapid progress has only been achieved in the last fifteen years. This has been due to significant theoretical advances in our understanding of ANNs and FL, complemented by major technological developments in high-speed computing. In geophysics, ANNs and FL have enjoyed significant success and are now employed routinely in the following areas (amongst others): 1. Exploration Seismology. (a) Seismic data processing (trace editing; first break picking; deconvolution and multiple suppression; wavelet estimation; velocity analysis; noise identification/reduction; statics analysis; dataset matching/prediction, attenuation), (b) AVO analysis, (c) Chimneys, (d) Compression I dimensionality reduction, (e) Shear-wave analysis, (f) Interpretation (event tracking; lithology prediction and well-log analysis; prospect appraisal; hydrocarbon prediction; inversion; reservoir characterisation; quality assessment; tomography). 2. Earthquake Seismology and Subterranean Nuclear Explosions. 3. Mineral Exploration. 4. Electromagnetic I Potential Field Exploration. (a) Electromagnetic methods, (b) Potential field methods, (c) Ground penetrating radar, (d) Remote sensing, (e) inversion.

Instrumentation In Earthquake Seismology

Author : Jens Havskov
ISBN : 1402029691
Genre : Science
File Size : 86. 76 MB
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Here is unique and comprehensive coverage of modern seismic instrumentation, based on the authors’ practical experience of a quarter-century in seismology and geophysics. Their goal is to provide not only detailed information on the basics of seismic instruments but also to survey equipment on the market, blending this with only the amount of theory needed to understand the basic principles. Seismologists and technicians working with seismological instruments will find here the answers to their practical problems. Instrumentation in Earthquake Seismology is written to be understandable to the broad range of professionals working with seismological instruments and seismic data, whether students, engineers or seismologists. Whether installing seismic stations, networks and arrays, working and calibrating stationary or portable instruments, dealing with response information, or teaching about seismic instruments, professionals and academics now have a practical and authoritative sourcebook. Includes: SEISAN and SEISLOG software systems that are available from http://extras.springer.com and http://www.geo.uib.no/seismo/software/software.html

Spectral Analysis Of Signals

Author : Yanwei Wang
ISBN : 9781598290011
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 22. 5 MB
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Spectral estimation is important in many fields including astronomy, meteorology, seismology, communications, economics, speech analysis, medical imaging, radar, sonar, and underwater acoustics. Most existing spectral estimation algorithms are devised for uniformly sampled complete-data sequences. However, the spectral estimation for data sequences with missing samples is also important in many applications ranging from astronomical time series analysis to synthetic aperture radar imaging with angular diversity. For spectral estimation in the missing-data case, the challenge is how to extend the existing spectral estimation techniques to deal with these missing-data samples. Recently, nonparametric adaptive filtering based techniques have been developed successfully for various missing-data problems. Collectively, these algorithms provide a comprehensive toolset for the missing-data problem based exclusively on the nonparametric adaptive filter-bank approaches, which are robust and accurate, and can provide high resolution and low sidelobes. In this book, we present these algorithms for both one-dimensional and two-dimensional spectral estimation problems.

Advances In Seismic Event Location

Author : Cliffort H. Thurber
ISBN : 9789401595360
Genre : Science
File Size : 37. 39 MB
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Advances in Seismic Event Location provides a broad overview of the fundamental issues involved in seismic event location, and presents a variety of state-of-the-art location methods and applications at a wide range of spatial scales. Three important themes in the book are: seismic monitoring for a Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), seismic event location in three-dimensional Earth models, and methods for multiple-event location. Each chapter contains background material to help readers less familiar with the topics covered, as well as to provide abundant references for readers interested in probing deeper into a topic. However, most of the emphasis is on recent advances in methodology and their application. Audience: The book is intended primarily for academic and professional researchers and graduate students in seismology.

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