oil spills first principles prevention and best response

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Oil Spills First Principles

Author : B. Ornitz†
ISBN : 0080537960
Genre : Science
File Size : 35. 66 MB
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Marine oil spills are no longer considered unavoidable "accidents" resulting from adverse environmental conditions or functions of catastrophic events. More than 80% of all spills are the result of "human error". The focus of the current legal, regulatory, and convention framework affecting the transportation of oil by ship reflects a recent change in public attitude, in which there is an insistence upon protection of the world¿s marine environments, particularly coastal ecosystems. The outcome of such global attention is the creation of significant legal and political motivators for a cultural shift by the oil shipping industry, from an "evasion culture" to a "safety culture". The new safety culture connotes continuous improvement in ship operations and a willingness to adopt the evolving concepts of communication at all levels, better trained and qualified personnel on board ship, emphasis of safety from top down, and proactive institution of safety management systems. Mere compliance with international and national laws is no longer sufficient for future sustainable shipping. These changes and advancements in understanding the science and engineering of oil spills are the focus of this book on Oil Spills First Principles. They are Prevention, based upon adoption of the safety culture, and Best Response, utilizing scientific, technical and environmental data and information. Over the past 30 years, billions of US dollars have been spent in R&D planning, response and clean up of oil spills. All of these efforts have focused on achieving Best Response. The concept of time periods of "Technology Windows-of-Opportunity" for a given response and clean up technology has developed from the leadership and wisdom of researchers and responders from many nations using modeling of the weathering of spilled oil and technology effectiveness. The Windows-of-Opportunity strategy provides a scientific basis for policy and decision-making in oil spill planning, response, and training. A global paradigm shift is needed to more effectively utilize and expedite the application of lessons learned in both prevention and clean up. Recognition of economic, political, and legal benefits accruing from environmental protection is good for business and critical for sustainable shipping.

Oil Spills First Principles Prevention Best Response

Author : Ornitz BE.
ISBN : OCLC:985813625
Genre :
File Size : 53. 26 MB
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Oil Spill Science And Technology

Author : Mervin Fingas
ISBN : 1856179443
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 21. 40 MB
Format : PDF
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The National Academy of Sciences estimate that 1.7 to 8.8 million tons of oil are released into world's water every year, of which more than 70% is directly related to human activities. The effects of these spills are all too apparent: dead wildlife, oil covered marshlands and contaminated water chief among them. This reference will provide scientists, engineers and practitioners with the latest methods use for identify and eliminating spills before they occur and develop the best available techniques, equipment and materials for dealing with oil spills in every environment. Topics covered include: spill dynamics and behaviour, spill treating agents, and cleanup techniques such as: in situ burning, mechanical containment or recovery, chemical and biological methods and physical methods are used to clean up shorelines. Also included are the fate and effects of oil spills and means to assess damage. Covers spill dynamics and behaviour Definitive guide to spill treating agents Complete coverage of cleanup techniques Includes fate and effects of oil spills and means to assess damage

Coastal Pollution

Author : Carl J. Sindermann
ISBN : 9781420036411
Genre : Science
File Size : 81. 58 MB
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In 1996, after more than a decade of researching the effects of over-population and the consequent pollution of the greater metropolitan New York City area, Carl Sindermann published his observations and conclusions in Ocean Pollution: Effects on Living Resources and Humans, a mostly technical document that emphasized the pathological effects of coastal pollution. The stressed species inhabiting the coastal waters of New York Bight had been the subject of several laboratory programs, which when integrated with ongoing pollution studies, provided a superb opportunity to assess the effects of human impact upon a fragile coastal system. Coastal Pollution: Effects on Living Resources and Humans is a highly lucid expansion and revision of that earlier book that preserves some of the technical aspects and enlightening vignettes recorded in the original. Organized into three distinct sections this work- I. Recounts eight specific horror stories based mostly on the consequences of coastal pollution II. Surveys the effects of coastal pollution on resource species such as fish and shellfish and marine mammals III. Examines the effects of coastal pollution on humans Sindermann ends the work by drawing conclusions and offering predictions for the future. Reflecting back over his notable career and beyond, the author ventures back as far as the 1950s in an effort to make readers appreciate the long historical record that is often forgotten due to our focus on the here ad now. "Science practiced without occasional genuflection to its history is too flat and featureless - intense but without depth - stimulating but lacking an important link with the past. We can do better." Intending to express insight that goes beyond the discussion of any one area, the author uses his experiences at the Sandy Hook laboratory as a lens to provide us with a poignant and well-documented understanding of the human impact on the inshore marine environment and its inhabitants, worldwide.

Oil Spill Remediation

Author : Ponisseril Somasundaran
ISBN : 9781118825648
Genre : Science
File Size : 86. 63 MB
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This book provides a comprehensive overview of oil spill remediation from the perspectives of policy makers, scientists, and engineers, generally focusing on colloid chemistry phenomena and solutions involved in oil spills and their cleanup. • First book to address oil spill remediation from the perspective of physicochemical and colloidal science • Discusses current and emerging detergents used in clean-ups • Includes chapters from leading scientists, researchers, engineers, and policy makers • Presents new insights into the possible impact of oil spills on ecosystems as well as preventive measures

Advanced Polymeric Materials

Author : Rouxel, Didier
ISBN : 9788793609686
Genre : Science
File Size : 31. 52 MB
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Recent advances in polymer research has led to the generation of high quality materials for various applications in day to day life. The synthesis of new functional monomers has shown strong potential in generating novel polymer materials, with improved properties. Advanced Polymeric Materials includes fundamentals and numerous examples of polymer blend preparation and characterizations. Developments in blends, polymer nanocomposites and its various characterization techniques are highlighted in the book.

Values At Sea

Author : Dorinda G. Dallmeyer
ISBN : 0820324701
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 40. 63 MB
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The human impact on vast areas of the oceans remains relatively unregulated. Sometimes, in fact, the only controls over our exploitation of marine resources lie in our environmental consciousness. While the field of environmental ethics has explored rights and duties for land use, stewardship, and policy, relatively little attention has been given to comparable issues of marine environments. Values at Sea makes an important step toward moving environmental ethics discussions into a broader framework. Gathered here are fifteen papers by an interdisciplinary group of scholars, including ethicists, marine scientists, anthropologists, economists, geographers, lawyers, and activists. From the Great Lakes to the Pacific Islands, from the open sea to coastal areas, the papers cover a broad array of ethical issues and policy matters related to such topics as the valuation of marine life, indigenous peoples’ knowledge and environmental stewardship, endemic and exotic species, aquaculture, oil spills, and species protection.

Risk Analysis For Prevention Of Hazardous Situations In Petroleum And Natural Gas Engineering

Author : Matanovic, Davorin
ISBN : 9781466647787
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 65. 33 MB
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The accelerated growth of the world population creates an increase of energy needs. This requires new paths for oil supply to its users, which can be potential hazardous sources for individuals and the environment. Risk Analysis for Prevention of Hazardous Situations in Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering explains the potential hazards of petroleum engineering activities, emphasizing risk assessments in drilling, completion, and production, and the gathering, transportation, and storage of hydrocarbons. Designed to aid in decision-making processes for environmental protection, this book is a useful guide for engineers, technicians, and other professionals in the petroleum industry interested in risk analysis for preventing hazardous situations.

Safety And Reliability Methodology And Applications

Author : Tomasz Nowakowski
ISBN : 9781315736976
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 28. 60 MB
Format : PDF
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Within the last fifty years the performance requirements for technical objects and systems were supplemented with: customer expectations (quality), abilities to prevent the loss of the object properties in operation time (reliability and maintainability), protection against the effects of undesirable events (safety and security) and the ability to restore performance (resilience). The need to adapt the operation of complex systems in such an uncertain and volatile environment has caused the necessity to formulate new and well established achievements associated with modeling, testing and evaluation of these properties. The concept of a complex system applies not only to the technical ones but also the infrastructure of major importance for social life such as transportation and logistics systems, buildings, power systems, water distribution systems or health services. Safety and Reliability: Methodology and Applications contains the proceedings of the 24th European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2014, Wroclaw, Poland, 14-18 September 2014), and discusses theories and methods and their applications in the areas of risk, safety and reliability. The abstracts book (408 pages) + full paper CD-ROM (2496 pages) will be of interest to researchers and practitioners, academics and engineers working in academic, industrial and governmental sectors.

Oil Spill Prevention And Response Improvement Act

Author : United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Environment and Public Works
ISBN : UVA:35007002306441
Genre : Liability for oil pollution damages
File Size : 83. 36 MB
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