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Cancer Screening In The Developing World

Author : Madelon L. Finkel, PhD
ISBN : 9781512602524
Genre : Medical
File Size : 37. 65 MB
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Worldwide, cancer is responsible for one in eight deaths--more than AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria combined. This global burden starkly illustrates the inequality between the developed and the developing world. While the majority of people living in developed countries receive timely treatment, those living in developing countries are not as fortunate and their survival rates are much lower--not only due to delays in diagnosis, but also to a lack of personnel, a paucity of treatment facilities, and the unavailability of many medications. Routine screening--a mainstay in the developed world--could greatly increase the likelihood of identifying individuals with early stage cancers and thus reduce the number of people who present with advanced disease. This book represents a critical addition to the literature of global health studies. Focusing on cervical, breast, and oral cancers, these case studies highlight innovative strategies in cancer screening in a diverse array of developing countries. The authors discuss common issues and share how obstacles--medical, economic, legal, social, and psychological--were addressed or overcome in specific settings. Each chapter offers an empirical discussion of the nature and scope of a screening program, the methodology used, and its findings, along with a candid discussion of challenges and limitations and suggestions for future efforts.

Disease Control Priorities Third Edition Volume 3

Author : Hellen Gelband
ISBN : 9781464803697
Genre : Medical
File Size : 86. 77 MB
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Volume 3, Cancer, presents the complex patterns of cancer incidence and death around the world and evidence on effective and cost-effective ways to control cancers. The DCP3 evaluation of cancer will indicate where cancer treatment is ineffective and wasteful, and offer alternative cancer care packages that are cost-effective and suited to low-resource settings. Main messages from the volume include: -Quality matters in all aspects of cancer treatment and palliation. -Cancer registries that track incidence, mortality, and survival †“ paired with systems to capture causes of death are important to understanding the national cancer burden and the effect of interventions over time. -Effective interventions exist at a range of prices. Adopting "resource appropriate" measures which allow the most effective treatment for the greatest number of people will be advantageous to countries. -Prioritizing resources toward early stage and curable cancers is likely to have the greatest health impact in low income settings. -Research prioritization is no longer just a global responsibility. Providing cancer treatment requires adequate numbers of trained healthcare professionals and infrastructure beyond what is available in most LMICs, especially low income countries. Careful patient monitoring is a requirement of good quality cancer care and this often involves laboratory tests in addition to clinical examination. Even if financing were immediately available to build or expand a cancer control system, reaching capacity will take many years.

Issues In Head And Neck Cancer

Author : Kevin J. Harrington
ISBN : 9788181930767
Genre : Medical
File Size : 27. 2 MB
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Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a rapidly evolving field of medical science. Tremendous progress has been made over the past five decades in revealing the basic molecular biology involved in the disease process, developing and adopting more effective organ-preserving treatment protocols and refining surgical ablative and reconstructive approaches to facilitate functional restoration of patients without compromising survival. We now have a much clearer understanding of the disease, its management and the rehabilitation of patients. But there is still much to be done. This book aims to cover a range of exciting new findings in clinical sciences, basic sciences and allied specialties with an emphasis on their relevance to HNC. This work promises to improve preventive and therapeutic strategies and will hopefully culminate in improved outcomes of HNC. The contributions have been made by established leaders in the field and every effort has been made to address the issue in a comprehensive, yet concise, manner for the benefit of readers. We believe that this book will be of value to established/in-training clinicians, scientists, allied professionals, as well as medical students who have inquisitive minds and wish to further enhance their knowledge of HNC.

Cancer Prevention And Screening

Author : Rosalind A. Eeles
ISBN : 9781118991022
Genre : Medical
File Size : 73. 37 MB
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Cancer Prevention and Screening offers physicians and all clinical healthcare professionals a comprehensive, useful source of the latest information on cancer screening and prevention with both a global and a multidisciplinary perspective. Includes background information on epidemiology, cancer prevention, and cancer screening, for quick reference Offers the latest information for clinical application of the most recent techniques in prevention and screening of all major and many lesser cancer types Emphasises the importance of multidisciplinary teamwork in cancer screening Highlights frequent dilemmas and difficulties encountered during cancer screening Provides clear-cut clinical strategies for optimal patient education, communication, and compliance with cancer prevention techniques

Holland Frei Cancer Medicine Eight

Author : Waun Ki Hong
ISBN : 1607950146
Genre : Medical
File Size : 52. 72 MB
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The consummate reference source for medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, internists, surgical oncologists and others who treat cancer patients, Cancer Medicine 8 covers the ever-widening sphere of current cancer knowledge and clinical practice. In this new 8th edition an outstanding editorial team from world-renowned medical centers continues to hone the leading edge forged in previous editions, with timely information on biology, immunology, etiology, epidemiology, prevention, screening, pathology, imaging and therapy. The book is a testament to the editorial panel's creed that innovative, comprehensive, multidisciplinary treatment of cancer patients must be grounded in a fundamental understanding of cancer biology. Cancer Medicine 8 does a superb job of bringing scientific principles into clinical practice. This text is the ultimate resource of new information providing the basis for better informed cancer therapy choices. Cancer Medicine 8 features hundreds of 4-color illustrations, photographs, tables, graphs and algorithms that make this text an invaluable clinical tool in recognizing characteristic appearances of both patient and tissue. The 137 tightly focused chapters are organized into 5 sections: I: Cardinal Manifestations of Cancer II: Scientific Foundations of Cancer III: Principles of Cancer Diagnosis IV: Principles of Therapeutic Modalities V: Principles of Multidisciplinary Management Major Revisions: Chapter 6: Oncogenes An entire section is devoted to oncogenes like kit, Ret, Braf, Akt genes and the new drugs that specifically target them. This chapter not only provides a list of these new therapies but also insight as to how they target the oncogenes and their mutations, as well as therapy response and efficacy. Chapter 11: Tumor Angiogenesis This chapter provides a wealth of new data and understanding of the mechanisms of angiogenesis and how it contributes to the malignancy of various cancers The Clinical Advancement section provides an extensive summary of new trials investigating numerous novel angiogenesis agents Chapter 33: Chemoprevention This chapter also provides a considerable amount of new information for a broad range of clinical trials such as the HPV vaccine trial Future, Select, Star, Approve and PreSAP. The rationales for these trials are discussed and resulting data from the completed trials are presented. Chapter 55: Cytokines Research on cytokines is another area that is exploding in magnitude. This chapter presents a wealth of new information on promising new therapeutic agents.There is also updated information on the therapeutic usage of currently available agents such as hemotopoietic growth factors (HGF), erythropoietin and thromobopoietic agents. Chapter 56: Monoclonal Serotherapy A considerable amount of research has been done in the past few years on therapeutic and targeted agents in cancer therapy. Updated information and data is provided from recent trials for therapies previously discussed in Cancer Medicine edition 7 covering therapeutic agents and targeted toxins. Chapter 77: Neoplasms of the Head and Neck There is a discussion of changes in treatment methods for certain cancers such as the recent shift from surgery to combined chemotherapy with radiotherapy for tonsillar cancer, nasal and paranasal sinuses cancers and laryngeal cancer. Chapter 78: Lung Cancer Advances in diagnostic techniques are described such as ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration or electromagnetic navigation diagnostic bronchoscopy. Video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) discussion is updated. New sections are devoted to prognostic and predictive biomarkers.

Oral Health Surveys

Author : World Health Organization
ISBN : 9789241548649
Genre : Health & Fitness
File Size : 64. 3 MB
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This manual encourages countries to conduct standardized oral health surveys that are comparable internationally. The manual provides guidelines for assessing the current oral health status of a population and the future needs for oral health intervention. Oral diseases are among the most prevalent non-communicable diseases and major components of the global burden of disease. The key risk factors are common to chronic and oral diseases. Guidelines are presented for risk factors assessment. The WHO approach can facilitate the incorporation of oral health into national health surveillance systems. Surveillance of oral health over time and monitoring of programs may provide decision-makers, public health planners, and health administrators with valuable information about the relevance and cost-effectiveness of public health intervention programs.

The Well Woman Visit

Author : David Chelmow
ISBN : 9781316509982
Genre : Medical
File Size : 55. 23 MB
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This accessible text expands on the recommendations of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' Well Woman Task Force (WWTF) to provide a practical guide to conducting a successful Well-Woman visit. Background chapters summarize the history of the WWTF and rationale and evidence supporting periodic health visits, explain the principles of early diagnosis and prevention, and offer advice on the practical side of conducting a visit, including considerations for special populations. Chapters detail each component of the visit, first explaining the scope of a problem, the rationale for screening or prevention, and the factors that alter a screening. The WWTF recommendations are then summarized and advice is offered on how to apply them. Case studies and advice on how to identify and assess new guidelines are also provided, ensuring providers are well-equipped to offer efficient and effective care.

Guide To Clinical Preventive Services

Author : U. S. Preventive Services Task Force
ISBN : 1568062974
Genre : Medical
File Size : 23. 45 MB
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A report on recommended clinical preventive services that should be provided to patients in the course of routine clinical care, including screening for vascular, neoplastic and infectious diseases, and metabolic, hematologic, ophthalmologic and ontologic, prenatal, and musculoskeletal disorders. Also, mental disorders and substance abuse, counseling, and immunizations/chemoprophylaxis. Tables.

Extending Medicare Coverage For Preventive And Other Services

Author : Institute of Medicine
ISBN : 0309183502
Genre : Medical
File Size : 67. 76 MB
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This report, which was developed by an expert committee of the Institute of Medicine, reviews the first three services listed above. It is intended to assist policymakers by providing syntheses of the best evidence available about the effectiveness of these services and by estimating the cost to Medicare of covering them. For each service or condition examined, the committee commissioned a review of the scientific literature that was presented and discussed at a public workshop. As requested by Congress, this report includes explicit estimates only of costs to Medicare, not costs to beneficiaries, their families, or others. It also does not include cost-effectiveness analyses. That is, the extent of the benefits relative to the costs to Medicare-or to society generally-is not evaluated for the services examined. The method for estimating Medicare costs follows the generic estimation practices of the Congressional Budget Office (CBO). The objective was to provide Congress with estimates that were based on familiar procedures and could be compared readily with earlier and later CBO estimates. For each condition or service, the estimates are intended to suggest the order of magnitude of the costs to Medicare of extending coverage, but the estimates could be considerably higher or lower than what Medicare might actually spend were coverage policies changed. The estimates cover the five-year period 2000-2004. In addition to the conclusions about specific coverage issues, the report examines some broader concerns about the processes for making coverage decisions and about the research and organizational infrastructure for these decisions. It also briefly examines the limits of coverage as a means of improving health services and outcomes and the limits of evidence as a means of resolving policy and ethical questions.

Advances In Cancer Screening

Author : Anthony B. Miller
ISBN : 0792340191
Genre : Medical
File Size : 40. 52 MB
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Screening for cancer is an important focus of cancer control. Yet screening, as it involves administering a test to large segments of the population deemed to be at risk for the disease of interest, is potentially a major consumer of scarce health care resources. In addition, the benefits sought from cancer screening, particularly reduction in mortality from the disease, are not always realized, either for biological or organizational reasons. Thus, the paradigm that 'early detection must always be beneficial', taught to health care professionals, and publicized widely through the media to the public, has been challenged in the last two decades for a number of cancer sites. It is the purpose of Advances in Cancer Screening to determine the extent to which the requirements for the introduction of population-based screening programs have been met, as a result of extensive research on screening during the last two decades, with a major concentration on findings from the recent decade.

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